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二、复合句
定义: 复合句(主从复合句)是有一个主句和一个 或者一个以上的从句构成的句子. 根据在句 中不同的作用,从句可以分为三大类:名词 性从句(主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和 同位语从句)定语从句和状语从句。

? 什么是定语?

? 定语是用来限定、修饰名词或代词的,定语是对

名词或代词起修饰、限定

作用的词、短语或句子, 汉语中常用‘……的’表示。
? 定于通常由什么成分构成?

? 充当定语的有:主要由形容词担任。此外,名词、

代词、数词、副词、介词短语以及动词不定式 (短语)、分词和定语从句等都可用作定语。

? 例如:

? The

little boy needs a blue pen. (形容词) ? His name is Tom.(代词) ? The two boys are students.(数词) ? There is only one pen in the pencil box. (名词) ? The boy in blue is Tom.(介词短语) ? The boy there needs a pen.(副词) ? There is nothing to do today.(不定式) ? The sleeping boy is Tom.(现在分词) ? The pen bought by her is made in China(过去 分词)

? 什么是定语从句?

? 定语从句(Attributive

Clauses)在句中做定语, 修饰一个名词或代词,一般紧跟在它所修饰的先 行词后面。 ? 引导定语从句的关联词是关系代 /副词。 ? 关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as。 ? 关系副词有where, when, why等。 ? 定语从句的修饰对象被称作先行词。

实战演练
Complete the sentences with which,who,that
who 1.The man __________ we met was a cartoonist 2.He drew a dog __________ had six legs which 3.The cartoon and the cartoonist ________ you're that talking about are very famous. 4.I konw a teacher _________ is also a caroonist. who 5.The picture _______ I like best is the first one. which 6.Did the children watch cartoon _________was that drown by Alice last Friday.

关系代词与先行词的关系

限 先行词 关系代词主语 关系代词宾语 关系代词所有格代替人 制 代替人 who/that whom/that whose=of whom代替物 性 定 代替物 which/that which/that whose=of which 代替人 和物 语 从 代替人 that that 和物 句 非限 代替人 制性 和物 定语 从句 代替前 一句话

which which

which

whose

which
关系代词 (relative pronounce s)

thing(s. o.)

指先行句(as) that (person/thing)(s. o.) who ( person)(s. o.)

whom (person)( o. )

关系词 (relative s)

whose (person / thing)(attribute)
when (time) = 介词 + which

关系副词 (relative adverbs)

where (place) = 介词 + which why (reason) = for which

? 关系词常有3个作用:

? 1,引导定语从句。2,代替先行词。3,在定语

从句中担当一个成分。 ? 例如: ? The man is smoking. He is my father. ? =The man who is smoking is my father. ? 先行词 = 关系代词(作从句主语) ? Beijing is the place. He was born in Beijing. ? =Beijing is the place where he was born. ? 先行词=关系副词(作从句地点状语) ? Where=in which

He is the boy _______ pen I borrowed yesterday. ? They cleaned the house ________windows face south. ? The gentleman, with _ _ _ _ _ daughter I worked, looked down upon women. ? She is the girl _____ brother is my English teacher. ? The house ________ windows are red is my grandparents'. ? The house,_______ windows are red is my grandparents'.
?

? 定语从句中应注意的问题:

? 一.

Whose所引导的定语从句,通常指人,也可 指物,在定语从句中做定语, 其后必定出现名词, 与其构成所属关系。表示“…的” ? 二.关系代词与关系副词的区别 ? 三. 介词+ 关系代词 ? 四. 几种特殊情况 ? 五. 非限制性定语从句的用法

考点一:如何判定用关系代词还是用关系副词
2、如定语从句不完整,则要判断从句中动词,如为及物动词用关 系代词引导 如动词为不及物动词,用关系副词引导 where ____ Yesterday we went to visit the house ______ (the great writer used in which ___ to live). which The house ______ (they built in 1987) stayed up in the earthquake. that ___ ___ who / whom _ ____ Luckily none of the people _____ ( I know) were killed in the that earthquake. / __________________ when _______ was born in the yearin which Second World War My father ______(the broke out).

