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Environmental Microbiology 4.3


Algae

Algae are a large group of eukaryotic organisms that contain chlorophyll and carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. Although most algae are of micr-oscopic size and hence are clearly microorganisms, a number of forms are macroscopic. Algae are either unicellular or colonial, the latter occurring as aggregates of cells.

Cell structure and characteristics of algae

?Algae

cells are eukaryotic, single cells or multicellular. Algae contain chlorophyll and are photosynthetic.
?Algae

have a wide range of sizes and shapes. Some colonies become quite complex and superficially resemble higher plants in structure.

?The

cell wall is thin and rigid, it is often surrounded by outer matrix, which often becomes pigmented and stratified.
?There

are 5 chlorophylls: a, b, c, d, and e. Chlorophylla is present in all algae.
?Simple

sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction (many algae produce flagellated spores and/or non motile spores in sporangia).

单细胞不运动 的Palmellopsis

单细胞可运 动的隐藻属

集落样的 盘藻属

纤维丝状的螺带鼓藻属

类螺旋桨叶 的大型海藻 礁膜属

具管状叶 片状轴和 分枝簇的 毛枝藻属

单细胞不运 动金囊藻属

Motility and Ecology of Algae
A number of algae are motile, because of flagella; cilia do not occur in algae.

CO2+2H2O



[CH2O]+H2O+O2↑

Algae living condition
?Temperature:-11~30? C ?Illumination ?pH

Algal Nutrition

Algae can be either autotrophic or heterotrophic. Most are Photoautotrohpic .

Algal Reproduction

vegetative reproduction、Asexually and Sexually

Typical species of algae
?

Chlorella: green algae, unicellular

Chlorella(小球藻×160)

Volvox(团藻属×450)

Spirogyra(水绵属×100)

Ulva(石莼属)

Acetabularia伞藻属

Micrasterias微星鼓藻属

Chlorophyta(绿藻门)

?Euglenophyta(眼虫藻门,裸藻门)

Euglena

Chrysophyta (Diatoms硅藻)

Mallomonas(鱼鳞藻属),Showing its silica scales×9000

Diatoms: golden brown in color. They have two overlapping halves; one is larger another is small.
?

Ochromonas(棕鞭藻属)

Cyclotella meneghiniana(梅尼小环藻)×750

Assorted diatoms as arranged by a light miroscopist×900

Closterium新月藻属 Phormidium席藻属

Pyrrhophyta(甲藻门)

Ceratium(角藻属)

Gymnodinium(裸甲藻属)

Roles of Algae in Nature
Algae are an important part of any aquatic food chain, they fix carbon dioxide into organic molecules.
?

Seasonal changes in nutrients, light, and temperature cause fluctuations in algal populations; periodic increases in numbers of algae are called blooms.
?

The Protozoa
Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes, they are old-

age,low、simple。
Protozoa are found in a variety of freshwater and marine habitats; a large number are parasitic in other animals, including humans, and some are found growing in soil or in aerial habitats, such as on the surface of

trees.

Cell structure and characteristics of protozoa

Protozoa are unicellular nonphotosythetic eukaryotic microorganisms and lack cell walls.
?

Protozoans are mostly aerobic heterotrophs, although many intestinal protozoans are cap-able of anaerobic growth.
?

Some protozoa have one nucleus, but others have two or more nuclei.
?

Protozoa Nutrition and Reproduction
? Nutrition Type ?Holozoic nutrition

?Holophytic nutrition
?Saprophytic nutrition

?Protozoa Reproduction ?Asexual reproduction:binary fission ?Sexual reproduction:conjugation

Binary fission in Paramecium caudatum ×100

Typical species of protozoa
Euglena
Parameicium

Amoeba

Protozoa Classification
?Ciliophora
?Swimming ciliophora ?Crawl ciliophora ?Sessile ciliophora

?flagellates

?Sarcodinas
?Apicomplexa

vorticella

vorticella

波动膜

表膜折叠 粘附性鞭毛

核糖体

内质网

高尔基体
鞭毛基体

动机体 自由鞭毛

Structure of the flagellate, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

伪足



内膜

外质

吞噬泡

伸缩泡

The structure of the amoeboid protist, Amoeba proteus

Apicomplexan sporozoite

前端 表膜 前伸缩泡 口沟 大核 小核 纤毛

Paramecium caudatum

口腔前庭

吞噬泡 胞口

胞肛

带有一排纤毛 的口腔,纤毛 用于吞咽

后伸缩泡

后端

An illustration of Srcella

有孔足虫(Elphidium cristum)的甲壳×100

放 射 虫 的 外 壳

Subminiature Metazoa
rotifer Nemato

Annelida


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