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牛津高中英语模块一全册教案


牛津高中英语模块一(第 1 讲)
【教学内容与教学要求】
一、 教学内容:

牛津高中英语模块一 Unit 1 (上) 二、教学要求: 1.掌握和校园生活有关的常用单词、词组与句型。 2.学会描述校园生活和学校设施。 High school is a time of discovery, learning and hard work!高中是

探索、 学习和辛勤劳动的时期 Huge campus and low-rise building 学校面积大,没有高层建筑。 Twelve laboratories are available for different experiments.12 个实验室可供不同试验使用。 Each room comes with its own bothroom and Internet access.每个房间都有自己的卫生间和英 特网接口。 3.学习阅读技巧:skimming&scanning。 4.语法:定语从句(一)

【知识重点与学习难点】
一、 access 重要单词: achieve attend assembly article available extra average gym canteen heading club locker

challenging

context donate display

experience

graduate

low-rise literature poster relax 二、重点词组: class teacher 班主任 at ease with 和 …. 相处不拘束 sound like 听起来象 school hours 学校作息时间

earn respect from 赢得…的尊敬 解大意 地

for free 免费 get a general idea 了 word by word 逐字逐句

as well as 除….以外, 也 key words 关键词

find one’s way around 认识路 develop an interest in 培养对….的兴趣 surf

the Internet 网上冲浪

【难点讲解】
1. What is your dream school life like? 你理想中的学校生活是什么样子?

这里 dream 表示心目中最理想的. 如 dream team (梦之队)。 2. Going to a British high school for one year was a very enjoyable and exciting experience for me. 去一所英国中学读书一年对我来说是一次令人愉快和兴奋的经历。 Going 在本句里作动名词, 它和后面的 to a British high school for one year 构成动名词短 语作句子的主语。 Go to a British high school 本来是个动词词组, 在 go 后面加上 ing 后, 它就具备名词的特性可以在句子中充当主语、宾语或表语。 动词的现在分词和过去分词都可以作定语, 但所表达的意思不同, 现在分词作定语常表 示“令人…” 、 “正在….”;例如 exciting news, sleeping dog; 过去分词则有被动或完成的 意思,常表示“感到….的” 、 “被….的”,例如: an excited crowd of people, broken heart. 3. I was very happy with the school hours in Britain because school starts around 9 a.m. and ends about 3.30 p.m. 我对英国学校的作息时间很满意因为学校大约上午 9 点开始上课, 下午 3 点半左右放学。 Be happy with=be pleased with, around=about。 4. This means I could get up an hour later than usual as schools in China begin before 8 a.m. 这意味着我可以晚一小时起床,因为在中国学校 8 点钟上课。 as adv.同样地, 被看作, 象 prep.当做 conj.与...一样, 当...之时, 象, 因为 本单元多次出现 as, 用法各不相同,应注意比较。 另外 as 还可以构成一些常用词组: as if 就好像, as far as 就….而言, so as to 以便于, as for 至于, such as 例如,等等。 mean: 意味着, 后面通常加名词或宾语从句。例如: The attack of Pear Harbor meant a declaration of war with the United States. The raise of salary means that I can send my daughter to a better school. 5. He also told us that the best way to earn respect from the school was to work hard and achieve high grades. 他还告诉我们赢得学校尊敬的最好方法是努力学习并取得好成绩。 The best way to do sth is to…..结构用来表达做某事的最好方法是….., 例如: The best way to learn English is to use it as often as possible. 6. I found the homework was not as heavy as what I used to get in my old school, but it was a bit

challenging for me at first because all the homework was in English. 我发现这儿的家庭作业没有我原来学校的多,但一开始对我有些挑战性,因为所有作业 都是英语的。 As…..as, 中间加形容词或副词,一般要连接两个相同的句子成分, 请比较下面两句话: You hate him as much as I (=You hate him as much as I hate him). You hate him as much as me(=You hate him as much as you hate me). Used to 过去常常, 隐含的意思是现在的情况已经不同。例如: She used to study very hard. ( She does not study so hard any more). Used to 的否定形式是 usedn’t to/ didn’t use to 注意:be used to sth/doing 表示习惯于…. 7. Cooking was really fun as I learnt how to buy, prepare and cook food. 当我学着怎样买菜、洗菜、烧饭时,烹饪真的是一件有趣的事。 fun 是名词,有趣的事情, 副词 really 并非修饰它,而是修饰前面的 be 动词 was 试比较: He is really a funny guy. 和 He is a really funny guy.这两句意思虽然相同, 但 really 修饰的对象不同,因此说话的侧重点也不同。 8. I do like eating desserts after meals as you mentioned in your article. 就像你在文章中提到的那样,我的确喜欢在饭后吃甜食。 Do、did 在陈述句中,用在动词前表示强调,可译作的确、确实。 9. Upon finishing his studies, he started travelling in China. 完成学业之后,他开始在中国旅行。 介词 upon/ on 加 doing 相当于带 as soon as 的时间状语从句。 Upon finishing his study=As soon as he finished his study 10. Former student return from China 一位校友重中国归来 former, past, old 虽然都和过去有关,但 侧重点不同。 former: “过去曾经是...的、 前 任….” , past: “过去的” old “老的、 从前的” 。 例如: former president 前总统, past experience 以往的经验,my old school 我的母校。 11. earn, achieve 和 gain 这三个单词的基本意思都是 “get” 但含义不尽相同, earn : get as the reward of work (挣, 得到…作为工作的回报), achieve :get what you want by effort(成就,通过努力达到某个

