JOHH SHOW DEFEATS “KING CHOLERA” John Snow was a famous doctor in London - so expert, indeed, 本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. But he 2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（
大弟是也） became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. This was the deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. John Snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found. He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals. From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died. John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence. So when another outbreak hit London in 1854, he was ready to begin his enquiry. As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information. In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in ten days. He was determined to find out why. First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had lived. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Street (especially numbers 16, 37, 38 and 40). He also noticed that some houses (such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street) had had no deaths. He had not foreseen this, so he made further investigations. He discovered that these people worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street. They had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the pump. It seemed that the water was to blame. Next, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets. He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. He immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the pump so that it could not be used. Soon afterwards the disease slowed down. He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas. In another part of London, he found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. A woman, who had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water from the pump so much that she had it delivered to her house every day. Both she and her daughter died of cholera after drinking the water. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more. Finally "King Cholera" was defeated.
约翰.斯诺击败“霍乱王” 约翰?斯洛是伦敦一位著名的医生—— 他的确医术精湛，因而成为照料维多利亚女王 的私人医生。但他一想到要帮助那些得了霍乱 的普通百姓时，他就感到很振奋。霍乱在当时 是最致命的疾病，人们既不知道它的病源，也 不了解它的治疗方法。每次霍乱暴发时，就有 大批惊恐的老百姓死去。 约翰?斯洛想面对这个 挑战，解决这个问题。他知道，在找到病源之 前，霍乱疫情是无法控制的。 斯洛对霍乱致人死地的两种推测都很感兴 趣。一种看法是霍乱病毒在空气中繁殖着，像 一股危险的气体到处漂浮，直到找到病毒的受 害者为止。第二种看法是人们在吃饭的时候把 这种病毒引入体内的。病从胃里发作而迅速殃 及全身，患者就会很快地死去。 斯洛推测第二种说法是正确的，但他需要证 据。 因此， 1854 年伦敦再次暴发霍乱的时候， 在 约翰?斯洛着手准备对此进行调研。 当霍乱在贫 民区迅速蔓延的时候， 约翰?斯洛就开始收集资 料。他发现特别在两条街道上霍乱流行的很严 重， 10 天之内就死去了 500 多人。 在 他决心要 查明其原因。 首先，他在一张地图上标明了所有死者住过 的地方。这提供了一条说明霍乱起因的很有价 值的线索。 许多死者是住在宽街的水泵附近 （特 别是这条街上 16、37、38、40 号） 。他发现有 些住宅（如宽街上 20 号和 21 号以及剑桥街上 的 8 号和 9 号）却无人死亡。他以前没预料到 这种情况，所有他决定深入调查。他发现，这 些人都在剑桥街 7 号的酒馆里打工，而酒馆为 他们免费提供啤酒喝，因此他们没有喝从宽街 水泵抽上来的水。看来水是罪魁祸首。 接下来， 约翰?斯洛调查了这两条街的水源情 况。他发现，水是从河里来的，而河水被伦敦 排出的脏水污染了。他马上叫宽街上惊慌失措 的老百姓拆掉水泵的把手。这样，水泵就用不 成了。不久，疫情就开始得到缓解。他证明了， 他证明了霍乱是由病菌而不是由气团传播的。 在伦敦的另一个地区，他从两个与宽街暴发 的霍乱有关联的死亡病例中发现了有力的证 据。有一位妇女是从宽街搬过来的，她特别喜 欢那里的水，每天都要派人从水泵打水运到家 里来。她和她的女儿喝了这种水，都得了霍乱 而死去。 有了这个特别的证据，约翰?斯洛就能 够肯定地宣布， 这种被污染了的水携带着病菌。 为了防止这种情况的再度发生， 约翰?斯洛建 议所有水源都要经过检测。自来水公司也接到 指令，不能再让人们接触被污染的水了。 最终， “霍乱王”被击败了。
COPERNICUS’ REVOLUTIONRRY THEORY Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused. 本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical 2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（大弟是也） calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. They believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system. The problem arose because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others. This was very strange if the earth was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round it. Copernicus had thought long and hard about these problems and tried to find an answer. He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge to explain them. But only his new theory could do that. So between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete. In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends. The changes he made to the old theory were revolutionary. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas, but Copernicus was cautious. He did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church, so he only published it as he lay dying in 1543. Certainly he was right to be careful. The Christian Church rejected his theory, saying it was against God's idea and people who supported it would be attacked. Yet Copernicus' theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the universe are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity, which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe. Copernicus showed this was obviously wrong. Now people can see that there is a direct link between his theory and the work of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking.