考点二:如何判定用关系代词还是用关系副词
1、看定语从句是否完整,如完整应用关系副词引导从句 when I I will never forget the days (______ _ stayed with ___ you).

___ Jurassic Park is about a park ______ (a very rich man keeps different where ________ Kinds of dinosaurs). when _______ ___ 1958 was the year ______ (Spielberg made his first real film).

Please give me the reason _____ (you made such a great success). why ___ _____
when ___ Morning is the best time ______ (you practise ______ aloud). reading ________ Do you remember the lake where (you first met your girlfriend.) _____ ___

3、如定语从句中谓语结构是被动结构,有主语,则用关系副词。
Kunming is a beautiful place where ( flowers are seen all the ______ year round). October 1st is the day ________ ( new China was founded). when Which The window ( ______ was opened this morning) has been broken. that Which The meeting ( ______ will be held next week) is very important. that

关系副词 where

This is the house (which/that ) he used to live in. This is the house in which / where he used to live.

I know of a place (which /that ) we can swim in. I know of a place in which / where we can

(1)This is the factory ________ I visited last year. (2)This is the factory _______ I worked last year. (3)This is the factory _______ produces all kinds of TV sets. A. where B. which C. whom D. whose

关系副词when
They’ll never forget July 1 returned to its motherland.

= on which when _____ Hong Kong
oil are

The days gone forever.

= on which when ______ we used foreign

when There was a time _____ the
businessman lost heart.

试比较:

? Do you still remember the day (which/ that) ___________ we spent happily together?
? Do you still remember the day when ______we spent our holiday happily together? ? Do you still remember the when day______ we went to visit the Summer Palace?

(4)I will never forget the day _______ we spent together. (5)I will never forget the day ___we worked together. A. which B. when C. where D. what

找准定语从句的先行词。 定语从句必须有先行词,否则就不是定语从句。 误:Is this farm we visited last week? 该句中定语从句就缺少先行词,将句子还原为陈述句: This farm is ________ we visited last week. 显然应加上the one作先行词。 正:Is this farm the one we visited last week? 当然,这句话改为下面这种形式也是正确的: Is this the farm we visited last week?

(6)Is this library ________ you often read in? (7)Is this the library _______ you often read in? A. the one B. in which C. where D. which

(6)选A. the one。(7)选D. which。 做这种题时,应该先把原句子变为陈述句: (6)为:This library is _________ you often read in. 此句缺先行词,需要加上,因此选A. the one。 (7)为:This is the library _______ you often read in. 此题关系词作read in的宾语,故选D. which。

(8)This is the reason ________ he was absent. (9)This is the reason _______ can explain his absence. A. which B. why C. when D. in which

(8)选B. why,相当于for which,作原因状 语。 (9)选A. which,在定语从句中作主语。

试比较:
(which/ that) ? Do you still remember the day ___________ we spent happily together? when ? Do you still remember the day ______we spent our holiday happily together? when ? Do you still remember the day______ we went to visit the Summer Palace?

This is the date ___________ we’re proud of. (which/that) This is the date ________________ he was born. when/on which (which/that) I will never forget the time __________ we spent together. This is the factory where/in which _____________my mother works. This is the factory __________ we visited last (which/that) week.

总结: “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句, 关 系代词只能用which和whom, 且不能省略。介 词主要根据三个方面来选择: 一是先行词与介词

的搭配; 二是定语从句中谓语动词或形容词与介
词的搭配; 三是根据句子中的意义确定介词。
The gun _____________ he was shot was never found. The film ______________l fell asleep was very boring. The book________________ I heard was written 20 years ago. The little creature _______________scientists are interested is ET. She has 3 sons, two ________________are workers. There are altogether 10 books, _____________ five are mine

?