目标), gain 和“get”的用法最接近,它对得到的方法和内容都没有具体要求。常见搭配: earn money/ a living/ one’s respect/ one’s bread, achieve a gaol/ success/ purpose/ high grade, gain experience/ weight/ an advantage over/ time/ the upper hand( 占上风)/ ground(取得进 步).

【语法】定语从句(1)
用来说明主句中某一名词或代词 (有时也可说明整个主句或主句中一部分) 而起定语作用的 句子叫作定语从句。定语从句的作用和作定语的形容词、介词词组、分词词组相似,有时可 以相互转换,例如:金发女孩可译作 a blonde girl ,a girl with blonde hair 或 a girl who has blonde hair。定语从句通常由关系代词 that/ which/ who/ whom/ which/ as 或关系副词 when/ where/ why 引导,这些词既指代主句中要说明的名词或代词, 又充当从句中的某个句子成 分。请看例句: 1.Tom is the only person who can keep a cool head in time of crisis.(who 指代主句中的先行词 person,在从句中作主语) 2.Tom is the only friend whom(或 who) I can rely on. (指代 friend, 在从句中作宾 语, 所以常用 代词 who 的宾格形式). 3.China is no longer the weak nation that she used to be. (关系代词 that 指代 weak nation,在从 句中作表语) 4.The school whose floor space is very limited can’t take in one more student. (关系代词 whose 指代 the school’s ,从句中作 floor space 的定语) 5.I like to go to the gym where I can have a work-out after sittiong for a day. (关系副词 where 指 代主句中的地点状语 gym 在从句中作状语)

【同步练习】
一、用适当的关系代词或关系副词填空: 1.I still remember the time _______ I first became a high school student. 2. There are many places in London _______ you can buy a cup of coffee. 3. That is the reason _____ he is so keen on school activities. 4. China is a country_______ history can be dated back to 3000 BC. 5. He is driving a car ______ can travel at 150 mile per hour. 6. He has to fly to all the major cities of the world ______ his company has set up offices.

7. The lady _____ we met in the bar is eyeing us from the corner . 8.We are facing the same problem ____ we did years ago. 二、将下列每组句子合成一个带定语从句的复合句: 1. The anti-Japanese aggression war broke out on July the 7th. It lasted for eight years.

2. On his website we saw some photos. Mr. Lee took these photos in Europe. 3. On the way to school I saw some trees. Their leaves were eaten up by insects. 4. Shelley likes to spend her leisure time in the students’ union. She can meet many international students there. 5. Jane’s father wants her to be a singer. He himself has always wanted to be a singer himself.

牛津高中英语模块一(第二讲)
【教学内容与教学要求】
一、教学内容: 牛津高中英语模块一 Unit 1 (下) 二、教学要求: 1.掌握和学校活动有关的常用单词、词组与句型。 2.学会用英语写通知和海报。 3.语法:定语从句(二)

【知识重点与学习难点】
一、重要单词: contest, replace, possession, complete, include, programme, present(v), event, item, venue, timetable, compare, issue, order, dynasty, professor, unnecessary, attractive, underline, approve, , generation, require, scary, design, draft, wording, previous, finalize, poem, poet, confident, run(manage,operate), host, hostess, advertise,vote. 二、重点词组: refer to 指 , function as 当作…使用, 具有….的功能 , leave out 省略 , relate to 和…相关 , pay attention to 注意, in short form 用宿略的形式, take place 发生, make decision 作决定, make comparison 作比较, take turns 轮流, follow the outline 按照纲要, be responsible for 对…负责, consist of 包含,由…构成, come up with 想出, base on 根据, have it approved by…征得…..的同 意, inform sb of sth 告知, sign up 签名参加.