哥白尼的革命性理论 尼古拉?哥白尼被吓得心烦意乱的。 虽然他曾 经试着不去理睬那些数字，然而他所有的数学 计算都得出了一个相同的结论：地球不是太阳 系的中心。只有当你把太阳放在中心位置上， 天空中其他行星的运动才能说得清楚。他的这 个理论可不能告诉任何人，因为即使他只暗示 有这种想法，他都会受到强大的基督教会势力 的惩罚。教会认为世界是上帝创造的，正因为 如此，地球就具有特殊的意义，它必定要成为 太阳系的中心。 这样，问题就来了，因为天文学家以前发现 过，天上有些行星停顿下来，往后移动，然后 再成环状向前移动，而其他行星看上去有时亮 些，有时又不怎么亮。如果地球是太阳系的中 心，而所有行星环绕着地球转的话，那么这种 现象就很奇怪了。 哥白尼对这些问题曾经苦苦思索过很久，试 图找出问题的答案。他曾经收集过观察星球的 数据，并且利用他的全部数学知识来解释这些 数据。但是只有他的新理论才能作出解释。于 是，他在 1510 至 1514 年期间从事这项研究， 逐步修改他的理论，直到他感到完善时为止。 1514 年，他把他的新理论私下里给他的朋友 们看。他对旧理论的修改是具有革命性的。他 把太阳固定在太阳系的中心位置上，而行星则 围绕着太阳转，只有月球仍然绕着地球转。他 还提出地球在围绕太阳转的同时，它本身还自 转，这样就说明了行星运动的变化情况以及星 球亮度问题。他的朋友都热情地鼓励他把他的 想法公之于世，而他却小心谨慎，他不想遭到 基督教会的攻击， 所以他直到 1543 年临终之前 才公布了这一观点。 当然，他小心谨慎是对的。基督教会拒绝接 受他的理论，说这种理论违背了上帝的旨意， 而支持这种理论的人都会受到打击。然而哥白 尼的理论却是我们宇宙观赖以建立的基础。他 的理论还改变了基督教对地心引力的看法，他 们认为物体往地球上掉落是因为上帝创造了地 球，而地球正是宇宙的中心。哥白尼表明这是 明显错误的。如今人们可以看到，他的这些想 法与艾萨克?牛顿、阿尔伯特?爱因斯坦以及斯 蒂芬?霍金等人的研究都有着直接的联系。
PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY People may wonder why different words are used to describe 本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 these four countries: 始发于百度文库（大弟是也） England, Wales, Scotland and Northern 2013/8/7 Ireland. You can clarify this question if you study British history. First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to "Great Britain". Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well. Finally the English government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way. However, the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government. So only Northern Ireland joined with England, Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack. To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg, the currency and international relations), but they still have very different institutions. For example, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland have different educational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competitions like the World Cup! England is the largest of the four countries, and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones. The zone nearest France is called the South of England, the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland is known as the North. You find most of the population settled in the south, but most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the North of England. Although, nationwide, these cities are not as large as those in China, they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two! It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors. For historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the Romans. There you will find out more about British history and culture. The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums, art collections, theatres, parks and buildings. It is the centre of national government and its administration. It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the first century AD, the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Saxons in the 1060s and the oldest castle constructed by later Norman rulers in 1066. There has been four sets of invaders of England. The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads. The second, the Anglo-Saxons, left their language and their government. The third, the Vikings, influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England, and the fourth, the Normans, left castles and introduced new words for food. If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all these invaders. You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile.
地理之谜 人们也许觉得奇怪，为什么用来描述英格兰、威 尔士、 苏格兰和北爱尔兰这四个国家的词语不太一 样。 但如果你学过英国历史， 就能弄清楚这个问题。 首先是英格兰。威尔士于 13 世纪同英格兰联合 了起来。 如今只要有人提起英格兰， 你就会发现威 尔士总是包括在内的。接着，英格兰、威尔士同苏 格兰于 17 世纪联合了起来，名字就改成了“大不 列颠” 。令人庆幸的是，当苏格兰的詹姆斯国王成 为英格兰和威尔士的国王时， 这三个国家和平地实 现了联合。最后，英国政府打算于 20 世纪初把爱 尔兰也同另外三个国家和平联合起来以形成联合 王国。然而，爱尔兰的南部却不愿组建联合王国， 它分离出去， 并建立了自己的政府。 因此只有北爱 尔兰同英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰联合起来，而组成 了联合王国， 这一点从新的联合王国国旗上就可以 看得出来。 值得赞扬的是，这四个国家的确在一些方面共同 合作， 例如在货币和国际关系方面； 但是有些制度 仍然区别很大。例如，北爱尔兰、英格兰和苏格兰 在教育体制和立法体制上都存在着差异。 在参加像 世界杯之类的比赛时，它们有着各自的足球队。 在这四个国家中，英格兰是最大的。为了方便起 见， 它大致可以划分为三个地区。 最靠近法国的那 个地区叫做英格兰南部，中部地区叫做英格兰中 部， 最靠近苏格兰的那个地区叫做英格兰北部。 你 可以看到英国的大部分人口聚居在南部， 而多数大 工业城市都位于中部和北部。 尽管， 英国任何一个 城市都不像中国的城市那样大， 但是他们都有着自 己的享有威名的足球队，有的城市甚至还有两个 队。很遗憾，这些建于 19 世纪的工业城市对游客 并没有吸引力。要找历史性建筑你得去更古老的、 比较小些的由古罗马人建造的城镇。 在那儿你才可 能找到更多的有关英国历史和文化的东西。 最具历史意义的宝地是伦敦。那儿有博物馆，有 艺术珍品、剧院、公园和各种建筑物。它是全国的 政治中心。 它有公元一世纪由罗马人建造的最古老 的港口，有由盎格鲁——撒克逊人始建于 11 世纪 60 年代的最古老的建筑， 还有公元 1066 年由后来 的诺曼人统治者建造的最古老的城堡。 曾经有四批 侵略者到过英国。 第一批入侵者是古罗马人， 留下 了他们的城镇和道路。接着是盎格鲁——撒克逊 人， 留下了他们的语言和政体。 第三是斯堪的纳维 亚人，他们对词汇和北部的地名造成了一定影响； 第四是诺曼人， 他们留下了城堡和食物名称的新词 语。 如果你到英国乡间去看看，你就会找到所有这些 入侵者的痕迹。 如果想使你的英国之旅不虚此行又 有意义，你就必须留心观察。
