Grammar and usage
（1） 要学好一门外语是不容易的。 （2）我们拒绝他们的邀请会显得无礼。 （3）和他争论这件事是没有用的。 （4）据说Robert过去曾在国外学习过，但我不知道是 在哪个国家。 （5）母亲轻轻地走了进来，以免惊醒熟睡的儿子。 （6）我叫小李给你修收音机。 （7）这个
孩子需要照顾。 （8） Tom迟到了使老师很生气。
(1)It's not easy to learn a foreign language well. (2)It would be rude of us to refuse their invitation. (3)It is no use arguing with him about it. (4)Robert is said to have studied abroad, but I don’t know which country he studied in. (5)Mother came in quietly so as not to wake up the sleeping boy. (6)I'll have Xiao Li repair the radio for you. (7) The child needs looking after/ to be looked after. (8)Tom’s being late made the teacher angry.
非 谓 语 动 词
主语 宾语 表语 宾补 定语 状语 不 定 式 动 名 词 分 词 主语 宾语 表语 宾补 定语 状语
△ 现在分词： 主动形式
一般式 完成式 doing having done
being done having been done
二、 功 能
1．作表语 2．作定语 3．作宾语补足语 4．作状语
? surprising, surprised surprising The result was ___________ . They were ____________ at the news. surprised ? satisfied, satisfying He appearedsatisfied __________ with my answer. satisfying The answer was ____________.
现在分词作表语:一般表示主动或主语的性质和特征, “令人……”的意思, 主语多数情况是sth. 过去分词作表语: 一般表示被动或说明主语情感心理 上的感受, “感到……的”,主语多数情况是sb.
interesting使人感兴趣的 exciting令人激动的 delighting令人高兴的 disappointing令人失望的 encouraging令人鼓舞的 pleasing令人愉快的 puzzling令人费解的 satisfying令人满意的 surprising令人惊异的 worrying令人担心的
interested感兴趣的 excited感到激动的 delighted感到高兴的 disappointed感到失望的 encouraged感到鼓舞的 pleased感到愉快的 puzzled感到费解的 satisfied感到满意的 surprised感到惊异的 worried感到担心的
boiling water developing country falling leaves rising sun
boiled water developed country fallen leaves risen sun
B. 表示情感心理的分词作定语 ? exciting, excited exciting He told us the __________ news. Theexcited _________ pupils jumped with joy.
? He had a terrified ________(terrify) look in his eyes. frightened The boy answered in a ___________(frighten) voice. 过去分词除修饰sb.以外,还可修饰表示神态、
C. 分词短语作定语 playing ? Tell the children ________(play)there not to =who are playing there make so much noise. talking ? Did you see the man _______(talk) to the =who was talking manager? facing ? I used to live in a room _______(face)south.
= which faced standing ? The house ___________(stand)at the corner = that of the street was built in 1955. stands
现在分词作定语:a.表示正在进行的动作 b.表示 经常性的动作或现在/当时的状态。
? Is this the book recommended _____________(recommend)by our teacher? ? The meeting ________(hold)last week is very held important. written ? I hate to see letters ________(write) in pencil.
? 注①：如果所表示的动作此刻正在发生，用现在 分词的被动形式来表示，如： The meeting being held _______________(hold)now is very important. We must keep a secret of the things _______________here. being discussed ? 注②：如果所表示的是一个未来的动作，用不定 式的被动形式来表示，如： The meeting _____________(hold)next week to be held is very important. Please tell me the subjects to be discussed _______________(discuss)at the next meeting.
3.作宾语(主语)补足语： thinking ? His lecture got us_________ (think). ? He got his bike ________ (repair) just now. repaired carried ? He watched the bed ________ (carry) out of the door. taken ? He felt a great weight ________ (take ) off his mind. 他感到心头如释重负。 cut ? How would you like your hair ______ (cut)? ? He is very popular among the students as he always tries interested to make them _________ (interest)in his lectures. picked ? The other day, I had my pocket ________(pick) on the bus. waiting ? I am sorry to have kept you ___________(wait) for so long a time.