【难点讲解】
1. I have to do my home work in a place that has desks and chairs. 我必须在一个有课桌椅的地方做家庭作业。 I don’t want to study in a room where desks and chairs are too small. 我不想在桌椅太小的房间里学习。 第一句里定语从句 that has desks and chairs 的关系代词 that 指代主句中的名词 room,作

从句的主语;第二句里定语从句 where desks and chairs are too small 的关系副词 where 指 代主句中的 in a room, 在从句中是地点状语。试比较: 1) This is the beach where(on which) many North Europeans spend their summer holidays. 2) This is the beach that(which) has white sand and palm trees. 上一句的 beach 是北欧人度假的地方,在这个地方是地点状语,所以用关系副词 where 指 代; 下一句中有白沙和棕榈树的是 beach, 它是从句的主语, 所有以用关系代词 that 来指代。 2. Besides, I might be reading the books in your father ’s bookcases instead. 除此之外,我也许会只顾看你爸爸书橱里的书,而不是去做作业。 She will be reading newspapers and magazines instead of doing her homework. 她将会忙着看报纸杂志而不是做作业。 “might be reading” , “will be reading”属于“情态动词+be+doing” 的结构,表示对 某个时间正在发生的事情的预言、推测或期待。例如: I shall be lying in bed and watching my fvourite football game by the time he finishes his homework..等他做完家庭作业时,我早就会躺在床上看我喜爱的足球比赛了。 “instead,instead of ”都表示“代替,而不是….” “instead”通常需要承接上文才能表达 完整的意思, “instead of ”则可以在一句话中表达做了和没做的事情。例如: 1) We didn’t go home after school. We went to a net caféinstead. →Instead of going home after school, we went to a net café . 2) Students in UK don’t have lots of home work.. They have many school activities. →Students in UK have many school activities instead of homework. 3. A programme is a plan of activities to be done or things to be achieved. 规划是指要进行的活动或要完成任务的计划。 划线部分是不定式的被动语态作定语,表示要做的事情。 4. The more choices you have, the better your final decisions will be. 相当于:If you have more choice (条件状语从句为一般现在时), you will make better decision(主句用将来时). 你的选择越多,最后的决定就越好。 “The+比较级(adj/adv) 或含比较级的词组,the+另一个比较级(adj/adv)或含比较级的词组”, 表示“越…… 就越…..” 。 5. Your teacher has received an e-mail from a friend asking her about a history book from your school library. 你的老师收到一位朋友的电子邮件,询问你们学校图书馆里的一本历史书。 划线部分是现在分词短语作定语,补充说明宾语 e-mail 的内容。 6. ISBN ( International Standard Book Number) 国际标准图书编号 ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)国际标准期刊编号 7.make 常见的动宾搭配: make tea/coffee 沏茶、冲咖啡 , make friends 交朋友 , make mistakes 犯错误, make trouble 惹麻烦, make a suggestion 提建议, make a fire 生火, make faces 做鬼脸, make a decision 做决定, make comparasions 作比较, make a living 谋生, make money 挣钱 , make a request 提要求, make an application 申请。

【写作】通知和海报
通知是上级对下级、 组织对成员或平行单位之间部署工作、 传达事情或召开会议等所使用 的应用文。以布告形式贴出,把事情通知有关人员,如学生、观众等,通常不用称呼;通 知要求言简意赅、措辞得当、时间及时。

例一:布告形式的通知:通常此类通知上方正中写 Notice 或 NOTICE(通知) ,发
出通知的的单位的具体名称可放在正文前,也可放在正文后,右下角处,发出通知的日期 写在左下角处。例如 NOTICE All mumbers of the students ’ union are requested to meet in the school conference room on Saturday, Sept18th, at 2:00 p. m. to discuss questions of international culture exchanges with New Zealand high school band. Sept.14, 2005 海报的形式和媒体没有特殊要求,它要先用简明、生动的图文吸引过往人群的注意力,再 以简洁扼要的文字、 图表介绍你要向公众发布的信息。 文字部分一般包括主题句或主题词 和条理清楚、简单明了的内容介绍。下面是一个网上海报,供大家参考:

Make a poster explaining a safety rule. It should give us a good Stay Alert message. If your poster wins you will receive a SASS T-shirt and it will appear in the SASS Gallery.