SIGHTSEEING IN LONDON Worried about the time available, Zhang Pingyu had made 本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 a list of the sites she wanted to see in London. Her first delight 2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（大弟是也） was going to the Tower. It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066. Fancy! This solid stone, square tower had remained standing for one thousand years.Although the buildings had expanded around it, it remained part of a royal palace and prison combined. To her great surprise, Zhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers who, on special occasions, still wore the four-hundred-year-old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth I. There followed St Paul's Cathedral built after the terrible fire of London in 1666. It looked splendid when first built! Westminster Abbey, too, was very interesting. It contained statues in memory of dead poets and writers, such as Shakespeare. Then just as she came out of the abbey, Pingyu heard the famous sound of the clock, Big Ben, ringing out the hour. She finished the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palace, the Queen's house in London. Oh, she had so much to tell her friends! The second day the girl visited Greenwich and saw its old ships and famous clock that sets the world time. What interested her most was the longitude line. It is an imaginary line dividing the eastern and western halves of the world and is very useful for navigation. It passes through Greenwich, so Pingyu had a photo taken standing on either side of the line. The last day she visited Karl Marx's statue in Highgate Cemetery. It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London. Not only that, but he had worked in the famous reading room of the Library of the British Museum. Sadly the library had moved from its original place into another building and the old reading room was gone. But she was thrilled by so many wonderful treasures from different cultures displayed in the museum. When she saw many visitors enjoying looking at the beautiful old Chinese pots and other objects on show, she felt very proud of her country.
The next day Pingyu was leaving London for Windsor Castle. "Perhaps I will see the Queen?" she wondered as she fell asleep.
伦敦观光记 由于担心时间不够，张萍玉早就把她想 要在伦敦参观的地点列了一张单子。她最 先想参观的地方是伦敦塔，它是很久以前 由入侵的诺曼人在公元 1066 年修建的。真 是太棒了！这个坚实的用石头砌的方形塔 已经在那屹立一千年了。尽管在塔的四周 扩建了一些建筑，但它仍然是皇宫和监狱 联合体的一个组成部分。让张萍玉很惊讶 的是，她发现女王的珠宝由皇家特别卫士 守护着，而这些卫士在一些特殊的日子仍 然穿着 400 年前伊丽莎白一世女王时代的 制服。 接着参观的是圣保罗大教堂，它是公元 1666 年伦敦大火以后建造的，刚建成的时 候，它看起来真是金碧辉煌。威斯敏斯特 大教堂也是很有意思的地方，里面珍藏着 一些已故诗人和作家的雕像，例如莎士比 亚的雕像。正当萍玉走出大教堂的时候， 她听到了著名的大本钟整点敲响的钟声。 她参观了女王伦敦住所白金汉宫的外景， 以此结束了一天的观光。啊，她要同朋友 们讲的实在太多了！ 第二天，萍玉姑娘参观了格林尼治天文 台，看到了古老的轮船和那座著名的为时 间定时的时钟。她最感兴趣的是那条通过 天文台的经线。这是一条假想的线，它把 世界分成东西两半球，从而有利于航海。 这条线穿过格林尼治，萍玉就跨着这条线 拍了一张照片。 最后一天，她参观了伦敦海洛特公墓里 的卡尔马克思的雕像。这似乎是一件怪事： 这位发展了共产主义的人竟然在伦敦生活 过，并且在伦敦去世。不仅如此，他还在 大英博物馆著名的图书阅览室工作过。遗 憾的是，这个图书馆已经从原来的地方搬 到另一座大楼里去了，而原来的阅览室也 没有了。但是她感到最为震惊的却是博物 馆里展出的那么多来自不同文化的奇妙宝 物。当萍玉看到那么多参观者用欣赏的目 光注视着古老漂亮的中国陶瓷和其他展品 时，心里充满了对祖国的自豪感。 再过一天，萍玉就要离开伦敦去温莎城 堡了。她边睡觉边想： “也许我能见到女王 呢？”
FIRST IMPRESSIONS Spacemall: liqiang299A@GreatAdventureSpaceStation.com 本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 15/11/3008 (Earthtime) 2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（大弟是也） Dear Mum and Dad, I still cannot believe that I am taking up this prize that I won last year. I have to remind myself constantly that I am really in AD 3008. Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. As a result, I suffered from “Time lag”. This is similar to the “jet lag” you get from flying, but it seems you keep getting flashbacks from your previous time period. So I was very nervous and uncertain at first. However, my friend and guide, Wang Ping, was very understanding and gave me some green tablets which helped a lot. Well-known for their expertise, his parents' company, called "Future Tours", transported me safely into the future in a time capsule. I can still remember the moment when the space stewardess called us all to the capsule and we climbed in through a small opening. The seats were comfortable and after a calming drink, we felt sleepy and closed our eyes. The capsule began swinging gently sideways as we lay relaxed and dreaming. A few minutes later, the journey was completed and we had arrived. I was still on the earth but one thousand years in the future. What would I find? At first my new surroundings were difficult to tolerate. The air seemed thin, as though its combination of gases had little oxygen left. Hit by a lack of fresh air, my head ached. Just as I tried to make the necessary adjustment to this new situation, Wang Ping appeared. "Put on this mask," he advised. "It'll make you feel much better." He handed it to me and immediately hurried me through to a small room nearby for a rest. I felt better in no time. Soon I was back on my feet again and following him to collect a hovering carriage driven by computer. These carriages float above the ground and by bending or pressing down in your seat, you can move swiftly. Wang Ping fastened my safety belt and showed me how to use it. Soon I could fly as fast as him. However, I lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached what looked like a large market because of too many carriages flying by in all directions. He was swept up into the centre of them. Just at that