This is the man _______ whom l learned the good news 2. This is the man __________ whom l worked for 20 years. 3. This is the man _______ whom my son was saved. 4. This is the man _________whom I could not have succeeded. 5. Tom explained to her teacher the reason _______which she came late. 6.We went to the university _______ which we studied 20 years ago.
.

to 7.The plan _______ which most people did not agree was called off. on 8. We saw a big table _______ which there were all kinds of books. of 9. She has two sons, one _______ whom is a teacher. 10. This is the question ___________ which we’ve had about so much discussion.。 in 11. 1949 was the year _______ which the P.R.C. was founded.

preposition + relative pronouns
1. The person whom/who/that you should write to is Mr. Ball.

to whom The person ________ you should write is Mr. Ball. with which The pen _________ he is writing now was bought yesterday. 3. The gas which we can not live without is called oxygen.
without which The gas ___________ we can not live is called oxygen

2. The pen which he is writing with now was bought yesterday.

More examples
about whom Have you met the person __________ he was speaking?

to whom He is the man _________ you can turn for help.
on which The farm _________ we worked then years ago isn’t what it used to be.

This is the tree ___________ we used to play games. under which with which The pen __________ he is writing now was bought yesterday.
The gas _____________ we can not live is called without which oxygen.

Can you work them out????

????

Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions: without 1. The sun gives us heat and light, ________ which we can’t live. about 2. The student ________ whom we were talking just now is the best student in our class. on 3. I’ll never forget the day _____ which she said good-bye to me. for 4. Who can give me the reason ______ which he hasn’t turned up yet?

? 【高考链接】

? 1.George

Orwell ____ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political novels and essays. ? A. the real name B. what his real name ? C. his real name D. whose real name ? 解析: 答案D。 whose real name = the real name of whom.

? 2.

What surprised me was not what he said but _______ he said it. ? A. the way B. in the way that ? C. in the way D. the way which ? 解析: 答案A。the way后的定语从句可用in which或that引导, 也可全省略。

? 3.

Luckily, we’d brought a road map without _____ we would have lost our way. ? A. it B. that C. this D. which ? 解析: 答案D。without + which引导定语从 句。

4. The English play _____ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. A. for which C. in which B. at which D. on which

5. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ___ was very reasonable.

A. Which price
C. its price

B. the price of which
D. the price of whose

6. The two things ____ they felt very proud were Jim’s gold
watch and Della’s hair. A. about which C. in which B. of which D. for which

7. She is a teacher of much knowledge, _____ much can be learned. A. who B. that C. from which D. from whom

8. I have bought two ball pens, _____ writes well. A. none of which B. neither of which

C. none of them

D.

neither of them

Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions:
1. The sun gives us heat and light, ___________ which we without can’t live. 2. The student ________ whom we were talking just now is about the best student in our class. 3. I’ll never forget the day _______ which she said good-bye on to me. for 4. Who can give me the reason _______ which he hasn’t turned up yet?

where 定语从句中特殊用法 一.先行词是position, situation, point, case, condition article, sentence, line, word, queue等时在定语从句中作状语用关 系副词where连接. where Sometimes we find a situation ______ most students can remember words and expressions well but can’t write a good composition.

? They

are in such a situation where everything is in disorder. ? The police are looking into the case where two VIPs were killed. ? Can you make a sentence where this verb can be used? ? They were at the point where/at which they had to decide what to de next. ? In the super market, we always see a long queue where people are waiting fir things on sale.

二. 定语从句中只用that 不用which 引导的集中情况: ? Is there anything that I can do for you ? ? That is one of the most interesting books that are sold in the bookshop . ? My necklace is not the only thing that's missing . ? Who is the girl that is wearing a red coat ? ? The writer and his novel that you have just talked about are really well known .

只能用which不能用that的情况
(1) 非限定性定语从句,即有逗号隔开的定语从句

It was felt in Beijing, which was 200 km away. (2) 以介词开头的定语从句,即介词前置的定语从句
This is the room __________ Chairman Mao once lived in. (which / This is the roomthat) which Chairman Mao in ________ once lived. (3) 定语从句修饰的是前面整句话 He passed the exam, which surprised everyone in our class.