Mail you poster to:
Stay Alert ... Stay Safe P.O. Box 93006, 499 Main St. S. Brampton, Ontario L6Y 1N0

【语法】定语从句(2)
1.定语从句中关系代词 that、which 用来指代物,who 、whom 和 that 用来指代人,whose 用来表示所属关系,关系副词 when、where 和 why 指代时间、地点和原因。 2.关系代词的用法 (1) 如果先行词是 all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none 等不定代 词,关系代词一般只用 that,不用 which。例如: All that I have is my love for this land. There isn’t much that we can do to ease his pain. (2) 如果先行词被形容词最高级以及 first, last, any, only, few, much, no, some, very 等词修 饰,关系代词常用 that,不用 which。例如: The last person that we want to invite to our house is Uncle Sam. No nation that is capable of such atrocity can be trusted by its neighbours. (3) 非限制性定语从句中, 不能用关系代词 that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。 例如: There are about seven million people taking part in the election, most of whom are well educated. (4) which 还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示 的整体概念或部分概念。在这种从句中,which 可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,多数情 况下意思是与 and this 相似。例如: She failed in her attempt to catch the prince’s attention, which was a great disappointment to her mother. (5) 如果作先行词的集体名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用 which;若是指集体中的各 个成员,则用 who。 (6) 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用 that。例如: The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely. (7) 如果先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody,关系代词应 该用 who 或 whom,不用 which。例如: Is there anyone here who will go with you? (8)关系代词 that/which/who/whom 在从句中作宾语时可以省略。例如: The girl (whom) you just saw is the cheer leader of our football club. Every moment(that) we spent in the UK will be a precious memory for us. As 在定语从句中的用法

一. 引导限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 (1)as 多与 such 或 the same 连用,可以代替先行词是人或物的名词。 (2)as 也可单独使用,引导非限制性定语从句,作用相当于 which。例如: The elephant’s nose is like a snake, as anybody can see. 二.关系副词引导的定语从句 1.关系副词也可以引导定语从句 关系副词在从句中分别表示时间.地点或原因。关系副词 when 在从句中充当时间状 语,where 充当地点状语,why 充当原因状语。例如: We shall always remember the day when Japan surrendered to the ally force. This is one of the few places where you can buy top quality wine. 2. that 有时也可引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原因 That 有时可以代替关系副词 when, where 或者 why 引导定语从句表示时间.地点或原 因,这种定语从句中的 that 也可以省去。例如: That is the time(that) he arrives. That is the reason (that) he came.

牛津高中英语模块一(第 3 讲)
【教学内容与教学要求】
一、 教学内容: 牛津高中英语模块一 Unit 2 (上) 二、教学要求: 1.学习谈论青少年经常遇到的问题 。 2.学会戏剧脚本。 3.了解英语口语和书面语的差别。 4.语法:定语从句(三)

【知识重点与学习难点】
一、 重要单词: act(n), scene, curtain, trash, garbage, charge, adult, , behavior, teenager, punish, period, argument, relationship, force, unpleasant, character, explain, slam, vet(veterinarian), style, mess, thumb, vs(versus), plus, competition, sink, fault, boring. 二、重点词组:
common to 对…来说很普遍, turn up 调高声音, 出现 a waste of 浪费, no more 不再, spare time 空余时间, force….to…强迫(某人)做 , can’t wait to.. 迫不及待地要 , be supposed to 被期望或要求, 本应该, do with 处置, 忍受, 需要 be a mess/ in a mess 乱成

一团, leave sb in charge 委托 …..负责, act like 行为举止象 …, go unpunished 不受惩罚, go out 熄灭, have one’s arm crossed 双臂交叉抱在胸前, deserve to 值得去做,常用否定形式表示 “不配” be hard on 对某人苛刻, now that 既然, in the form of 以 的形式, than ever before 比以前任何时候都, be angry at 对某事生气, even if 即使, treat sb like…象 一样对待 , argue about 为 …而争吵, the cause of 起因, differ in many ways 在许多方面不同, fit badly 非常 不合身。

【难点讲解】
1. Eric runs in after it, followed by a big dog, walking very slowly. 埃里克跟着球跑进来,后面跟着一条大狗,狗走得很慢。 这句话里有两个不同层面上的状语: 过去分词短语 “followed by a big dog” 是谓语 “runs in”的伴随状语,而现在分词短语“walking very slowly”描述的是大狗跟随埃里克进来 的行走方式,是动词“follow”的状语。 伴随状语通常由现在分词短语、过去分词短语或介词短语承当。当伴随动作由主语发出 时,用现在分词,当伴随动作由其他人或物发出时用过去分词。例如: He ran after the thief, shouting angrily. She sat nervously in the grand sitting room, watched closely by the butler. The soldiers stood silently along the pass, rifles in hand. 2. You weren’t supposed to come home until tomorrow. 你们应该明天才回家的。 be supposed to do sth:被期望或要求去做, 本应该去做。例如; You are supposed to hand in your articles this Friday. Girls are supposed to behave more quietly in this country. 在肯定句中 until 必须和持续性动词连用时,在否定句里它主要和短暂性动词连用也可以和 持续性动词连用,表示直到某时某个动作才开始。Until 还可以用在强调句中。Not until 放 在句首时,句子要倒装。例如: He slept until 8 o’clock. He didn’t wake up till e8 o’clock. It was not until 8 o”clock that he woke up. Not until 8 o’clock did he wake up. I won’t be free till Friday. 3. The money with which you were to buy dog food is gone, but Spot looks so hungry. 本该用来买狗食的钱不见了,但斑点狗看起来饿得厉害。 “with which you were to buy dog food” 是定语从句, 当关系代词是介词宾语时,介词常放 在关系代词之前。例如: the village we used to live in→the village in which we used to live 主语+be 动词+不定式表示“按计划将要做” ,例如; We are to hold up the enemy while our troups retreat. The presidential candidate is to make a speech in our town on his way to Washington. 4. We thought you were an adult, a person from whom we could expect good decisions.我们原 以为你是个成年人,一个我们可以指望他做出正确决定的人。 划线部分是“an adult” 的同位语, 它 和“an adult”所指相同,句法功能也相同,是

