1.选修八 Unit1 CALIFORNIA 加利福尼亚 California is the third largest state in the USA but has the largest population. 加州是美国第三大 洲, 而且是人口最多的州。 It also has the distinction of being the most multicultura
l state in the USA, having attracted people from all over the world. 加州与众不同之处在于它也是美国最具 多元文化的一个州。它吸引了来自世界各地的人们。 The customs and languages of the immigrants live on in their new home. 这些移民的风俗习惯以及语言在他们的新家都得以延 续。 This diversity of culture is not surprising when you know the history of California.当你了解 了加利福尼亚的历史，你就不会对其文化的多样性感到惊奇了。 NATIVE AMERCANS 美洲土著人 Exactly when the first people arrived in what we now know as California, no one really knows. 最早一批人具体是什么时候来到我们现在了解的加利福尼亚地区的 , 谁也说不清楚。 However, it is likely that Native Americans were living in California at least fifteen thousand years ago. 然而，可能至少在一15,000年以前美洲土著人就住在加利福尼亚了。Scientists believe that these settlers crossed the Bering Strait in the Arctic to America by means of a land bridge which existed in prehistoric times. 科学家们认为这些迁居者通过一条史前时期曾经存 在的大陆桥穿越北极地区的白令海峡到达美洲。 In the 16th century, after the arrival of the Europeans, the native people suffered greatly. 欧洲人在16世纪到来这里之后， 土著人遭受了极 大的苦难。 Thousands were killed or forced into slavery. 成千上万人被杀或被迫成为奴隶。In addition, many died from the diseases brought by the Europeans. 另外, 欧洲人带来的疾病，使 许多人染病而死。 However, some survived these terrible times, and today there are more Native Americans living in California than in any other state. 不过，还是有一些人经历了这些恐怖时 期而活下来了。今天住在加利福尼亚的美洲土著人比任何其他州的都要多。 THE SPANISH 西班牙人 In the 18th century California was ruled by Spain. 在18世纪的时候，加利福尼亚是被西班牙统 治的。 Spanish soldiers first arrived in South America in the early 16th century, when they fought against the native people and took their land. 西班牙士兵最早是在16世纪初期来到南美洲的， 他们同土著人打仗，夺去了他们的土地。Two centuries later, the Spanish had settled in most parts of South America and along the northwest coast of what we now call the United States. 两 个世纪以后, 西班牙人在南美洲大部分地区定居下来， 而且还在我们现在称之为美国的西北 沿海地区住下来。Of the first Spanish to go to California, the majority were religious men, whose
ministry was to teach the Catholic religion to the natives. 在首批移居加利福尼亚州的西班牙人 中，大部分是宗教人士，他们的职责是向原住居民传授天主教。In 1821, the people of Mexico gained their independence from Spain. 1821年,墨西哥人从西班牙获得了独立。 California then became part of Mexico.加利福尼亚于是成了墨西哥的一部分。In 1846 the United States declared war on Mexico, and after the war won by the USA, Mexico had to give California to the USA. 1846年美国向墨西哥宣战，美国赢得战争胜利后，墨西哥被迫把加利福尼亚割让给美 国。However, there is still a strong Spanish influence in the state. 但是,这个州至今仍然保留着 很强的西班牙文化的影响。That is why today over 40 of Californians speak Spanish as a first or second language. 这就是为什么今天还有40%的加利福尼亚人仍然把西班牙语作为第一或第 二语言的缘故。 RUSSIANS 俄罗斯人 In the early 1800s, Russian hunters, who had originally gone to Alaska, began settling in California. 在19世纪初期，一批最初到阿拉斯加的俄罗斯猎人开始在加利福尼亚定居下来。 Today there are about 25,000 Russian-Americans living in and around San Francisco. 住在旧金山及其周边地区的美籍俄罗斯人大约25，000人。 