总结: ? 当先行词是:all , any , anything , everything , nothing the one, much, few, little或被它们修饰 时。 ? 当先行词被形容词的最高级或序数词修饰时 ? 当先行词有:the only , the very , the same , the last 等修饰时。例如: ? 当主句以who或which开头时,定语从句中引导词 用that ,不用which 或 who 。以避免重复 ? 当先行词既有人又有物时,用that
?

三。※定语从句中主谓一致问题 1. 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,定语 从句中谓语动词的单复形式与先行词保 持一致。 Mr. Smith, who is now downstairs, is asking to see you. The Smiths, who are now downstairs, are asking to see you. 2. One of + 复数名词 + 关系代词 + 谓语动 词复数形式;the (only) one of +复数名 词 + 关系代词 +谓语动词单数形式

He is one of the students who work hard. He is the (only) one of the students who goes abroad. ※ 在定语从句中,被关系词代替的部分不可 在从句中重复出现。 This is the right book that you are looking for it.(×) ※ 当先行词是 way 表示方式、方法时,关系 词可用 in which、that 或省略。 This is the way in which/(that) I study English.

四.※不能用 that 的情况: 1. 在非限制性定语从句中 Dinner starts with a small dish, which is called a starter. 2. 在定语从句中作介词的宾语,且介 词位于关系代词前时: I’m looking for a container in which I can put all these peaches.

有and, but, so等连词连接的句 子,不是定 语从句,不需要用引导词去引导.
1. I have borrowed many books, many which of _______ are about music. 2. I have borrowed many books, and many of ________ are about music. them 1. There are 50 students in their class, most of ________ are from Tonglu. whom 2. There are 50 students in their class, and most of _______ are from Tonglu. them

*关系代词和人称代词/指示代词的选择

A ① He has three sons, none of _____ is a doctor. B ② He has three sons, but none of ____ is a doctor. D ③ He has three sons, _______ are doctors. ④ He has three sons; ____ are doctors. C A. whom B. them C. they D. who

五. As 的用法
as引导定语从句:引导
限定性定语从句

引导非限定制性定语从句 As 限定性定语从句 As引导限定性定语从句,主要用在’such…as’和’the ame…as’的结构中 可代替先行词是人或物的名词,在the same…as结构中as 也可用that代 No one will believe such stories as he told (as作宾语) I have never seen such kind of people as they are (as作 表语)

非限制性定语从句As 和 which
1. as 和 which 都可以引导非限制性定语 从句,在定义从句中作主语或宾语,指 代前面整个句子。 区别:① as 引导的非限制性定语从句,可 放 在主句之前、之后,也可以放在中间; which 引导的非限制性定语从句,只能 放在主句之后。② as 有正如,正像的 含义,而 which 没有。 Shakespeare is a famous playwright, as we know.

As we know, Shakespeare is a famous playwright. Shakespeare, as we know, is a famous playwright. His mother is an engineer, which makes him proud. 2 . 若先行词被 such 或 the same所修饰, 关系代词用 as 。 He is such a kind man as we all like. This is the same watch as I lost.

3. as引导的定语从句只表示一 个众所周知或意料之中的事, 但which不受此限制。 如: He married her, which was unexpected. 他和她结婚了,这是出乎意料 的。(不可用as)

as多用于固定搭配中:as is often the case( 这是常有的事),as was expected(不出所料), as often happens(正如经常发生的那样),as is known to all(众所周知),as has been said before(如上所述),as is mentioned above(正如 上面所提到的)等。 注:which代表整个句子,还可用于in which case, at which point, on which occasion等。如: I may have to work late, in which case I’ll telephone you. 我可能得晚点下班,那样我会给你打电话的。

? such…as…和such…that…

? He

is such a clever boy that we all like him. ___ as is such a clever boy ___ we all like. as is such a man ___ he used to be.

? He

? He

? Such

as people ___ have great contribution to our country should be greatly respected.