对“an adult”含义进一步的说明。这个同位于本身又带有定语从句 from whom we could expect good decisions 。 Expect sth from sb: 期望从某人那里得到或看到某事, 例如: You can never expect generosity from a miser. 5. This is not a family where bad behavior goes unpunished. 我们家不是一个放纵不良行为的家庭。 根据上文,this 是指 our family。动词 go 后面可以跟形容词,表示“变得” ,例如: go bad(变质), go dry(变干), go mad(发疯), go international (国际化) 。Go 和一 些含否定意义的形容词连用,则表示“不受……的, 未被…的”,如: go unchallenged, go unnoticed. His theory has gone unchallenged in the world for half a century. It’s strange that such a mistake can go unnoticed in the textbook. 6.If they knew that Spot was ill and we used the money to take him to the vet… 假如他们知道 Spot 得了病, 而我们用那笔钱带他去看兽医的话…….. 这句话用的是虚拟语气, 省略的部分是: they would understand why the money is gone and the house is a mess. 当说话人只表示一种假设的情况、一种主观愿望,即认为动词 所表示的动作或状态并非真实时,使用虚拟语气。表示和现在事实相反时,主句用过去 将来时,条件从句用一般过去时。例如: If I were you, I should wait till next week. I she saw you now, she wouldn’t recognize you. 7.None of us stopped to think and we should have. 我们本应当停下来想想,而我们都没有那么做。 Stop to do 表示停下来去做另一件事, stop doing 则表示停止正在做的事情。 should have 也是一种虚拟语气,表示过去本应当做的事情。这里完整的句子应该是: We should have stopped to think, but none of us did. 8. Can you explain to me now why the house was a mess and what you did with the cash we left? 你现在能向我解释为什么家里乱成一团,而你又把我们留下的钱拿去干什么了吗? Be (in) a mess 表示“乱成一团” ; do with 表示“处理、处置”常和 what 连用,它和 deal with 不同,deal with 表示“处理、应付” we left 虽然只有两个单词,却是一个定语从 句,它前面省略了作宾语的关系代词 that 或 which。

【语法】定语从句(3)
一、 . “介词+关系代词”结构 (1) “介词+关系代词“可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。 “介 词+关系代词“结构中的介词可以是 in, on, about, from, for, with, to at, of, without 等,关 系代词只可用 whom 或 which,不可用 that 。这类结构的定语从句通常可以和带关系副词 的定语从句互相转换,例如: This is a free country where everyone enjoys freedom of speech. This is a free country in which everyone enjoys freedom of speech. (2) from where 为“介词+关系副词“结构,但也可以引导定语从句。例如: We stood at the top of the hill, from where we can see the town.. (3) 像 listen to, look at, depend on, pay attention to, take care of 等固定短语动词,在定语 从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开。例如:

This is the boy whom she has taken care of. 二、关系代词在定语从句中作主语的补语 能在定语从句中作主语的补语的关系代词只有 that, 这时的 that 既能指人也能指物,但往 往省略。例如: When Laura was born, Bettie decided her daughter would be the singer (that)she always wanted to be. Mr. Lee still talks like the man that he was ten years ago. 三、关系代词 as 和 which 作主语,都可以代表前面整个句子。但由 as 引导的定语从句可 以前置。例如: He saw the girl, as/which he hoped he would. As he hoped he would, he saw the girl. As 还可用于 the same…..as, such…..as, as……as 等结构中。例如: Such opinions as he holds sound strange to ordinary people. We are facing the same problem as we did years ago.