GOLD MINERS 金矿工 In 1848, not long after the American-Mexican war, gold was discovered in California. 1848年,美 墨战争后不久,在加利福尼亚发现了金矿。 The dream of becoming rich quickly attracted people from all over the world. 发财梦很快就吸引了来自世界各地的人。 nearest, and therefore the The first to arrive, were South Americans and people from the United States. 距离最近因而来的最早 的是南美洲人和美国人， Then adventurers from Europe and Asia soon followed. 随后跟着来 的有欧洲和亚洲的探险家。 In fact, few achieved their dream of becoming rich. 事实上, 很少 有人圆了发财梦。 Some died or returned home, but most remained in California to make a life for themselves despite great hardship. They settled in the new towns or on farms. 许多人死了或回家 了，但是尽管条件十分艰苦，大多数人仍然留在了加利福尼亚劳作谋生，在新的城镇或农场 里定居下来。 By the time California elected to become the thirty-first federal state of the USA in 1850, it was already a multicultural society.到1850年加利福尼亚成为美国第31个州的时候, 它 已经是一个有着多元文化的社会了。 LATER A RRIVALS 后来的移民 Although Chinese immigrants began to arrive during the Gold Rush Period, it was the building of 今天，
the rail network from the west to the east coast that brought even larger numbers to California in the 1860s. 虽然中国移民在淘金热期间就开始来到（美国） ，但是更大批量的中国移民却是 在十九世纪六十年代为了修建贯穿美国东西海岸的铁路而来的。Today, Chinese-Americans live in all parts of California, although a large percentage have chosen to stay in the "Chinatowns" of Los Angeles and San Francisco. 今天,加利福尼亚州各地都有美藉华人居住,尽管有很大比 例的华人还是选择住在洛杉矶和旧金山的―中国城‖里。Other immigrants such as Italians, mainly fishermen but also wine makers, arrived in California in the late 19th century. 十九世纪 后期， 其他国家的移民， 比如意大利人来到加利福尼亚， 他们主要是渔民， 也有些酿酒工人。 In 1911 immigrants from Denmark established a town of their own, which today still keeps up their Danish culture. 1911年丹麦移民建立了他们自己的城镇， 至今仍保留着丹麦文化。By the 1920s the film industry was well established in Hollywood, California. 到了二十世纪二十年代， 电影产业在加利福尼亚州的好莱坞建立了起来。 The industry boom attracted Europeans including many Jewish people. 这个行业吸引了许多欧洲人包括许多犹太人。Today California has the second largest Jewish population in the United States. 今天，加利福尼亚的犹太人口在 美国占第二位。 Japanese farmers began arriving in California at the beginning of the 20th century, and since the 1980s a lot more have settled there. 日本的农民是在20世纪初期开始到加利福尼 亚来的,而从20世纪80年代以来就有更多的日本人在加利福尼亚定居了。 People from Africa have been living in California since the 1800s, when they moved north from Mexico. 非洲人从 19世纪就在加利福尼亚住下来，他们是从墨西哥向北迁来的。However, even more arrived between 1942 and 1945 to work in the ship and aircraft industries. 然而更多的非洲人在1942年 到1945年之间来到加利福尼亚的，当时他们是到船厂和飞机厂工作的。 MOST RECENT ARRIVALS 最近期的移民 In more recent decades, California has become home to more people from Asia, including Koreans, Cambodians, Vietnamese and Laotians. 在最近几十年里,加利福尼亚成了亚洲人的家,包括柬 埔寨人、 朝鲜人、 越南人和老挝人。 Since its beginning in the 1970s, the computer industry has attracted Indians and Pakistanis to California. 从20世纪70年代开始发展计算机工业以来，加利 福尼亚又吸引了印度人和巴勒斯坦人的到来。 THE FUTURE 未来展望 People from different parts of the world, attracted by the climate and the lifestyle, still immigrate to California 世界各地的人， 由于受气候条件和生活方式的吸引,仍然在继续迁入加利福尼亚。 .