moment I had a "time lag" flashback and saw the area again as it had been in the year AD 2008. I realized that I had been transported into the future of what was still my hometown! Then I caught sight of Wang Ping again and flew after him. Arriving at a strange-looking house, he showed me into a large, bright clean room. It had a green wall, a brown floor and soft lighting. Suddenly the wall moved - it was made of trees! I found later that their leaves provided the room with much-needed oxygen. Then Wang Ping flashed a switch on a computer screen, and a table and some chairs rose from under the floor as if by magic. "Why not sit down and eat a little?" he said. "You may find this difficult as it is your first time travel trip. Just relax, since there is nothing planned on the timetable today. Tomorrow you'll be ready for some visits." Having said this, he spread some food on the table, and produced a bed from the floor. After he left, I had a brief meal and a hot bath. Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep. More news later from your loving son, Li Qiang
太 空 邮 件 ： liqiang299A@GreatAdventureSpaceSation.com
15/11/3008(地球时间) 亲爱的爸爸妈妈： 我现在仍然无法相信我是在接受去年获得的这个奖 励。我得不断提醒自己，我真的已经进入到公元 3008 年了。因为担心这次旅行，头几天我心里总是不踏实， 结果我得了时间滞后症。这就与你乘坐飞机会产生时差 反应相似，所不同的是，在你的脑子里似乎会不断闪现 以前的时光。因此，我一开始就感到神经过敏和心神不 定。但是我的朋友兼导游王平很细心体贴，给了我几粒 绿色药片，倒是挺起作用的。他父母的公司叫做“未来 之旅” ，以其技术高超而闻名。他们把我装在一个时间 舱里，平安地把我送入了未来。 我仍旧记得我们被太空服务员一起叫到时间舱，爬上 去进入一个小门。座位是很舒适的，喝了点镇静剂后， 我们的眼睛就闭上了，感到昏昏欲睡似的。时间舱在轻 轻左右摇晃，我们放松地躺在那里做梦。几分钟以后， 旅程结束，我们就到了。我仍然在地球上，但是进入到 了未来的一千年。我们会看到什么呢？ 一开始新的环境让我很难忍受。空气似乎很稀薄，好 像在混合的气体中剩下的氧气很少。由于缺乏新鲜空 气，我感到头痛。正当我想努力调整适应新环境时，王 平出现了。他告诉我， “把这个面罩戴上。它会使你感 觉好得多。 ”他把面罩递给我，敦促我马上走进附近的 一个小房间，叫我休息。我立刻就感到舒服些了。没过 多久，我就再次站立起来，跟着他去领取了一台由电脑 驱动的气垫车。这些气垫车是在地面上方漂浮着的，只 要在座位上把操纵杆打弯或压下，你就可以迅速地移 动。王平系紧了我的安全带，教我怎样使用它。不久， 我就可以飞得跟王平一样快了。可是，当我们到达一个 看上去像大市场的地方时，由于太多车子朝四面八方飞 奔，我看不见王平了。他被卷入到这群车队里去了。就 在这个时候我得到一次“时间滞后”的闪回，这样我就 再次看到了似乎是公元 2008 年的那个地区。我这才懂 得我被送到了未来，但却仍然在自己的家乡。就在这个 时候，我又见到了王平，于是又跟在他后面飞去。 到了一幢看上去很奇怪的房子里，他把我带到一个明 亮而洁净的大房间。墙是绿色的，地板是棕色的，灯光 很柔和。突然墙壁移动了——原来是树形成的！后来我 才发现，就是这些树的叶子为这栋房屋提供了最急需的 氧气。然后王平在电脑屏幕上的开关上闪了一下，于是 一张桌子和几把椅子就像变魔术那样从地板下面升了 起来。 “怎么不坐下来吃些东西呢？”他说道， “你第一 次作这样的时间旅行，可能会感到有些困难。你可以好 好休息一下。今天没有任何出行计划。明天你还要准备 参观几个地方。 ”说完这些，他把食物摆在桌子上，又 从地板下取出一张床来。他离开后，我简单吃了饭，洗 了个热水澡。实在累坏了，我溜上床很快就睡着了。 以后再谈吧！ 你的儿子 李强
I HAVE SEEN AMAZING THINGS My first visit was to a space station considered the most 本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 modem in space. Described as an enormous round plate, it spins slowly in space2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（大弟是也） to imitate the pull of the earth's gravity. Inside was an exhibition of the most up-to-date inventions of the 31 st century. A guide (G) showed us around along a moveable path. G: Good morning to all our visitors from 2008. First we're going to examine one of the latest forms of communication among our space citizens. No more typists working on a typewriter or computer! No more postage or postcodes! Messages can now be sent using a "thoughtpad". You place the metal band over your head, clear your mind, press the sending button, think your message and the next instant it's sent. It's stored on the "thoughtpad" of the receiver. It's quick, efficient and environmentally friendly. The only limitation is if the user does not think his or her message clearly, an unclear message may be sent. But we cannot blame the tools for the faults of the user, can we? During the explanation I looked at the pair of small objects called "thoughtpads" on a table. They just looked like metal ribbons. So ordinary but so powerful! While I was observing them, the path moved us on. G: And now ladies and gentlemen, we are in the "environment area". People used to collect waste in dustbins. Then the rubbish was sent to be buried or burned, am I fight? (We nodded.) Well, now there's a system where the waste is disposed of using the principles of ecology. A giant machine, always greedy for more, swallows all the waste available. The rubbish is turned into several grades of useful material, such as "fertilizer" for the fields and "soil" for deserts. Nothing is wasted, and everything, even plastic bags, is recycled. A great idea, isn't' it? I stared at the moving model of the waste machine, absorbed by its efficiency. But again we moved on. G: Our third stop shows the changes that have happened to work practices. Manufacturing no longer takes place on the earth but on space stations like this one. A group of engineers programme robots to perform tasks in space. The robots produce goods such as drugs, clothes, furniture, hovering carriages, etc. There is no waste, no pollution and no environmental damage! However, the companies have to train their representatives to live and work in space settlements. They have to monitor the robots and the production. When the goods are ready they're transported by industrial spaceship back to earth. My mind began to wander. What job would I do? My motivation increased as I thought of the wonderful world of the future.