【英语俗语】
英语俗语,也和其他语言一样,有许多都是由身体各个部份的名称组成的。例如:To follow your nose 是指"一直走"。另外还有:To play by ear,意思是看着办。其他还有用 hand 和 foot 这些字组成的习惯用语。 这里我们要向大家介绍由腿,也就是 leg 这个字组成的习惯用语: To pull one's leg。To pull one's leg 初看起来好像和中文里的"拉后腿"的意思差不多。 但是,千万不要被表面现象所迷惑。To pull one's leg 的真正意思是逗别人,开别人玩笑 的意思。有时候,有的朋友故意讲一些话来骗我们,后来才发现他是在开玩笑。 例如,一个大学生上了同学的当,事后他说: 例句-3: "My roommate said this girl had told him she wouldn't mind going out with

me. But when I invited her to a movie, I learned he was just pulling my leg."
这个大学生说:"我的同房间同学说,那个女孩愿意和我一起出去玩。可是,当我请她去看 电影的时候,我才发现我那同学是逗我,开我的玩笑。" 要是这个大学生聪明一点的话,他当时就可以对他的同学说: 例句-4: "Hey, stop pulling my leg, will you! I don't believe that girl really said

she likes me and would like me to take her out."
这句话的意思是:"喂,你别逗我行不行!我才不信那个女孩真的说了她喜欢我,还要我邀 她出去玩。" 和 leg 这个字有关的俗语里还有一个很有趣的说法,那就是:Break a leg! 从字面上来看, break a leg 难道是断了一条腿?或是倒霉?不是, break a leg 的确切意思是祝愿别人成功。 例如,你的朋友明天要去参加高考,你就可以对他说:Break a leg! Have green fingers 很会种花种菜 Green thumb 就是指那些很会种花种菜的人 All thumbs 手脚很笨的人

Jump in and get your feet wet 到实践中去学 A kettle call the pot black 五十步笑百步 A wet blanket 扫兴的人或事

牛津高中英语模块一(第四讲)
【教学内容与教学要求】 一、 教学内容:

牛津高中英语模块一 Unit 2 (下) 二、教学要求: 1.了解英语语调的作用。 2.学会写感谢和建议信。 3.学习编写、表演对话。 4.语法:定语从句(复习) 【知识重点与学习难点】 一、 重要单词:

upset, sincerely, insist, chat, valuable, period, argument, freedom, relationship, suggest, spare, unloving, forbid, tone, frustrated, express, volume, stress, pause, exact, emotional, mood, gist, merely, regular, solve, column ,columnist, resource, proofread, version, nervous. 二、重点词组:
rising/falling tone 升调、降调, talk show 谈话节目, main point 要点, supporting information 辅 助性信息, a diary entry 一篇日记, be proud of 为….感到骄傲, stay up late 熬夜, mix up 混淆, after all 毕竟, take one’s advice 接受建议, miss doing sth 怀念以前做的某事, keep in mind 记住, get it tidied up 把它整理好, clean up 打扫干净, make a difference 要紧, provide sb with sth/provide sth for sb 为某人提供, provided that 假如, to one’s surprise 使某人惊奇的是, as though 就好像, insist on doing 坚持要做, allow him his freedom 允许给他自由, send sb to bed 叫 某人去睡觉, forbid sb from doing sth 禁止某人做某事, assign roles to 分派角色, argue about sth with sb 为某事和某人争吵.

【难点讲解】
1. They are meant to be read aloud, and often use less formal language than other type of writing. 剧本是要被朗读的,它使用的语言没有其他文体那么正式。

“Be meant to be”+被动语态、名词或形容词,表示“应该用作、本应当作”和 “be supposed to be”相似。例如: Flowers are meant to be admired, not picked. Sitcoms are meant to be light-hearted, but this one is full of violence. 副词 aloud 表示“出声’, loudly 表示 “大声”。注意 loud 可以当作副词和 talk, speak, laugh 连 用,例如:They laughed loud and long. Can you speak a little louder? 2. You can’t write exactly the way people speak. 你不能原封不动地按照人们日常说话的习惯来写。 the way people speak 在这里是方式状语,people speak 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the way。这句 话较正式的写法可以是: You can’t write exactly in the way that people speak. You can’t write exactly the way in which people speak. 3. But I don’t think you are being fair at all. 但我觉得你这样做一点也不公平。 Be+being 构成了 be 动词的进行时,后面跟形容词或名词,表示主语当前的状况,也可以表 示进行时的被动语态。例如: You are silly.你很蠢。(对人的评价,在这里是一种人身攻击) You are being silly 你现在的行为或想法很蠢。(就事论事) He is polite.他有礼貌。 He is being polite.他这样做是出于礼貌。 Many rivers and lakes are being polluted through out China.