It is believed that before long the mix of nationalities will be so great that there will be no distinct major racial or cultural groups, but simply a mixture of many races and cultures. 人们认为, 要不 了多久，多种国籍的混合将会非常之大，以至于不可能存在一种主要的种族或文化群体，而 只是多种族、多文化的混合体。
2.选修八 Unit 1 GEORGE’S DIARY 乔治的日记 12TH—14TH JUNE Monday 12th, June6月12日,星期一 Arrived early this morning by bus. Went straight to hotel to drop my luggage, shower and shave. 清晨乘公共汽车抵达，直赴饭店，放下行李，洗澡、刮脸，即去观光。Then went exploring. First thing was a ride on a cable car. From top of the hill got a spectacular view of San Francisco Bay and the city. 先是乘缆车，在山顶揽胜，观看旧金山湾及整个城市。 Built in 1873, the cable car system was invented by Andrew Hallidie, who wanted to find a better form of transport than horse-drawn trams. 缆车系统建立于1873年，是由安德鲁· 哈利迪发明的，他试图找到一 种比马拉的轨道车更好的交通方式。 Apparently he'd been shocked when he saw a terrible accident in which a tram's brakes failed, the conductor could not control the situation and the tram slipped down the hill dragging the horses with it. 他曾经看到过一次可怕的交通事故：一辆马 车刹车失灵，驾车失控，车子和马一起从山上滑了下去，很明显这让他受到了极大的震惊。 Had a late lunch at Fisherman's Wharf. 午餐是在渔人码头吃的，吃得很晚。 This is the district where Italian fishermen first came to San Francisco in the late 19th century and began the fishing industry. 意大利渔民在19世纪末首先来到这个地区，并且在这儿开始捕鱼业。 Now it's a tourist area with lots of shops, sea food restaurants and bakeries. 如今这儿是一个旅游区了，很 多商店、 海鲜馆和面包坊。 also the place to catch the ferry to Angel Island and other places in It's the Bay. 这儿也是乘渡船去天使岛和海湾其他地方的渡口。Did so much exploring at Fisherman's Wharf. Am exhausted and don't feel like doing anything else. Early bed tonight!在渔 人码头看了这么多东西，我太累了，什么也不想干了。今晚要早点睡觉! Tuesday 13th, June 6月13日 星期二 Teamed up with a couple from my hotel (Peter and Terri) and hired a car. 同酒店里的一对夫妻 (彼得和泰莉)作伴， 一起租了一辆小汽车。 Spent all day driving around the city. 一整天驱车游 览城市。There's a fascinating drive marked out for tourists. 有一种专门为旅游者选定的驾车游
活动。 It has blue and white signs with seagulls on them to show the way to go. 车身上有蓝白两 色相间的标记，上面有海鸥以表示要去的路线。It's a 79km round-trip that takes in all the famous tourist spots. 这是一次79公里的旅行， 它涵盖了所有著名的旅游景点。 Stopped many times to admire the view of the city from different angles and take photographs. 途中多次停车， 从不同角度欣赏城市风景并摄影。 Now have a really good idea of what the city's like. 现在有 对城市的面貌有了一个很好的了解。 In evening, went to Chinatown with Peter and Terri. 傍晚，跟彼得和泰莉一起去中国城。 Chinese immigrants settled in this area in the 1850s. 中国移民于19世纪50年代定居在这个地 区。 The fronts of the buildings are decorated to look like old buildings in southern China. 建筑 物面前装饰得就像在中国南部地区的古建筑一样。Saw some interesting temples here, a number of markets and a great many restaurants. 这儿看到了一些有趣的寺庙， 不少的集贸市场 和大量的餐馆，还有美术馆和一个博物馆。Also art galleries and a museum containing documents, photographs and all sorts of objects about the history of Chinese immigration, but it is closed in the evening. 博物馆里有关于中国移民史的文件、照片和各种各样的物品，但是晚 上关门了。 Will go back during the day. Had a delicious meal and then walked down the hill to our hotel.