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高考英语写作技巧


书面表达
之 赢取高分策略

NMET书面表达评分原则
1、先根据文章的内容和语言初步确定 档次。
第五档: 20~25分

第四档: 15~20分
第三档: 10~15分

第二档: 5 ~ 10分
第一档: 0 ~ 5分

覆盖所有内容 要点

2、主要内容: 内容要点; 词汇和语法的数量和准确性; 上下文的连贯; 有效地使 语言的得体性 用了语句
间的连接 成分

应用了较多的 语法结构和词 汇

语言地道, 规范

3、拼写和标点是语言

准确性的一个方面, 评分时,应视其对交 际的影响程度予以考 虑。

4、词数少于100和多于 140的,从总分中减去2 分。
5、如书写较差,以至影 响交际,将分数降低一 个档次。

Which composition feels more attractive, why?

书面表达如何写?
1、审题 文字信息 图画信息

题材、人称、时态、要点
五 个 步 骤 2、以词及点:用一两个单词或短语写出每句 话的细节要点。 3、联词成句:用联词成句的方法将上述要点 的词语扩展成句子。 4 联句成文: ①主语和谓语
②背景(适当增加时间、地点条件等)

注意:

③逻辑关系 ④开头与结尾 ⑤语篇衔接

5、检查修改,规范抄写

给阅卷人以好的第一直观印象
1. Heading 整 体 三 部 分
点题;一两个句子;概括性; 暗示性

2. Body
中心记述部分;层次分明

3. Ending
小结;呼应主题

增强书面表达效果的技巧
1. 使用较高级的词汇 词汇反映你知识贮存量的 多少,也是衡量英语水平 的一个重要标志。 运用得当的句子结构可以 给文章增色不少,从而使 整篇文章因此而生辉 。 使用恰当连接词,对写一 篇有“英语味”的文章很 重要,能使文章上下衔接 自然、紧凑。

技 巧

2. 使用较丰富的句式

3. 使用恰当的连接词

一、怎样使用较高级的词汇
1. Because the weather was good, our journey was comfortable. Thanks to the good weather, our journey was comfortable. 2.We all think he is a great man. We all think highly of him . 3.Suddenly I thought out a good idea.

A good idea occurred to me. / A good idea suddenly struck me.
4.The students there needn’t pay for their books. Books are free for the students there.

5. As a result the plan was a failure.
The plan turned out to be a failure.

6. When she heard he had died, she went pale with sorrow. At the news of his death, she went pale with sorrow. 7. She went to Austria in order to study music. She went to Austria for the purpose of studying music. 8. When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. The more he spoke, the more excited he felt. 9.In our school, there are twenty-six classrooms. Our school is made up of twenty–six classrooms. 10.You can find my house easily. You’ll have no trouble finding my house.

二、使用丰富的句式:
利用不同的句型来表达同一个意思, 能增加文章的文采。 1. 感叹句 How happy I was when I received your letter! What a kind boy he is! 2. 强调句 It was this young boy that helped the old granny. I do hope you can come if possible.

3、 倒装句 Only in this way can you solve this problem. There comes the police car. Hardly had they got to the station when they met the young man. 4、 省略句 They read while walking or riding on a bus. Come to me if necessary. 5、 with短语 I saw a young lady walking slowly in the street with a handbag in her hand.

6、 定语从句 In my opinion, cyber cafes should be a place where we can find much useful information. Let’s come to the main teaching building, at the back of which stands the school library. 7、 各种名词性从句 That’s what I should do. We should do a favor to whoever needs help at present.

8、 各种状语从句
Time passed quickly before we knew it. The moment we reached the farm, we got down to harvesting. So long as we work harder at our lessons, we’ll catch up sooner or later. Do call me before hand so that I can meet you at the airport. They had to wait because the rain was getting more and more heavily.

Practice
1. 改变时态 The bell is ringing now. (一般) There goes the bell. (高级) 2. 改变语态 People suggest that the conference be put off. (一般)

It is suggested that the conference be put off. (高级

3. 使用不定式 He is so kind that he can help me. (一般) He is so kind to help me. (高级) 4. 使用过去分词 She walked out of the room and many students followed her. (一般) Followed by many students, she… . (高级) Once it is seen, it can never be forgotten . (一般) Once seen, it can … . (高级)

5. 使用v-ing形式 When he arrives please give me an e-mail. (一 般) On his arriving/ arrival, please give…. (高级) If the weather permits, I’ll come tomorrow. (一 般) Weather permitting, I’ll come tomorrow. (高级) Now our school has three teachers. They teach 48 pupils. (一般) Now our School has three teachers, teaching 48 pupils. (高级)