1. I’m using the pen which he bought it __ yesterday. (去掉) 2. Is that factory which your father once worked in? one the

^

3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada. to

^

4. July 1,1999 is the day when we’ll never which forget.

__

5. I still remember the holidays I stayed with them. when

^

6. I’m going to work in the hospital where needs me. (that/which)

___

who ___ 7. Those that haven’t been to the West Lake will gather at the school gate.
8. I don’t like the way which you talked to your friend. in

^

____ 9.This is the last time when I’ve given that you lessons.
10. Soon they came to a farm house,and in front____ of which sat a small boy. it

11. We heard the news which our team ____ won the game. that

____ 12. The reason which he explained it why sounds reasonable.

13. Those at the desk want to buy tickets write down your names. who

^

______ 14. That was the reason because she looked old. why 15. Taiwan, that we know, belongs to ____ China. as

16. The third place____ which we are going to visit is Hangzhou. that As 17. Which is known to all, many satellite _____ are going around in the sky. ____ 18. The students and things which you spoke of are known to us. that

Choose the best answers B 1. She heard a terrible noise, ____ brought her heart into her mouth. (NMET91)
A. it B. which C. this D. that

2. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single D person _____ she could turn for help.(92) A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom

3. The weather turned out to be very good, ____ was more than we could B expected. (NMET94)
A.what B.which C.that D.it

4. After living in Paris for fifty years he A returned to the small town _____ he grew up as a child. (NMET96)
A. where B.which C.that D.when

5. Carol said the work would be done by October,______ personally I doubt D very much. (NMET1999)
A.it B.that C.when D.which

D 6. This is the way _____ I am thinking of to do it. A.how C.by which B.with which D.\

7. He invited ten friends to his home ; C ___ are foreigners. A. six of whom B. the six of whom
C. six of them D. the six of them

8. He invited ten friends to his home , A ___ are foreigners. A. six of whom B. the six of whom C. six of them D. the six of them

B 9. My hometown is not the same ____ it used to be ten years ago.

A.like B.as

C.that

D.which

10. Is this the factory ____ you work? C A.which B.in that C.where D.what A 11. Is this the factory ____ you visited? A.which B.in that C.where D.what

C 12. Is this museum____ you visited last week? A./ B.which C.the one D.where

13. Is this the museum ____ you A visited last week?
A./ B.what C.the one D.where

14. _____ is known to all, Taiwan is A part of China. A.As B.Which C.That D.It
is

15. ____ is known to all that Taiwan D part of China. A.As B.Which C.That D.It

16.All_____ is needed is a supply of oil. B

A.which B.that

C.what

D. /

17. They both talked happily about the men and books _____ interested them D in the school.
A.which B.who C.when D.that

18. I don’t like the way _____ you C talked to her. A.which
C. /

B.in that
D.by which

填空:

1. Look at that lady ______ name is Pochi. whose
(whom/that/who) very 2. He is a teacher _________ I like

much. 3. Those pictures _________ were drawn which/that by Tom are nice. 4. Those _____will go to the park stay here. who 5. That was all the money ______I had. that

6. Tom is the first boy _____left the room. that 7. Look at the boy and his dog _____are that coming this way. 8. You can read any book _____I have. that 9. That was the year _____I went to when America. 10. we came to the town, ______we stayed where for 2 hours.

11.This is the place where _______ I stayed for two days. when 12.The moment _______ she won the gold medal was shown on TV. where 13.The factory _______ he worked has been pulled down. (which/that) 14.The factory ___________ we are going to visit produces watches. (which/that) 15.The reason _________ he explained to his father was a false one. why that 16.The reason _______ he was late is _______ he had been caught in the traffic.

Whose从句可转换为“ of +关系代词”型, e.g. They live in a house, whose door opens to the south. of which They lived in a house, the door _______ open to the south. of which the They lived in a house, ____________ door open to the south.

preposition + relative pronouns
1. The person whom/who/that you should write to is Mr. Ball.

to whom The person ________ you should write is Mr. Ball. with which The pen _________ he is writing now was bought yesterday. 3. The gas which we can not live without is called oxygen.
without which The gas ___________ we can not live is called oxygen

2. The pen which he is writing with now was bought yesterday.

More examples
about whom Have you met the person __________ he was speaking?

to whom He is the man _________ you can turn for help.
on which The farm _________ we worked then years ago isn’t what it used to be.