打算白天再来。吃了一顿可口的饭菜，然后步行下山回到酒店。 Wednesday 14th, June6月14日星期三 In morning, took ferry to Angel Island from the port in San Francisco Bay. On the way had a good view of the Golden Gate Bridge. 早晨，从旧金山湾的港口乘渡轮去天使岛，路上观赏了金门 大桥。From 1882 to 1940 Angel Island was a famous immigration station where many Chinese people applied for right to live in USA. 从1882年至1940年，天使岛成为一个著名的移民站， 许多中国人在那儿申请美国居住权。The cells in the station were very small, cold and damp; some did not even have light but the immigrants had nowhere else to go. 移民站的房间又冷又潮 湿，一些房间甚至没有光，但是移民们没有其他去处。 Their miserable stay seemed to be punishment rather than justice and freedom to them. 悲惨的境遇对他们来说似乎是一种惩罚而 谈不上公正和自由。They wrote poems on the walls about their loneliness and mourned their former life in China. 他们在墙上写诗， 抒发孤独的情感， 痛惜以前在中国的生活。 In 1940 the civil authorities reformed the system so that many more Chinese people were able to grasp the opportunity of settling in the USA. 1940年民政部门改革了制度，使得更多的中国人能够得到 机会定居美国。Made me very thoughtful and thankful for my life today. 这引起我的感慨，使
3.选修八 Unit2 CLONING: WHERE IS IT LEADING US?克隆：它将把我们引向何方？ Cloning has always been with us and is here to stay. 克隆一直与我们同在， 而且它还要持续 下去。It is a way of making an exact copy of another animal or plant. 这是一种用来生产与原型 完全相同的动植物的方法。 It happens in plants when gardeners take cuttings from growing plants to make new ones. 当园艺师从生长着的植物上剪下枝条来培植新植物时，就会产生这 种现象。 It also happens in animals when twins identical in sex and appearance are produced from the same original egg. 这种现象也发生在动物身上，从同一个原生卵子产生性别和相貌 相同的双胞胎也是克隆。 The fact is that these are both examples of natural clones.实际上， 这些 都是自然克隆现象。 Cloning has two major uses. 克隆技术有两大用途。 Firstly, gardeners use it all the time to produce commercial quantities of plants. 第一，园艺师一直用它生产大量的供商用的植物； Secondly, it is valuable for research on new plant species and for medical research on animals. 第 二， 它在对新植物物种的研究以及在对动物的医学研究方面都是很有价值的。 Cloning plants is straightforward while cloning animals is very complicated. It is a difficult task to undertake.克 隆植物简单，但克隆动物就比较复杂了，是一项很难完成的任务。Many attempts to clone mammals failed. 克隆哺乳动物的多次尝试都失败了。 But at last the determination and patience of the scientists paid off in 1996 with a breakthrough- the cloning of Dolly the sheep. 但 是， 科学家的决心和耐心最终得到了回报， 这就是1996年具有突破性的克隆羊―多莉‖的诞生。 The procedure works like this:它的程序如下图（略）所示： 1.母羊（甲）提供一个卵细胞。 2.在卵细胞中取出细胞核。 3.卵细胞准备接受新的细胞核。 4.母羊 （乙） 提供一个供克隆的躯干细胞， 该细胞应包含有生产一头新羊所需要的全部基因。 5.取出该细胞的细胞核。 6.用电把母羊（乙）的躯干细胞核和母羊（甲）的卵细胞连接起来。 7.细胞分裂并生长成胚胎。 8.把胚胎置入另外一头寄生的母羊（丙）体内，母羊（丙）就是克隆羊的代孕。 9.这头小羔羊就是母羊（乙）所提供的细胞核克隆而成的。
On the one hand, the whole scientific world followed the progress of the first successful clone, Dolly the sheep. 一方面整个科学界都在关注着首例成功的克隆动物多莉羊的成长。 The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging. 多莉看来是在正常地成长 着，这很令人鼓舞。Then came the disturbing news that Dolly had become seriously ill. 接着传 来了多莉病重的坏消息。 Cloning scientists were cast down to find that Dolly's illnesses were more appropriate to a much older animal. 研究看来的科学家发现多莉得的病更容易发生在年 老的羊身上， 这让他们很沮丧。 