6. 使用名词性从句 It disappointed everybody that he didn’t turn up. (一般) The fact that he didn’t turn up disappointed everybody. (高级)

I happened to have met him. (一般) It happened that I had met him. (高级) To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things. (一般) What surprised him is that the girl…. (高级)

7. 使用状语从句 I won’t believe what he says. (一般)
No matter what he says, I won’t believe. (高级)

If you come back before six o’clock, you can go out. (一般)
You can go out on condition that you come back before…. (高级)

The meal was very nice. We all enjoyed it very much. (一般)
The meal was so nice that we all…. (高级)

8. 使用定语从句

The girl is spoken highly of. Her composition was well written. (一般)
The girl whose composition was well written was spoken highly of. (高级)

I studied Chinese, maths, English, physics, chemistry and computer at school. (一般)
The subjects I studied at school included Chinese, maths, English…. (高级)

9. 使用虚拟语气 The ship didn’t sink because there were the efforts of the captain. (一 般)for the efforts of the captain, the ship would But
have sunk. (高级)

I wasn’t invited to the party, so I didn’t attend it. (一般)
If I had been invited to the party, I would have attended it. (高级)

10. 使用强调句、倒装句、感叹句

Regular radio broadcasts began in 1920. (一般)
It was not until 1920 that regular radio…. (高级)

Though I’m weak, I will make the effort. (一般)
Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort. (高级)

We were glad to see the crops and vegetables growing very well. (一般)
How glad we were to see the crops and...! (高级)

11. 使用并列句 If you go through the gate, you’ll find the entrance to Bear Country. (一般)
Go through the gate, and you’ll find…. (高级)

When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. (一般)
The more he spoke, the more excited he felt. (高级)

I got up late this morning. I didn’t catch the early bus. (一般)
I got up late this morning, otherwise I could have caught the early bus. (高级)

三、使用恰当的连接词
高考大纲中常用的连接词:

1. 表示递进;在同一话题上补充内容 另外,还有: what is more; besides; also; moreover; in addition 2. 表示转折关系 但是, 然而, 相反: but; however; yet; instead; on the other hand; on the contrary.

3. 表示因果关系
因为,因此,所以:

since; as; because(of ); so; thus; therefore; as a result; 4. 表示条件关系
如果,只要:

if ;on condition ( that );as long as
除非:

unless
否则:

or;otherwise

5. 表示时间关系
当… 的时候 :

when ; while 在…之后: after 在…之前: before 直到: until
一…就…:

as soon as; no sooner…than; hadly…when 后来, 然后: later; afterwards 不久: soon 近来: lately; recently 自从… :since 从那时起: from then on

6. 表示特定的顺序关系 首先, 最主要的: above all 其次: secondly 然后: then; next 最后: finally; in the end

7. 换一种方法表述
换句话说:

in other words; that is to say;

8. 进行举例说明
例如,比如:

for instance; for example; like; such as

9. 用于陈述事实
实际上:

in fact; actually; as a matter of fact
跟你说实话 :

to tell you the truth; to be honest

10. 对一个话题进行总结
总而言之,总的来说:

on the whole; in short; all in all; in general; in a word 11. 其它常用到的副词 Therefore ; otherwise ; finally ; furthermore ;Thus ; namely(也就 是) ; although ; afterwards ; personally;

高考作文类型:

A. 图表数据说明类文章 B. 提示议论文类文章 C. 看图说话类文章 D. 书信类

写作基本步骤:
1.仔细审题,列举大纲。

2.围绕要点,写出句子。
3.添加过度,确保连贯。 4.先求正确,再求灵活。 5.认真眷写,卷面整洁。

Practice 书面表达:
Ladies and gentlemen, 联合国教科文组织某考察团正 在我国某乡村参观考察。假定你是 接待人员,请根据下列提示以发言 稿的形式简要介绍这个村的情况: 1)大小:近100户人家,约500 口人。 2)变化:过去很穷,78年后变 化很大。人们生活比以前好多了。 现已旧貌换新颜。 Welcome to our school.This village is very small. It has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor. It has changed a lot since 1978. People here are richer than before. Now it is taking on a new look. The school here was very small. Now it has been rebuilt. The newly built teaching building has 4 storeys . It is the most beautiful building in the village. All the school-age children can study here. They enjoy free education in it.