我看到了奇妙的东西 我首先参观的是一个太空站，这个站被认为是 太空中最现代化的地方。太空站像一个巨大的圆 盘，在太空中缓缓的旋转，以仿照出地球重心的 引力。太空站里展出了 31 世纪一些最前沿的发 明。 有个导游带领我们站在一条移动的运送带上， 到各处参观。 导游： 2008 年来访的朋友们， 从 早上好！ 首先， 我们要查看一种我们太空居民使用的最新的通讯 方式。再也不需要打字员在打字机或电脑上工作 了！再也不需要邮费和邮政编码了！现在用一种 “思想仪”就可以传递信息。你把金属带放在头 上，整理思路，按下发送键，集中精神想着你要 发送的信息，片刻功夫信息就发送出去了。这个 信息会储存在接受者的“思想仪”里。它快捷有 效，而且环保。唯一的缺点是，如果使用者不能 想清楚要传递的信息，发送出去的信息可能是模 糊不清的。但我们不能因为使用者的使用不当而 责备仪器，是不是？ 在导游解说的时候，我观看着桌上这副被称为 “思想仪”的小东西。它们看上去像金属带子。 那么普通，但却那么神通广大！正当我还在观察 时，运送带向前移动了。 导游：女士们先生们，现在我们到了“环保地 带” 。以前人们习惯用垃圾箱收集废弃物，然后这 些垃圾被送走埋掉或烧掉，我说的对吧？（我们 都点头。 ）可现在我们有一种装置，能利用生态学 原理来处理掉废弃物。一架巨大的机器，能把所 有能获得的废弃物都吞进去， 而且总是贪得无厌。 然后垃圾被分解成了几种有用的物质，如庄稼地 的“肥料”和沙漠中的“土壤” 。什么都不浪费， 所有的东西，哪怕是塑料袋也被回收利用了。伟 大的创意，对不对？ 我注视着缓缓移动的垃圾分解机器模型，为它 的成效所吸引。但是，我们又开始向前移动了。 导游：第三站要展示给我们的是工作实践方面 的一些变化。批量生产不再在地球上进行，而是 转移到了像这样的太空站里。在太空里，一组工 程师给机器人设计了程序让它们完成工作。机器 人生产像药品、衣服、家具和气垫车等东西。没 有废弃物、没有污染，也没有环境破坏。但是， 这些公司必须培训他们的代表能在太空中生活和 工作。他们必须在此监控机器人和生产过程。一 旦货物齐备，就用工用太空船运送到地球。 我的思绪开始漫游。我能从事什么工作呢？当 我想到这个奇妙的未来世界时，我兴趣倍增、干 劲十足
MY FIRST WORK ASSIGNMENT "Unforgettable", says new journalist
我的第一项工作任务 “难以忘怀， ”新闻记者说 周阳永远不会忘记他在一家畅销英文报纸的第一项工作 任务。他同新上司胡欣的讨论对他的记者生涯必将产生强烈 的影响。 胡：欢迎你，非常高兴你来参加我们的工作，你来这里首 先就是当助理记者。有什么问题吗？ 周：我可以马上去采访吗？ 胡： （笑）真是勇气可嘉！不过恐怕这不太合乎常规，还 是等到你比较有经验以后吧。我们先要派你给有经验的记者 作助理。以后，你才能独自去进行新闻采访并提交自己的新 闻稿。 周：太好了！我需要随身带些什么？我已经带了笔记本和 照相机。 胡：不需要照相机！你们将带上一名专业摄影师去拍照。 你将发现你的同事们会热情地帮助你。如果你对摄影感兴 趣，以后你可以集中精力去钻研。 周：谢谢你。对摄影我不仅只是感兴趣，在大学里我还专 修过业余摄影课来更新我的技术。 胡：那很好啊。 周：我出去采访时还需要记住些什么事呢？ 胡：你需要有好奇心。你只有提出了许多不同的问题之后 才有可能获得你需要知道的信息。我们说，一个好的记者必 须有一个对新闻非常敏感的“嗅觉“。那就是说，在人们没 有说出全部真相时，你必须能够判断出，并努力发现真理。 记者必须通过调查研究，来使自己了解到被遗漏的那部分情 况。 周：我应该注意些什么呢？ 胡：下面是我的行为准则：不要延误任务规定的期限，不 可对人粗鲁，不可自己说得太多，务必认真倾听被采访人回 答问题。 周：为什么听人家讲话这样重要呢？ 胡：你得听清楚事实的细节。同时，你还要根据被采访人 所说的话准备提出下一个问题。 周：在我记笔记的同时，怎么能仔细倾听对方的答话呢？ 胡：这就是我们职业的诀窍了。如果被采访人允许，你可 以使用录音机，录下全部事实。如果有人提出质疑，这也有 用，你就有证据来支持自己的报道了。 周：我明白了！你有没有过这样的情况：别人控告你的记 者，说他的报道失实？ 胡：有的。不过这是很久以前的事了。事情是这样的：一 位足球运动员被指挥受贿， 故意不进球， 好让对方球队赢球。 我们去采访了他。他否认收了钱，但我们对此表示怀疑。于 是，我们安排这名球员和被认为行贿的人一起接受采访，而 当我们看到他们在一起时，我们就从足球运动员的体态语上 猜到他没有说真话。 我们写了一篇文章， 暗示足球队员有罪。 这事有些为难，因为如果我们错了，他就可以向我们索要赔 偿。他竭力阻止我们发表这篇文章，但后来证实我们是正确 的。 周：哇！那才是真正的独家新闻哩！我期盼着即将到来的 首次任务。说不定我也会搞到独家新闻呢！ 胡：也许你会的，谁知道呢。
popular English newspaper. His discussion with his new boss, Hu Xin (HX), was to strongly influence his life as a journalist. HX: ZY: HX: Welcome. We're delighted you're coming to work with us. Your first Can I go out on a story immediately? (laughing) That' s admirable, but I' m afraid it would be unusual ! Wait to an job here will be an assistant journalist. Do you have any questions?
本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 Never will Zhou Yang (ZY) forget his first assignment at the office of a 2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（大弟是也）
till you' re more experienced. First we'll put you as an assistant yourself. ZY: HX:
experienced journalist. Later you can cover a story and submit the article Wonderful. What do I need to take with me? I already have a No need for a camera. You'll have a professional photographer with
notebook and camera. you to take photographs. You'll find your colleagues very eager to assist you, so you may be able to concentrate on photography later if you' re interested. ZY: HX: ZY: HX: Thank you. Not only am I interested in photography, but I took an my skills. Good. What do I need to remember when I go out to cover a story? You need to be curious. Only if you ask many different questions will amateur course at university to update
you acquire all the information you need to know. We say a good journalist must have a good "nose" for a story. That means you must be able to assess when people are not telling the whole troth and then try to discover it. They must use research to inform themselves of the missing parts of the story. ZY: HX: What should I keep in mind? Here comes my list of dos and don'ts: don't miss your deadline,
