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MODULE4 CARNIVAL Grammar


两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态中 句子的主语是动作的执行者;被动语态中句子的 主语是动作的承受者。

I caught the cat. The cat was caught by me.
结构:助动词be+及物动词的过去分词

被动语态的用法:

①. 不知道谁是动作的执行者,用被

语态。

e.g. Animals must be protected.
必须保护动物。

The bike was made in Beijing.
这辆自行车是北京产的。

②没有必要或不愿意指出谁是动作 的执行者时,用被动语态。 e.g. Paper is made of wood. 纸是木头做的。 The window hasn't been cleaned for weeks.

窗户已经有几个星期没擦了。

③强调动作的承受者时,用被动语态。 e.g. The store is run by the trade union. 这家店是工会办的。 We are inspired deeply by his story. 我们深深地被他的事迹鼓舞了。

被动语态在不同时态中的形式
一般现在时:

am /is /are +过去分词
e.g. The Olympic Games are held every four years. 奥运会每四年召开一次。

一般过去时: was /were +过去分词 e.g. The fire which lasted three hours

was put out finally.
持续了三个小时的大火终于被

扑灭了。

一般将来时:
will /shall + be +过去分词

e.g. More roads will be built to solve
the problem of traffic jams. 更多的路将被建成来解决交通 堵塞问题。

现在进行时: am /is /are + being +过去分词
e.g. Wait a moment. Lunch is being cooked. 请稍候。午饭正在做。

过去进行时:

was /were + being +过去分词
e.g. The wolf was being hunted

everywhere.
狼那时正在到处被追赶。

现在完成时: has /have + been +过去分词
e.g. A lot has been done to protect the

environment.
已经做了许多事情来保护环境。

过去完成时:

had been +过去分词
e.g. The fire had been put out before the

firefighters arrived.
在消防队员来之前, 大火已被扑灭。

情态动词的被动:

can /may /must /have to + be +过去分词
e.g. These goods must be sold out today. 这些货物今天必须被卖掉。 A mistake may be made in this plan. 在这个计划里或许犯了一个错误。

The sports meet has to be put off because
of the rain. 由于大雨, 运动会被迫取消。 当强调动作的执行者时, 使用“by+动执 行者”的短语。 e.g. The vase was knocked off the table by the cat.

花瓶被猫从桌上摔碎了。

主动形式表示被动意思
① e.g. The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。 The baby needs/wants/requires looking after. (to be looked after.) 这个婴儿需要被照顾。

②表示主语的特征的动词,如read,

write, sell, lock等, 用主动形式表示
被动意义。 e.g. This kind of apples sell well. 这种苹果卖的好。 The pen writes smoothly. 这笔写起来很流畅 。

Read the sentences and answer the questions. 1. In the late 1970s the tradition was revived by students. 2. Today, carnival in Venice is celebrated for five days in February.

a. Which sentence refers to the present? 2 b. Which sentence refers to the past? 1
c. Which sentence shows who did 1 d. What does by show? By shows who performed the action. something?

Rewrite the sentences in passive voice. 1. The police will arrest the thieves. The thieves will be arrested by the police. 2. They built the airport during the war. The airport was built during the war.

3. They have offered me a large sum of money to go away. I have been offered a large sum of money to go away. 4. I can hear passing plane night and day.

Passing plane can be heard night and
day.

5. They must have lost your letter in

the post.
Your letter must have been lost in

the post.

Finish the following sentences. 1. These children will be taken good care of (将受到很 _______________________ 好的照料) in the kindergarten. 2. The classroom is cleaned by the students (由学生们 ______________________ 打扫) every day.

3. The problem _______________ is being discussed (正在被讨论) in the meeting room. 4. Several soldiers ______________ have been killed (已经被杀害) in the conflict. 5. She found the house _____________________________ had been destroyed by the storm (已经被暴风雨摧毁).

6. His work was __________ stopped (被中断) for a
time during the First World War.

7. The books in the reading room
_________________ (绝不能被带出). mustn’t be taken out 8. _______________ He was noticed to (他被注意到) steal the woman’s necklace.

Translation

1. 湿木头不易着火。
Wet wood won’t catch fire.

2. 这台洗衣机需要修理了。
The washing machine needs/wants/

requires repairing/to be repaired.

3. 他坐在房间的后面。 He was seated at the back of the room. 4. 我们学校教英语。 English is taught in our school. 5. 这些问题得用英语回答。 These questions have to be answered

in English.

Expressing likes, dislikes and preference.

Number the phrases from the most

negative (1) to the most positive (6).
I hate it. ___ (1) I love it. ___ (6)

It’s OK. ___ (3)
I really like it. ___ (5)

I quite like it. ___ (4)

I don’t think much of it. ___ (2)

Work in pairs. Discuss your preferences for food to eat at festivals. Use the phrases you numbered before. Example: A: Do you like fish? B: No, I don’t. I hate it. / Yes, … 1. pork / chicken 2. fish / meat

3. beans / cabbage
5. sweet food / salty food

4. cake / fruit

Do exercises 1 and 2 on page 85.


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