This is the tree ___________ we used to play games. under which with which The pen __________ he is writing now was bought yesterday.
The gas _____________ we can not live is called without which oxygen.

Can you work them out????

????

Fill in the blanks with proper prepositions: without 1. The sun gives us heat and light, ________ which we can’t live. about 2. The student ________ whom we were talking just now is the best student in our class. on 3. I’ll never forget the day _____ which she said good-bye to me. for 4. Who can give me the reason ______ which he hasn’t turned up yet?

Use a preposition and a relative pronoun, whom/which, to complete the following sentences.
1. The book ___________ I heard was written twenty about which years ago. 2. The people ________ the man spoke weren’t listening. to whom 3. The film ____________ I fell asleep was very boring. during which

4. The pen __________ she wrote that book can now be with which seen in a museum. 5. The little creature ________ scientists are interested is in which known as ET.
6. The gun __________ he was shot was never found. with which

Correct the sentences:
1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. 2. Is that factory which your father once worked ^ one in? the

^ 3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada.
to 4. July 1,1999 is the day when we’ll never forget. which
_____

5. I still remember the holidays I stayed with ^ them. when 6. I’m going to work in the hospital _______ needs where me. that/which who 7. Those ____ haven’t been to the West Lake will that gather at the school gate. 8. I don’t like the way which you talked to your ^ in friend.

9.This is the last time when I’ve given you lessons. ______

that 10. Soon they came to a farm house, and in front of which sat a small boy. ____ it 11. The reason______ he explained it sounds which reasonable. why

? 关系副词引导的定语从句

? 1.
?I

when指时间,在定语从句中做时间状语

still remember the day. ? I first came to the school on the day. ? =I still remember the day when (on which) I first came to the school.
? The

time finally came. ? We said good-bye at the time. ? The time when (at which) we said good-bye finally came.

? 2.

where指地点,在定语从句中做地点状语 ? Shanghai is the city. ? I was born in the city. ? =Shanghai is the city where (in which) I was born.
? The

house has been pulled down. ? I lived in the house ten years ago. ? =The house where (in which) I lived ten years ago has been pulled down.

3. why指原因,在定语从句中做原因状语 ? Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. ? I don't know the reason why he looks unhappy today. ? 注意:关系副词引导的从句可以由“介词+关系代词” 引导的从句替换
?

(1) The reason why/ for which he refused the invitation is not clear. (2) From the year when/in which he was going to school he began to know what he wanted when he grew up. (3) Great changes have taken place in the city in which/where I was born.

? 介词+关系代词引导的定语从句
?

1.在定语从句中,当关系代词作介词的宾语时,可以把介 词移到关系代词的前面; 但为了使关系代词紧跟它所修 饰的先行词,也可以把介词放在从句中有关动词的后面. ? This is the room in which (where) we lived last year. ? 或:This is the room which we lived in last year. ? Who’s the comrade with whom you just shook hands? ? 或:Who's the comrade whom you just shook hands with?

? 注意:

“介词+关系代词”结构中的关系代词只能用 whom或which,不可用 that。 ? 2. 当介词跟在动词之后不前移时,关系代词可以 用that. ? The pencil with which he was writing broke . ? =The pencil which / that he was writing with broke .
? 1.

? 2.含有介词的短语动词(两个或者两个以上的单

词合起来构成一个短语,表示一个动作,例如: look for)一般不拆开,即不能转化成“介词+关 系代词”结构,介词仍放在动词的后面。 ? Is this the book which she was looking for? ? 不能说for which she was looking
? This

is the girl whom he will take care of. ? 不能说of whom he will take care

? 3.“介词+关系代词”结构在定语从句中可以

作状语;并可以修饰别的名词一同作状语,此时 的关系代词在定语从句中作定语。
? I called him by the wrong name ,for which mistake I

apologized. ? = I apologized for which mistake (原因状语) ? He spent four years in college ,during which time he studied medicine .
?=
?

he studied medicine during which time(时间状 语)
He works in a middle school,in front of which there is a river.