3)教育:原来的学校很小,现 已经过改建。新建的教学楼有4层, 是村里最美的建筑物。村所有学龄 儿童在此免费就读。 注意:1)要点齐全,前后连贯。
2)词数:100-120之间。

Thank you.

Ladies and gentlemen, Ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to our school ! Welcome to our school! ① This ① This village is a small one village is very small. with/which has nearly 100 It has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. ② families and about It used to be very poor.However, 500 people. It used to it has changed a lot since 1978 ③ be very poor. ② It and has been developing very fast. has changed a lot People here ④ live a much better since 1978 ③. People life than before .Now it is taking here ④ are richer on a new look. than before. Now it is taking on a new look.

In the past, the school here was very small ⑤. ⑥ Now it has been rebuilt. ⑦ The newly built teaching building has 4 storeys ⑧. It is the most beautiful building in the village. All the school-age children can study here. ⑨ They enjoy free education in it. ⑩ Thank you.

In the past, the school here was very small ⑤ and most children couldn’t afford to go to school. ⑥ But now it has been rebuilt ⑦ and the newly built teaching building

⑧ which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village.
All the school-age children can study here. ⑨ What’s more,

they enjoy free education. ⑩ May you enjoy your stay here.
/ May you have a pleasant time here! Thank you.

Ladies and gentlemen, Welcome to our school ! ① This village is a small one with/which has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor. ② However, it has changed a lot since 1978 ③ and has been developing very fast. ④ People here live a much better life than before . Now it is taking on a new look. In the past, the school here was very small ⑤ and most children couldn’t afford to go to school. ⑥ But now it has been rebuilt ⑦ and the newly built teaching building ⑧ which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village. All the school-age children can study here. ⑨ What’s more, they enjoy free education. ⑩ May you enjoy your stay here. Thank you.

现在正是春暖花开的春游时节。你校学生以“高三学生要不 要参加春游活动”展开了讨论。请根据以下讨论结果,写一 篇短文。 65%的学生认为 1.应该春游 35%的学生认为 1.不应该春游

2.接触大自然,呼 吸新鲜空气,有利健 康

2.高考临近,没有心 情玩

3.活动是精神放松, 3.春游耽误学习 大脑休息,有利于学 习

The outline of the writing: Introduction paragraph: …

supporting idea 1

Point 1…
Body Point 2…

supporting idea 2 supporting idea 1 supporting idea 2

Conclusion paragraph: …

主题句的内容要明确具体,语言简洁, 开门见山,句式力争多样性
How will you start you passage? 问句: … … 从句: … … Introduction:(sample) Whether or not should Senior 3 students go spring outing? We have had a heated discussion.

巧用过渡句,过渡词,理顺文章的逻辑 关系
Pay special attention to the transition sentences: Opinions are divided on the question.

The body part

Point1: 65%的人认为应该春游(亮明观 点)
Sentence pattern: Most of us (about 65%) hold the opinion that…,since it tends to…,which is unfavorable to … Most students, about 65%, are for the idea that Senior 3 students should go spring outing.

Reason1:接触大自然,呼吸新鲜 空气,有利健康
Sentence pattern: They think it good to do sth……/ sth do good to sth In their opinion, it is of great benefit to do sth…… Eg:They think it good for their health to be close to nature and breathe some fresh air

Reason 2:活动是精神放松,大脑 休息,有利于学习
(注意:两个观点之间的连接) 递进 what’s more ;besides ; moreover ; in addition;furthermore Eg: they can relax themselves for a while and rest their brains so that they will be more energetic.

Conclusion: 小段总结,进一步 亮明观点,前后呼应。 ? Eg: They think it will do good to their students.

? Point 2:35%的学生认为不应该 春游(亮明观点)
? 注意:使用过渡句,自然衔接句子和段落 (承上启下)
? ? ? ? ? Sentence pattern: However, others prefer to… Some others have just the opposite opinion….. On the other hand…. Eg: On the other hand, about 35% students are against the idea.

? Reason 1:高考临近,没有心情玩

? Sentence pattern:

? They say/believe/hold the opinion… that….
? Eg: They say that with college entrance
examination drawing near, they don’t feel like going anywhere.

