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高中英语语法情态动词专题(精辟)


考点识别:情态动词为必修三的语法点,从近几年的高考情况看,对情 态动词的考查为高考重点项目之一,高考的热点依次为:推测和能力,必要 性,请求建议命令,所以要求考生准确把握情态动词的意义和用法。

一、表推测 词形 must should ought to 肯定 必然;一定 按说应该 按说应该 否定 — 应该不会 应该不会

can/cou

ld may/might

可能/微弱的可能 也许/微弱的可能

不可能 可能不会

技巧:做到情态动词表示推测的题,一定要把题目读完,根据题目所 提供的信息判断填空部分所需要的语气。

e.g. He must be the wanted man, for he’s exactly like this picture. (因为他和照片很像, 能够判断出语气 是很肯定的) (2011 北京, 24)—I don’t really like James. Why did you invite him? —Don’t worry. He come. He said he wasn’t certain what his plans were. A. must not B. need not C. would not D. might not

二、表能力 can:表示现在的能力 could:表示过去的能力 be able to will be able to: 将来的能力 was/were able to:过去有能力并且成功地做了某事

技巧:这三个词不易混淆,所以做此类题时,一般通过翻译就能选出 答案。但是要注意题目的时态。 e.g. (2010 全国 II, 17) I’m afraid Mr. Harding A. can’t B. mustn’t C. shouldn’t D. needn’t
不能

A

see you now. He is busy.

(2011 四川,20) The police still haven’t found the lost child, but they’re doing all they A . A. can B. may C. must D. should

三、表必要性 must: 一定,必须 have to: 不得不

mustn’t: 不准,强行禁止 don’t have to: 不必

need: 需要 needn’t: 不需要 e.g. (2011 上海, 28) I D worry about my weekend—I always have my plans ready before it comes. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. daren’t D. needn’t 不需要

四、表请求、建议、命令、允许、禁止 1.表示请求、建议 shall:用于一、三人称,表示征求对方意见。 may/might:表示允许、请求。 will/would:用于第二人称,表示请求或建议。 e.g. Shall the driver wait outside?司机在外边等着可以吗? must 必须 mustn’t 禁止;不准 should/ought to 应该 shouldn’t/oughtn’t to 不应该 (易错点) shall:常与二、三人称连用,表命令、警告、威胁、允诺。 will:表示意愿、决心。 e.g. (2011 陕西卷)——Will you read me a story, Mummy? ——OK. You _D_ have one if you go to bed as soon as possible. A. might B. must C. could D. shall(允诺) 2.表示命令、允诺

情态动词+ have done
一般考试时,常与虚拟语气连用来作为考点。翻译该句型时,加 个“本”字即可。
情态动词+ have done must have done 例句 It must have rained last night, for the road is quite muddy. can/could have done 本来能够做 Can he have gone to his aunt’s home? cannot/couldn’t have 过去不可能做了 He cannot have forgotten the done accident. may/might have done 也许/或许已经做了 It’s too late. I think he may have gone to bed. should/ought to have 本该做而实际上未做 You ought to have done this done exercise more carefully. shouldn’t/oughtn’t to 本不该做而实际上做 You shouldn’t have told her the have done 了 truth. needn’t have done 本不必做而做了 You needn’t have taken a taxi here, because it was very near to my 用法 一定/准是/想必做了

house. had better (not) have 当时最好做了(没做) You had better have finished it on done time. would rather ( not ) 宁愿当时做了 (没做) I raised objections at the meeting, have done but now I would rather not have done that. would like/love to 过去愿意做但未做成 I would love to have gone to the have done party last night, but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. e.g. (2008, 江苏,35)—I’m sorry. I B at you the other day. —Forget it. I was a bit out of control myself. A. shouldn’t shout B. shouldn’t have shouted C. mustn’t shout D. mustn’t have shouted

易错点:
1. cannot but+ do sth :不得不/只好做某事 e.g. I cannot but choose to go. 另外,表达该意思的其他句型有: can’t help but do can’t choose but do can do nothing but do have no choice but do 2. may as well + do: 最好,倒不如 e.g. You may as well do it at once. 3. should 还可用在 if 引导的条件状语从句中,表示“万一” e.g. (09 天津 15) This printer is of good quality. If it _B_ break down within the first year, we would repair it at our expense. A. would B. should C. could D. might
万一

“Why/How should” ,表示说话人对某事不能理解,感到惊讶,意为“竟会” e.g. Why should you be so late today? 你今天怎么来得这么晚? 4. must 表示“非要,偏要,硬要” e.g. (2011 全国卷二) If you __C___ smoke, please go outside. (如果你非要抽烟,请到外面 抽) A. can B. should C. must D. may 5. dare/need 做情态动词时,后加 do,否定式为 daren’t/ needn’t +do 做实义动词时,后加 to do,否定式为 don’t/doesn’t/didn’t + to do

自我演练
1.We have bought so much food now that Suzie won’t be with us for dinner. A.may not B.needn’t C.can’t D.mustn’t 2.-____you interrupt now? Can’t you see I’m on the phone? ----Sorry Sir, but it’s urgent. A. Can B. Should C. Must D. Would 3. I’m going to Europe on vacation together with John if I _______ find the money. A. can B. might C. would D. need 4. It’s quite warm here; we __________turn the heating on yet. A.couldn’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. wouldn’t 5. I use a clock to wake me up because at six o'clock each morning the train comes by my house. A. couldn't B. mustn't C. shouldn't D. needn't 6. —Will you read me a story, Mummy? --OK. You ________have one if you go to bed as soon as possible. A. might B. must C. could D. shall 7. They _____ have arrived at lunch-time but their flight was delayed. A. will B. can C. must D. should 8. If you __ go, at least wait until the storm is over. A. can B. may C. must D. will 9. It _______be the postman at the door. It is only six o’clock. A. mustn’t B can’t C won’t D needn’t 10. Just be patient. You _____ expect the world to change so soon. A .can’t B .needn’t C .may not D .will not 11. --- _____ I take the book out? --- I’m afraid not. A. Will B. May C. Must D. Need 12. -I haven’t got the reference book yet, but I’ll have a test on the subject next month. --- Don’t worry. You ____ have it by Friday. A .could B. shall C .must D. may 13. Doctors say that exercise is important for health, but it ____ be regular exercise. A .can B .will C .must D .may 14. I have told you the truth. _____ I keep repeating it? A. Must B. Can C .May D .Will 15. I’m afraid Mr. Harding _____ see you now. He’s busy. A .can’t B. mustn’t C .shouldn’t D .needn’t


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