don't be rode, don't talk too much, but make sure you listen to the interviewee carefully. ZY: HX: ZY: HX: Why is listening so important? Well, you have to listen for detailed facts. Meanwhile you have to But how can I listen carefully while taking notes? This is a trick of the trade, If the interviewee agrees, you can use a
prepare the next question depending on what the person says.
recorder to get the facts straight. It's also useful if a person wants to challenge you. You have the evidence to support your story. ZY: HX: I see! Have you ever had a case where someone accused your Yes, but it was a long time ago. This is how the story goes. A journalists of getting the wrong end of the stick? footballer was accused of taking money for deliberately not scoring goals so as to let the other team win. We went to interview him. He denied taking money but we were sceptical. So we arranged an interview between the footballer and the man supposed to bribe him. When we saw them together we guessed from the footballer's body language that he was not telling the truth. So we wrote an article suggesting he was guilty. It was a dilemma because the footballer could have demanded damages if we were wrong. He tried to stop us publishing it but later we were proved right. ZY: HX: Wow! That was a real "scoop". I'm looking forward to my first Perhaps you will. You never know. assignment now. Perhaps I'll get a scoop too!
GETTING THE "SCOOP" "Quick," said the editor. "Get that story ready. We need it in 本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 this edition to be ahead of the other newspapers. This is a 2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（大弟是也） scoop." Zhou Yang had just come back into the office after an interview with a famous film star. "Did he really do that?" asked someone from the International News Department. "Yes, I' m afraid he did," Zhou Yang answered. He set to work. His first task was to write his story, but he had to do it carefully. Although he realized the man had been lying, Zhou Yang knew he must not accuse him directly. He would have to be accurate. Concise too! He knew how to do that. Months of training had taught him to write with no wasted words or phrases. He sat down at his computer and began to work. The first person who saw his article was a senior editor from his department. He checked the evidence, read the article and passed it on to the copy-editor. She began to edit the piece and design the main headline and smaller heading. “This will look very good on the page,” she said. "Where is a good picture of this man?" Then as the article was going to be written in English Zhou Yang also took a copy to the native speaker employed by the newspaper to polish the style. She was also very happy with Zhou Yang's story. "You are really able to write a good front page article," she said. Zhou Yang smiled with happiness. Last of all, the chief editor read it and approved it. "Well done," he said to Zhou Yang. "But please show me your evidence so we're sure we've got our facts straight.” “I’ll bring it to you immediately," said Zhou Yang excitedly. The news desk editor took the story and began to work on all the stories and photos until all the pages were set. All the information was then ready to be processed into film negatives. This was the first stage of the printing process. They needed four negatives, as several colours were going to be used on the story. Each of the main colours had one negative sheet and when they were combined they made a coloured page for the newspaper. After one last check the page was ready to be printed. Zhou Yang waited excitedly for the first copies to be ready. "Wait 611 tonight," his friend whispered. "I expect there will be something about this on the television news. A real scoop!"