? Reason 2:春游耽误学习
? (注意:两个观点之间的连接)
Eg:Besides, they think going spring outing will take at least a day off. They can’t afford the time. They think they should fix their attention on their studies

Whether or not should Senior 3 students go spring outing? We have had a heated discussion. Opinions are divided on the question. Most students, about 65%, are for the idea that Senior 3 students should go spring outing. They think it good for their health to be close to nature and breathe some fresh air and what’s more, they can relax themselves for a while and rest their brains so that they will be more energetic. They think it will do good to their students. On the other hand, about 35% students are against the idea. They say that with college entrance examination drawing near, they don’t feel like going anywhere. Besides, they think going spring outing will take at least a day off. They can’t afford the time. They think they should fix their attention on their studies

表示观点对比类写作套语

A.总起: ? Opinions are divided on this question. ? Different people hold different / opposite opinions. ? People have taken/adopted different attitudes towards … ? People have different opinions on this problem. ? People take different views on this question. B.表达观点一: ? …of them hold the opinion that …. ? …of them are in favor of the idea that… ? People who are for the idea think …

C.表达不同观点之间的衔接: ? However, …of them hold a different view. / …of them hold the opposite opinion. ? People who are against it don’t think so. ? However, every coin has two sides. ? Different from those…., …people think …. ? On the other hand, … people think ….

D.结尾常用套语: ? In my opinion/Personally, … ? As far as I’m concerned, … ? In short/ in brief/ in a word, …

表列举说明的关联词: ? Firstly/ First of all/ To begin with, .... Secondly… Thirdly… ? In the first place… In the second place… In the third place… ? Finally/ Last but not least/, .... 表示递进、强调的关联词 ? .... Besides/Apart from/ What’s more/ In addition/ Furthermore/ Moreover/worse still/ to make matters worse…

Whether or not should Senior 3 students go spring outing? We have had a heated discussion. Opinions are divided on the question.

Most Most students, students, about about 65%, 65%, are are for for the the idea idea that that Senior 3 students should go spring outing. They think it good for their health to be close to nature and breathe some fresh air and what’s more, they can relax themselves for a while and rest their brains so that they will be more energetic. They think it will do good to their students. On the the other other hand, hand, about about 35% 35% students students are are On against against the the idea. idea. They say that with college entrance examination drawing near, they don’t feel like going anywhere. Besides Besides, they think going spring outing will take at least a day off. They can’t afford the time. They think they should fix their attention on their studies.

亮点点拨

A、运用高级词汇或短语 B、增加形容词或副词 C、灵活运用各种句型

Whether or not should Senior 3 students go heated discussion. spring outing? We have had a heated Opinions are divided on the question.

Most students, about 65%, are for the idea that Senior 3 students should go spring outing. They think it good for their health to be close to to nature and breathe some fresh air and what’s more, they can relax themselves for a while and rest their energetic They brains so that they will be more energetic. think it will do good to their students. On the other hand, about 35% students are against the idea. They say that with college feel entrance examination drawing near, they don’t feel like like going going anywhere. Besides, they think going spring outing will take at least a day off. They can’t afford afford the time. They think they should fix fixtheir their attention attention on on their studies.

基础写作

图表类作文写作方法
table表格, chart图表 , graph曲线图, figure(数据)… ;

图表作文的一般结构:

第一、 点主题(1句) 第二、 分析描写数据(3句) 第三、 归纳总结 (1句)
前提: 结合写作内容.

图表类说明文的写作步骤
第一步: 开门见山地点明本图表所反映的主题, 即conclusion. 常使用的词汇有:

table表格, chart图表 , graph曲线图, (图表/数据): figure(数据)… ;
动词: tell, show, represent… 常用句型: 1.The graph/chart/table above shows… 2. From the above graph/chart, it can be seen that... 3. As (正如) is shown in the graph, ... 4. It has been shown from the table that…

第二步:分析数据间的主要差异及趋势,然后描写 (在描写数据间变化及总趋势特征时,可采用分类式 或对比式以支持主题,并阐明必要的理由)。注意层 次。 即 facts and reasons
增长/减少的表达: 表示上升的动词: rise,increase,climb,go up , …; 表示上升的名词: rise,increase, …; 表示下降的动词: fall,decline,decrease,drop, go down, …; 表示下降的名词: fall,decline,decrease,drop, …; 表示平稳: remain steady/unchanged…

常用句型:( Facts) 1.There was a great /slight increase /rise in… 2.There has been a sudden/slow/rapid fall/drop in… 3.The rate dropped slightly from 38%in…to 31% in… 4. By comparison with…,it decreased/increased/fell from…to… 5. Statistics show a 20% rise/reduction in traffic accidents compared with last year. 6. The population owning mobile phones increased by 10% in 1999.