Altogether Dolly lived six and a half years, half the length of the life of the original sheep. 可悲的是， 多莉只活了六年半， 这是它的原型羊寿命的一半。 Sadly the same arbitrary fate affected other species, such as cloned mice. 可悲的是，同样无法控制的 命运也在影响着其他物种，如克隆鼠。The questions that concerned all scientists were: "Would this be a major difficulty for all cloned animals? 科学家们的脑海里产生的问题是―这是不是所 有克隆动物的一个主要困难呢？Would it happen forever? Could it be solved if corrections were made in their research procedure?" 这种现象会不会永远发生？如果改进研究程序，问题会不 会解决呢？‖ On the other hand, Dolly's appearance raised a storm of objections and had a great impact on the media and public imagination. 另一方面，多莉羊的出现引起了一阵强烈的反对，对媒体 和公众的想象力也产生了极大的影响。It became controversial. It suddenly opened everybody's eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses and even to produce human beings. 它引起了争议，因为它突破打开了人们的眼界，看到了有可能利用克隆技术来治疗重病，甚 至还有可能克隆出人类。 Although at present human egg cells and embryos needed for cloning research are difficult to obtain, newspapers wrote of evil leaders hoping to clone themselves to attain their ambitions. 尽 管目前供克隆研究的人类卵细胞很难获得， 报纸报道说， 有些邪恶头目希望把自己克隆出来 以实现他们的野心。 Religious leaders also raised moral questions. 宗教领袖还提出了道德方面 的问题。 Governments became nervous and more conservative. 各国政府惶恐不安而且更加谨 慎。Some began to reform their legal systems and forbade research into human cloning, but other countries like China and the UK, continued to accumulate evidence of the abundant medical aid that cloning could provide. 有些政府开始改革司法制度，明令禁止进行克隆人类的研究，但 是其他国家， 如中国和英国， 则仍然在继续收集克隆技术有可能提供丰富的医疗救助的证据。 However, scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us.然
而科学家们仍对克隆技术有助于人类还是有害于人类， 以及克隆技术将把我们引向哪里感到 困惑。
4.选修八 Unit2 THE RETURN OF THE DINOSAURS?恐龙的回归？ The possibility of cloning fierce and extinct wild animals has always excited film makers. 克 隆凶猛和灭绝的野生动物的可能性一直使电影制片商感到兴奋。And they are not the only ones! 然而他们并不是唯一对此感到兴奋的人。 popularity of films such as Jurassic Park, in The which a scientist clones several kinds of extinct dinosaurs, proves how the idea struck a mixture of fear and excitement into people's hearts. 在《侏罗纪公园》这部影片中，有一位科学家克隆了 好几种不同的绝种恐龙。 类似这样的电影很受欢迎， 证明了这一想法使人们感到既兴奋又恐 惧。 But in fact we are a long way from being able to clone extinct animals. 但事实上，想要克 隆绝种动物，我们还要很长的路程要走。 Scientists are still experimenting with cloning mammals. 科学家们现在还在进行克隆哺乳动物实验，This is because the cloning of mammals is still a new science and its story only began seriously in the 1950s as this list shows:这是因为克 隆哺乳动物仍然还是一门新的科学， 它是从20世纪50年代才开始进行认真研究的， 如下表所 示： 1950s cloning of frogs 1996 first clone of a mammal: Dolly the sheep 1970s research using the embryos of mice 2000 cow gave birth to a bison
1979 work on embryos of sheep and mice 2001 China's first cloned twin calves 1981 first experimental clones of mice 2002 first cloned cats 1983 first experimental clones of cows 2005 first cloned dog