? ? ? ? ?
have sb doing sth使...一直做 使...开始行动 get sb/sth doing sth 使...被做 have/get sth done have sth done 使...遭受 make oneself heard/understood
? leave sth undone 留下...未做
被动 被动，正在进行，一般作原因状语放 句首 被动，先于谓语动词发生
being done having been done
A.作时间状语： ①When they heard the bad news，they couldn’t help crying. Hearing = _______ (hear) the bad news, they couldn’t help crying. ② When we were taken around the city, we were deeply impressed by the city’s new look. When ______ around the city, we were deeply impressed taken by the city’s new look. ③ When he finished his work, he went home. Having finished ________________ his work, he went home.
B.作原因状语： ①Because he was poor, he could not afford to travel abroad. Being poor =___________ (be poor), he could not afford to travel abroad. ?___________ (encourage) by his heroic deeds, they Encouraged worked harder. Lost ? _______ (lose) in thought, he almost ran into a post. __________ (frighten) by the big forest fire, the animals Frightened all ran away. Not knowing ?_____________ (not know) her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her.
②Because I hadn’t received his letter, I decided to call him up. Not having received =___________________ (not receive) his letter, I decided to call him up. ?_________________ (never be) to the city, he soon got Having never been lost.
C.方式/伴随状语: weeping sighing ①She watched the film, ________ (weep ) and _______ (sigh). surrounded ②The teacher stood there, __________ (surround) by a lot of students. D.作条件状语： ①If I were given another chance, I would have done the job far better. Given = ______ another chance, I would have done the job far better. Playing ②(If) ________ (play) all day, you will waste your valuable time.
E.作结果状语：(意料中的结果) shooting ① The hunters fired, _________(shoot) one of the wolves. causing ②The bus was held up by the snowstorm, thus _________ (cause) the delay. 区别: 不定式表示意外的结果 He hurried to the station, only ________ (find) the train to find had left. F.作让步状语： ①Though it heavily rained heavily, it cleared up very soon. Raining heavily = ________________, it cleared up very soon. ②Though _____ (tell) of the danger, he still risked his life told to save the boy.
分词作状语时, 需注意: 主句的主语 A.分词短语作状语时,它的逻辑主语通常应是__________ Seen ________ (see) from the hill, the city is beautiful. ________ (see) from the hill, you can see the whole city. Seeing B.分词短语的位置: 一般来说,时间,原因,条件,让步等分词短语多放在句首; 而表结果,伴随的分词短语放在句尾. 原因 Finding the door locked, Tom went home. ( _____ ) 结果 Tom went home, finding the door locked. （____）
C 1._____ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin. _____ to sunlight for too much time, your skin will be A harmed. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed A 2. _____ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered
3. The research is so designed that once _____ D nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun D 4. Finding her car stolen, _____. A. a policeman was asked to help B. the area was searching thoroughly C. it was looked for everywhere D. she hurried to a policeman for help C 5. The idea for the new plan came to his mind, to his experiment in the lab. A．while devoting B．while devoting himself C．while he was devoted D．while devoted
形成性检测 1. 改写下列句子,其划线部分应改为分词短语(C级) 1.Look round when you cross the street. when crossing the street
2. When she heard the news, she burst into laughter. When hearing the news 3. As she was still rather weak, she could not stay up for too long. Being rather weak 4.Gentlemen always shake hands when they are introduced to each other. when introduced to each other 5.A cold rain was falling. It was mixed with snow. , mixed with snow
6.While we were walking in the street, we met some friends of ours. 7.The old man walked slowly. He was supported by his little grandson. 8.The ground which is covered with white snow looks very beautiful.
9.There is a tall tree which covers the entrance to the cave. covering
10.The worker wrote to the police and disclosed who stole disclosing the money.
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