抢发独家新闻 周阳刚刚采访了一位著名影星回到办公 室，编辑就说： “快点把那篇报道准备好， 我们这一版就要用，这样我们就抢在其他 报纸的前面了，这就是抢先的独家新闻。 “国际新闻编辑部有人提出问题： “他真的 干了那种事吗？”周阳回答说： “是的，恐 怕是这样的。 ”接着他便着手准备报道了。 他的第一件事就是写报道稿，他必须认 认真真地写。尽管他认为那个人一直在说 谎话，但周阳懂得，他决不能直接指责那 个人。他必须做到准确无误，还要简明扼 要。他知道该如何做。经过几个月的培训， 他已经学会了写文章，全然没有废话。他 在电脑前坐下就开始工作了。 第一个看到这篇文章的人的他们部里的 一位编审。他核查了文中的证据，阅读了 整篇报道，然后递给技术编辑。她就开始 了编辑工作，设计了主标题和副标题。她 说： “在版面上这会很好看。这个人的照片 该放在哪儿好呢？”因为这篇文章要用英 文来写，所有周阳拿了一份稿子给一位母 语为英语的外国雇员，请她对语言风格进 行润饰。这位雇员对周阳的报道也很满意。 她评价说： “你确实能写很好的头版新闻 了。 ”周阳高兴地笑了。最后主编审读了这 篇稿子， 并且批准发表了。 他对周阳说： “文 章写得很好，不过你还得拿出证据来表明 事实确凿。 周阳激动地说： ” “我马上拿来。 ” 新闻文字编辑取走这篇报道，开始对所 有的报道和图片进行编排，直至把各版面 全部编定。此后，所有的报道材料就要被 制成胶片。这是印制过程的第一道工序。 由于这篇报道要用好几种颜色，因此需要 四张胶片。每一种主色要用一张底片，四 张底片结合起来就制成一张报纸的彩页。 经过最后一次校对后，这个版面就可以准 备印制了。周阳兴奋地等待着第一批报纸 的印出。 “要等到今天晚上。 ”他的朋友轻 声地告诉他说。 “我期望电视新闻会对这件 事作一点报道。真是独家新闻了！ ”
FIRST AID FOR BURNS The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ. You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against disease, poisons and the sun's harmful rays. The functions of your skin are also very
烧伤的急救 皮肤是身体必不可少的部分，也是身体的最大器官。皮肤有三层， 它们是防病、防毒、抵御太阳有害光线侵害的一道屏障。皮肤的功能 十分复杂。皮肤可以保暖或御寒，保持体内水分。正是皮肤使你感到 冷热、疼痛，它还使你有触觉。因此，你可以想象到，如果你的皮肤 烧伤了，就可能非常严重。在治疗烧伤的过程中，紧急处理是非常重 要的第一步。 烧伤的原因： 你可能由于各种原因而烧伤：灼热的液体、水蒸气、火、辐射（由 于靠近高温或大火） 、阳光、电和化学物品。 烧伤的种类： 烧伤有三类。根据皮肤烧伤的层次分为一度烧伤、二度烧伤和三度 烧伤。 一度烧伤：只损伤皮层的最上层。这些烧伤并不严重，应当在一两 天内就有好转。例如轻度的晒伤，由于短暂接触热锅、火炉或熨斗而 导致的烫伤。 二度烧伤：既损伤了皮肤的最上层，又损伤了皮质的第二层。这些 烧伤属于严重的烧伤，需几星期才能痊愈。例如严重的晒伤和灼热的 液体所造成的烧伤。 三度烧伤：所有三层皮质以及皮下的组织和器官都受到损害。例如 由电击引起的烧伤，因衣服起火引起的烧伤，或因汽油起火引起的烧 伤。这些烧伤都属于非常严重的烧伤，受伤者必须立即送往医院。 烧伤的特性： 一度烧伤： 微痛 受压时变白 二度烧伤： 粗糙、发红、肿胀 起水泡 表层渗液 极其疼痛 三度烧伤： 黑、白和焦炭色相间 干燥、发红、微肿
本文档由@黄绪扬 整理出品 complex: it keeps you warm or始发于百度文库（大弟是也） too much water; it is where you 2013/8/7 cool; it prevents your body from losing
burned it can be very serious. First aid is a very important first step in the treatment of bums. Causes of burns You can get burned by a variety of things: hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation (by being close to high heat or fire, etc), the sun, electricity or chemicals. Types of burns There are three types of burns. Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on which layers of the skin are burned. ◎ First degree burns
feel cold, heat or pain and it gives you your sense of touch. So as you can imagine, if your skin gets
These affect only the top layer of the skin. These burns are not serious and
should feel better within a day or two. Examples include mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan, stove or iron for a mordent. ◎ Second degree burns ◎ Third degree burns These affect both the top and the second layer of the skin. These bums are These affect all three layers of the skin and any tissue and organs under the serious and take a few weeks to heal. Examples include severe sunburn and bums caused by hot liquids. skin. Examples include burns caused by electric shocks, burning clothes, or severe petrol fires. These burns cause very severe injuries and the victim must go to hospital at once. Characteristics of burns First degree burns ◎ dry, red and mildly swollen ◎ mildly painful ◎ turn white when pressed Second degree burns ◎ rough, red and swollen ◎ blisters ◎ watery surface ◎ extremely painful Third degree burns ◎ black and white and charred ◎ swollen; often tissue under them can be seen ◎ little or no pain if nerves are damaged; may be pain around edge of injured area. First aid treatment 1 2 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn. Take off other clothing Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water. It is best to place burns under gently and jewellery near the burn. running water for about 10 minutes. (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.) Do not put cold water on third degree burns. 3 For first degree burns, place cool, clean, wet cloths on them until the pain is not so bad. For putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them second degree burns, keep cloths cool by bad. 4 5 Dry the burned area gently. Do not rob, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin. Hold the bandage infected. in place with tape. Never put butter, oil or ointment on bums as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection. 6 7 If bums are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible. If bums are on the face, If the injuries are second or third degree bums, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or the victim should sit up. hospital at once.