倍数的表达:
1.The number /rate has nearly _______ doubled (是...的两倍), as against that of last year. 2.The number is five times as many as that of…. (是…的5倍) =The number is four times more than in…(比...多4倍)

Reasons:
1. The reason why/for …is that… 2. One may think of the change as a result of… 3. The change in … largely results _____ from the fact that… 4.This brings out the important fact that… 5. ….is the key factor (因素)in… 6. It is because of … ______ that …

第三步:归纳总结或发表评论。
常用表达:
generally 1. in a word ,/ in short,(简而言之) / _______ speaking(总的来说) 2. In summary, it is important… 3. From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion(得出结论)that… 4. Obviously/Apparently ___________(很明显地), if we want to…, it is necessary… is no doubt that 毫无疑问) attention must be paid 5. There ___________________( to… 6. I suggest ______(建议)the government take effective measures to … 7.Personally ________, I think(就我来看) the “golden week” should remain, for…

图表作文一
? 今日某报对我市几所小学的学生展开了一项关于” 什么样的人可以当班长”的调查. ? 请根据下面的图表写一篇英语短文,介绍调查结果并 谈谈你认为什么样的人可以当班长. 注意: (1)开头以为你写好,不计入总词数。 (2)次数不少于60。 The primary school students have different opinions on what kind of person can become a monitor.___________________

什么样的人可以当班长
有人缘, 4.41%
有责任感,5.80% 长得漂亮11.04%,

学习成绩好, 66.91%,

老师喜欢 11.76%

范文
The primary school students have different opinions on what kind of person can become a monitor. We can see from the pie chart that about 4.41%of the students believe that those who have good relationship with others are likely to become a monitor. More students around 6%, however, think that the most important character of a monitor is having responsibility. Interestingly, there are about 11.04% considering that a monitor should have a good look while11.76% of them suppose that teachers usually appoint their favorite students as monitors. The majority of students, about 67% believe that only when they do well in their studies can they have the chance to become a monitor. On the one hand, I think, being a monitor requires high grades in study so that you can set a good example to the fellow students. On the other hand, being responsible is of equal importance to studying well. you need to be a good assistant to your teacher to help deal with some daily affairs in class, and sometimes when the headmaster is away, you are to be charged of the class.

图表作文二
? 最近你校学生会对分类垃圾箱是否进教室一 事进行了调查,调查结果见下表.请根据图中提 供的信息用英语写一篇短文,介绍同学们的不 同意见和看法,并表达你自己的观点. ? 注意:词汇不少于60。 参考词汇:pie chart饼状图

学生对分类垃圾箱进教室的不同 看法及所占的比例
图示: 完全不同意31%:麻烦,
习惯很难成
完全同意52%:有利于 资源回收,并有助于 学生养成良好的垃圾 分类习惯

部分同意12%:需普 及垃圾分类知识

无所谓5%:此事与我无 关

Model essay
Recently the Students’ Union conducted a survey on whether recycling dustbins should be set in classrooms. As can be seen from the pie chart, different students hold different opinions on this program. Only 5% of the students care little about it. Surprisingly, about one third of the students are totally against the program. They can’t be bothered to change their old habits. However, over half of the students are completely for the program, as it not only is beneficial to the recycling of resources, but also can help students develop good habits of garbage classification. Besides, 12% of the students partly agree. They hold the opinion that it is necessary to teach people how to classify the garbage. Personally, I’m in favor of this program. I believe it’s important to raise people’s awareness of garbage classification, from which we will get considerable benefits in the future.

图表作文三
? 下面的条形图(bar chart)显示了某中学对100名同学 (男女各半)未来职业取向的调查情况.根据下图信息, 请以my future career为题,用英语写一篇100—120词 的短文,要求如下: (1)简要描述土中的信息(不用标明数据,只概述情况); (2)谈谈你的选择和理由. 注意:文章的标题和开头已给出(不计入总字数). My future career As is shown in the chart,____________________-

Chart bar
40% 30% 20% 10%
Businessman scientist teacher doctor lawyer don’t know

?

男生

女生

Model essay
My Future Career As is shown in the bar chart, what the boys like to do id to become businessmen and scientist. Only a few boys want to be teachers. It is increasing that the numbers of boys and girls who want to become doctors are equal. As for lawyers, more boys expect to have this job. However, there are still some students who are not clear about their future career. To be frank, I will choose teacher as my profession in the future. The reasons can be listed as follows. For one thing, my ambition is to be a teacher when I was a little boy. In order to realize my dream, I have been taking great effort. For another, I have received from my teachers the knowledge, guidance and love, which I want to pass to my students, sharing laughter and tears with them.

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