4. I understand you used to spend a lot of time together back when Christina was younger. 据我所知当克里思蒂娜小的时候你和她一起度过很多时光。 I understand 是访谈节目和外交场合中一个常用的辞令, 它比 I know, I hear, I guess 更灵活, 对所提及信息的来源和可信度都没有明确的说法, 可以根据上下文译成 “据我所知、 我听说、 我猜、我个人的理解是…等”, 也可以说 My understanding is…….。 Back= in the past, 常出现在口语当中。

5. Many people in families become upset with each other over small problems.

许多家庭成员之间因为一些小问题彼此不愉快。 Upset 作 vt/ vi 时重音在第二个音节上,过去式和过去分词同形,表示“弄翻、倾覆、扰乱、 使不安” 。也可作名词,重音在前。本句话里 upset 是过去分词,become 的表语。 表示纷争的起因,用介词 over. 例如: The two countries often fight over border disputes. They are always quarreling over minor differences. 6. Small problems become big ones, however, if they are not discussed and dealt with early on. 然而,如果不尽早商讨解决,小问题就会变成大问题。 Deal: n. 数量,a (good/ great) deal of +不可数名词,交易,如: It’s a deal(成交);v.分配、 经营。词组 deal with 有 和….做生意、与…有来往、对待、对付、相关、处理等意思。它 作“处理”讲时,要和 do with 区分清楚。deal with 作“处理”讲时是指“怎样对付或解决” , 提问时用 how; do with 作“处理”讲时是指“使用、处置” ,提问时用 what。例如: How did you deal with pollution in the river? —We tried to treat the city’s sewage before it poured into the river. What did you do with the sewage?-- We treated it and recycled it for industrial use. Early on:near the beginning“在早期、刚开始的时候” ,多用于口语中。 7. Recently he has been refusing to do his homework, and instead insists on wasting his time watching DVDs and listening to foreign music. 近来他一直拒绝做他的家庭作业,固执地把时间浪费在看 DVD 和听外国音乐上。 Have/has been doing 是现在完成进行时,指说话前一段时间一直进行或多次重复的动作。 Insist on+n/doing sth: 坚持、坚决主张(做某事);或 insist+从句 “that sb (should) do sth” 。 要注意 persist in+n/doing sth 也是“坚持” ,但 insist on 坚持的是看法或主张,竭力主张去做 某事;persist in 坚持的是行为和做法,即不放弃正在进行的事情。例如: He persisted in doing that experiment though the smell in the lab was getting worse and worse. She insisted on going out for a picnic though the sky looked ominously dark. 8. What am I to do? 我该怎么办? 相当于 What shall I do? Be 动词+不定式表示按计划和情理将要或应该发生的事。例如: The president elect is to make his inaugural speech on Monday. You are to follow his instructions to the word.

9. When I refuse to listen to him, he shouts at me and the two of us fight like crazy. 要是我拒不听从,他就对我大喊大叫,我们俩就会象疯了一样争吵。 “the two of us”我们俩,us 仅指我们两人; “two of us”我们中的两个, us 所包含的人数 大于二。 like crazy 象疯了一样,英语口语中的习惯用法,相当于“as if we were crazy” 。还可以说: like cats and dogs。

牛津高中英语模块一(第五讲)
【教学内容与教学要求】 一、 教学内容:

牛津高中英语模块一 Unit 3(上) 二、教学要求: 1.学会谈论健康、锻炼,描述问题。 2.学习 e-mail 的写作。 3.语法:非限制性定语从句、反意疑问句。 【知识重点与学习难点】 一、 重要单词:

stay(系动词: 保持), slim, figure, weight, ashamed, recover, failure, contain, chemical, seldom, damage, attractive, touching, embarrassed, pressure, overweight, diet, properly, skinny, consider, fit(强健的), pill, appearance, especially, amazed, archery, squash, aerobics(有氧运动), triathlon(铁人三项), category, partial(部分的), response, purpose, confirmation, actually, recognize. 二、重点词组: work out 锻炼、训练, go on diets/a diet 实行节食, in secret 私自, side effect 副作用, put on weight 体重增加, lose weight 减肥, be ashamed of 对….感到羞耻, an exact match for 和….完全匹配的…, follow one’s advice 听从某人的建议, sound fun 听 起来象是件有趣的事, team sport 团队运动, build up 增强, regret doing sth 后悔做 了某事, risk doing sth 冒做某事的风险. 三、 【语法术语】 non-restrictive attributive clause 非限制性定语从句 , question tag 反意疑问句 ,

positive statement 肯定的陈述句 , negative statement 否定的陈述句 , personal pronoun 人称代词, auxiliary verb 助动词, model verb 情态动词, imperative clause 祈使句. 【难点讲解】

1. What do you do to keep yourself looking good and feeling good?
你是怎样保持自己良好的外在形象和健康的身体状况的? 询问别人怎样做某事的可以用“how do you…..? ”也可以用“what do you do to….?” 。例如: How did you make the baby stop crying? What did you do to make the baby stop crying? Keep yourself looking good and feeling good 是一个“动+宾语+补语”结构,现在 分词短语 looking good and feeling good 作宾补。

2. Dying to be thin….
这是个双关语,既可以理解成“差一点为瘦身而死” ,也可以理解为“迫切希望 瘦身” 。 课文主人公 Amy 因为急切希望保持苗条的身材服用了一种减肥药造成肝 功能衰竭,差点丢了性命。用这个双关语作课文的标题非常巧妙。 Dying 的本意是“快要死去的,而 dying to do/be+adj 或 dying for+n 则表示“迫 切希望…..”。例如: He is dying to see his homeland again. I’m dying for a drink of rum. She is dying for a chance to be back on the stage.