肿胀，可看到皮下组织 若损害了神经，则没有疼痛或轻微疼痛，或者在创面四周有疼感 急救处理： 1、除非衣服粘贴在烧伤面上，否则都要把它脱掉（必要时可用剪刀 帮助） 。靠近创面的其他衣物和首饰也都要取掉。 2、马上用凉水给伤口冲凉，但不能用冰水。最好是把烧伤的部位放 在慢速流动的自来水下冲洗大约 10 分钟。 （凉水可以阻止烧伤的进程， 可以防止无法忍受的疼痛，还可以减轻肿胀程度） 。三度烧伤不可用冷 水冲。 3、对于一度烧伤的患者，要把清凉干净的湿布放在烧伤面上，直到 疼痛感较轻时为止。对于二度烧伤，要保持湿布清凉，需把湿布放回 冷水盆中，拧出水后再放在烧伤面上，这样要反反复复地做一个小时 左右，直到不太痛时为止。 4、 轻轻地把烧伤面弄干， 但不要擦拭， 因为这样做可能会擦破水泡， 伤口会感染。 5、用干而清洁又不粘皮肤的绷带盖住烧伤面，用胶布把绷带固定。 千万不要在烧伤处涂黄油、油或软膏，因为这会使里面的热散不出去， 而且还可能导致感染。 6、如果烧伤的部位在臂部和腿部，尽可能把手臂或腿脚抬高到高于 心脏的位置。如果是面部烧伤，伤者则应该坐起来。 7、如果属于二度或三度烧伤，就必须立即把患者送往医院或送去看 医生。
out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so
HEROIC TEENAGER RECEIVES AWARD Seventeen-year-old teenager, 整理出品 本文档由@黄绪扬 John Janson, was honoured at the Lifesaver Awards last night in Rivertown for giving 2013/8/7 始发于百度文库（大弟是也） lifesaving first aid on his neighbour after a shocking knife attack. John was presented with his award at a ceremony which recognized the bravery of ten people who had saved the life of another. John was studying in his room when he heard screaming. When he and his father rushed outside, a man ran from the scene. They discovered that Anne Slade, mother of three, had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife. She was lying in her front garden bleeding very heavily. Her hands had almost been cut off. It was John's quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms Slade's life. He immediately asked a number of nearby people for bandages, but when nobody could put their hands on any, his father got some tea towels and tape from their house. John used these to treat the most severe injuries to Ms Slade's hands. He slowed the bleeding by applying pressure to the wounds until the police and ambulance arrived. "I'm proud of what I did but I was just doing what I'd been taught," John said. John had taken part in the Young Lifesaver Scheme at his high school. When congratulating John, Mr Alan Southerton, Director of the Young Lifesaver Scheme said, "There is no doubt that John's quick thinking and the first aid skills he learned at school saved Ms Slade's life. It shows that a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference." Before receiving their awards last night, John and the nine other Life Savers attended a special reception yesterday hosted by the Prime Minister.
英雄青年获奖记 17 岁的青年约翰詹森昨晚在弗镇的救生 员颁奖大会上领奖，因为他在一次骇人听 闻的持刀袭击案件发生后，为邻居实施了 紧急救援。 在颁奖大会上，约翰被授予奖赏。大会 共表彰了抢救他人生命的十个人的勇敢行 为。 (那天)约翰正在房里学习，突然听到一声 尖叫，他和父亲赶紧冲出去，发现一名男 子从现场逃跑，而三个孩子的母亲安斯莱 德被人连捅了数刀。她躺在前花园的地上， 流血不止。她的双手几乎被砍断了。 正是约翰快捷的动作和急救知识救了斯 莱德女士的命。他立即向附近的一些人要 绷带，当他们都找不到绷带的时候，他的 父亲从屋里拿出一些擦杯盘的布和胶带 来。约翰就用这些东西把斯莱德手上最严 重的伤口包扎起来。他使劲地按住伤口， 使血流得慢些，一直等到警察和救护车的 到来。 约翰说： “我为自己所做的事感到自豪， 不过，我所做的都是以前别人教会我做的 事。 ” 约翰在读高中时就参加了青年救生员组 织。该组织的主任艾伦萨瑟顿先生在向约 翰表示祝贺时说： “毫无疑问，是约翰敏捷 的思维和在学校学到的急救技术，挽救了 斯莱德女士的生命。这表明懂得急救知识 的确能发挥重要作用。 ” 约翰和其他九位救生员在昨晚领奖时， 还出席了由首相主持的特殊的招待会。
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