“介词+关系代词”后接不定式短语作后置定 语,相当于一个定语从句. (省略是定语从句) ? He has a knife with which to defend himself. ? =He has a knife with which he can defend himself. ? with which 在这里作方式状语,不能用关系副词 代替 ? Allow me half an hour in which to wash the clothes. ? Allow me half an hour in which I can wash the clothes.
? 4.

关系副词when,where,why有时可以转化 为“介词+关系代词which”结构. ? I still remember the day when(=on which)I first came to Beijing . ? The factory where(=in which)his father works is in the west of the city. ? The reason why(=for which)he is always late for class is rather simple .
? 5.

6. from where有时也被用来引导定语从句,此时的 where理解为关系代词。 ? His head soon appeared out of one of the second storey window ,from where he could see nothing but trees. ? He climbed up the top of the temple , from where he could see some things in the distance .
?

D The book was written in 1946,______the education system has witnessed great changes. ? A. when B. during which ? C. since then D. since then ? since when也可以用来引导定语从句
?

? 7.

介词=关系代词前有same, any, none, all, both, neither, most, each, few等代词或者数词时 loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him.

? He

? There

are many students in our class, none of whom is a boy.

? 限制性定语从句中that和

which的比较。 ? 注意:在下列情况中只用which,其他的用that ? 1. 在非限制性定语从句中 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. ? 2. 关系代词前有介词时(介词+which) ? 3. 先行词本身是that时 ? What is that which flashed in the sky? ? 4.先行词后有插入语时 ? The bike, I think, which was stolen must be Tom’s.

? 限制性定语从句中只用that的几种情况

? 1.

当先行词是anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等 代词时,或者是由every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等修饰时 that can be done has been done. is little that I can do for you.

? All

? There

? 2.

当先行词被序数词,形容词最高级修饰,或 先行词本身就是序数词和形容词最高级时 first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.

? The

? This

is the best film that I have seen.

? 3.

当形容词被the very(正是), the only(仅有的,唯 一的)修饰时 is the very dictionary that I want to buy.

? This

? After

the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owned. ? 当先行词指人时,也可以用who Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting

当先行词前面有who, which等疑问代词时 ? Who is the man that is standing there? ? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most?
? 4.

当先行词既有人,也有动物或者物体时 ? Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned?
? 5.

? as和which的差别

? 1.

as和which都可以用来引导限制性和非限制性 定语从句,which只指代物,as即可指代物,也 可指代人。 ? 2. as和which在从句中作主语时,which既可以 作系动词be的主语,也可以作实义动词的主语; 而这时as 只可以做系动词be的主语。 ? 例如: ? He married her, which was natural.(可用as代 替which) ? He won the Nobel Prize in chemistry, which made him famous. (不可用as 代替which)

当先行词受such, the same修饰时,常用as ? She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。(类似) ? 注意:当先行次由the same修饰时,偶尔也用 that引导定语从句,但是和由as 所引导的定语从 句意思不同 ? She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary's wedding. ? 她穿着她在Mary婚礼上穿过的那条裙子。(两 次穿的是同一条裙子)
? 3.

? such…as…和such…that…

? He

is such a clever boy that we all like him. ___ as is such a clever boy ___ we all like. as is such a man ___ he used to be.

? He

? He

? Such

as people ___ have great contribution to our country should be greatly respected.

? 其他几个应注意的问题

先行词是way时,关系词用that,in which,常 被省略 ? The way(in which/ that)he answered the question was surprising. ? 2. the reason后面除了跟why, for which, 也可以 用that作状语 ? 3.定语从句中的主谓一致 speak ? He is one of the teachers who _____ English well. (speak) ? He is the only one of the teachers who speaks _____ English well. (speak)
? 1.

? 4.

I can still remember the time ___________ (that/which) we spent together. when ? I can still remember the time _____ we work together. ? 5. What I dislike most was his bad manners. ? All (that) I dislike most was his bad manners. ? 6. He was late for school, which made his _____ father angry. it ? He was late for school and ____ made his father angry.


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