3. I know the pressure to stay slim is a problem, especially for an actress.
我知道保持苗条的压力是一个,对于一位女演员来说更是如此。 4. I’m taking weight-loss pills called Fat-Less, which are quite popular among young women here. 我在服用一种叫“”的减肥药,这种药在年轻女性中很流行。 medicine 泛指药物,尤指内服药,表示“治疗 … 的药”时后面跟介词 for: the

medicine for cold。 Pill 药片、 药丸, ,表示 “治疗…的药” 时前面加定语: sleeping pills 。drug 药剂、麻醉药、毒品,drug(s) 表示“治疗…的药”时和 for/to treat 连用。 5. She says health is priceless, and I agree, but then I look so slim at the moment. 她说健康是无价的,我同意她的说法,但是我现在看起来非常苗条。 后缀 less 加在名词之后表示“没有、缺乏”例如: hopeless, helpless, careless, homeless.注意, priceless 和 worthless, valueless 的意思不同。 Price 指价格, 加 less 表示“无法估价的” ;worth, value 指价值,加 less 则表示“没有价值的。 Then 和 but 连用,起到增强语气的作用。 6. They contain a harmful chemical that caused my liver to fail. 那些药里含有一种有害的化学成分,导致我肝功能衰竭。 7. I think you look great as you are. 我认为你现在这样保持自然本色看起来就很棒。 As you are 是状语从句意思是“以你本来的面目” As 作连词的用法较复杂,可以表示“当….时候、因为、既然、相比、虽然,按 照…做、象…一样、当做,还可以用来指代上文中提到的事情以避免重复。其中 作“虽然、用来指代上文中提到的事情”两种用法比较特殊,请看例句: Alone as he is, he does not feel lonely. Try as you would, you could not make him change his mind. Harry is unusually tall, as are his brothers. 8. Remember to take it slowly at first and you will build your strength up quickly. 记住刚开始锻炼时要慢些,你的体力很快就会增强。 Take 在这里意思是“从事…活动”it 指代 sport/exercise。 Build up 增强、增加,名词 build-up,例如: The build-up of Japanese forces makes the neighboring countries very uneasy.

9. Some sports are usually done indoors, while others are done outdoors.

一些体育活动通常是在室内进行的,另一些则是在室外。 Indoor、outdoor 是形容词,只能作定语使用; indoors/outdoors 是副词,作地点状 语。例如: It is an indoor sport. We can play the game indoors. 【语法】 一、非限制性定语从句 1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的 部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明, 去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如: This is the house which we bought last month.这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。 (限 制性) The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上 个月买的。 (非限制性) 2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通 常是非限制性的,例如: Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退 休了,他曾经是我的老师。 My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 房子带着个漂亮的花园。 This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人, 我已 经读了三遍。 3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词 , 对其进行修饰, 这时从句 谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如: He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓 住我的意思,这使我心烦。 Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这 就叫做蒸发。 我去年买的的那幢

说明:关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。

二、反意疑问句: (1)反意疑问句是由陈述句以及其后面的简略疑问句构成,前一部分为陈述句,后一部分由助 动词或情态动词 + 主语(人称代词)构成,可表示真实的疑问。也可以表示说话者的某种倾向, 强调或反问 It’s raining , isn’t it? (2)反意疑问句的前半部分陈述句是肯定的,则疑问部分为否定形式;反意疑问句的前半部分 陈述句中若为否定,则疑问部分为肯定形式。 (3) 前半部分陈述句含有 hardly, never, seldom, few, little 等词时, 疑问部分为肯定形式。 We hardly know each other, do we? There is little left for us to do, there is?

(1) 反意疑问句的前半部分陈述句中若使用了助动词,情态动词或 be 动词,后半部分先重复 这些动词,然后 + not +主语,构成简略句 You can read this , can’t you? shouldn’t she? (2) 如果反意疑问句前半部分肯定句中谓语动词是实意动词, 后半部分一般由 didn’t / doesn’t 和 didn’t + 主语构成 We need some salad too , don’t we? (3) 祈使句后面的反意疑问句是 will you/shall we? shall we? Come over to my house, will you? He looks like his father , doesn’t he? Let’s stop quarreling and get down to business, She should have a rest ,


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