From time to time people suggest that extinct animals like dinosaurs, can possibly be brought back to life through cloning. 不时地会有人提议， 克隆技术将有可能使地球上已经消失的动物 （如恐龙） 复活。 Unfortunately, with what we know now, this is either impossible or unsuitable. There are many reasons.不幸的是，据我们现在所知这是不可能的，也是不合适的。其原因有 很多：
◎The initial requirement is that you need perfect DNA (which gives information for how cells are to grow). 首先要求你有完好的 DNA，以提供有关细胞将如何生长的信息。 ◎ All efforts of cloning an animal will be in vain if there is not enough diversity in the group to overcome illnesses. 如果某个动物群体没有足够的多样性以战胜疾病，那么克隆这种动物的 所有努力都将是无用的。 Diversity in a group means having animals with their genes arranged in different ways. 群体的多样性是指这群动物的基因要以不同的方式排列。 The advantage is that if there is a new illness some of these animals may die, but others will survive and pass on the ability to resist that disease to the next generation. 其优点是，如果发生了某种新的疾病，这类 动物中的一些可能会死去，而另外一些却能存活下来，并且把这种免疫力传给下一代。 The great drawback to cloning a group of animals is that they would all have the same arrangement of genes and so might die of the same illness. Then none of them would be left to continue the species. 经过克隆的动物群体的最大缺点是：它们的基因排列有可能完全相同，因而它们有 可能会死于同一种疾病，这样它们也可能一个也留不下来传种接代了。 ◎ It would be unfair to clone any extinct animals if they were to live in a zoo. 你如果克隆出任 何绝种动物，而它们必须生活在动物园里那是不公平的。 A suitable habitat would be needed for them to lead a natural life. 它们需要适当的栖息地过正常的野生生活。 Based on what we know now, you cannot clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years. 就我们现在所知， 你不可能克隆那些已经绝种了一万年以上的动物。 Actually, dinosaurs disappeared 65,000,000 years ago. 事实上恐龙在6， 500万年以前就已经消失了， So the chance of dinosaurs ever returning to the earth is merely a dream.所以说恐龙回归地球的可 能性仅仅是个梦想罢了！
5.选修八 Unit 3 THE PROBLEM OF THE SHRIKES 蛇的困扰 When I called up my mother in the countryside on the telephone she was very upset. 我给住 在乡下的母亲打电话的时候，她感到很心烦。 "There are some snakes in our courtyard," she told me. ―我们院子里有几条蛇， ‖她告诉我说， "Snakes come near the house now and then, and they seem to have made their home here, not far from the walnut tree. Can you get rid of them please?" ―蛇时不时地爬到屋子边上来。 可这几条蛇似乎是在屋子附近离胡桃树不远的地方安 家了。 你能不能把它们赶走？‖ I felt very proud. 我感到很自豪， Here was a chance for .me to distinguish myself by inventing something merciful that would catch snakes but not harm them.
这回我有机会来表现一下自己了。我要发明某种仁慈的东西。既可以把蛇捉住，而又不会伤 害它们。 I knew my parents would not like me to hurt these living creatures!我知道我的父母亲 是不会让我伤害这些生物的。 The first thing I did was to see if there were any products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. 我所做的第一件事就是看看有没有现成的产品 能帮助我。但是，看来只有一种毒杀蛇的药粉。 A new approach was clearly needed. 很明显， 我得找一种新的方法了。 I set about researching the habits of snakes to find the easiest way to trap them. 于是我就着手研究蛇的习性，以便能找到最容易的方法捉住它们。Luckily these reptiles are small and that made the solution easier. 好在这些爬行动物都很小， 问题比较容易解 决。 Prepared with some research findings, I decided on three possible approaches: 经过一番研 究准备之后，我决定采用三种可能的方法： firstly, removing their habitat; 第一，铲除蛇的栖 息地；secondly, attracting them into a trap using male or female perfume or food; 第二，用男人 或女人用的香水或食物把它们引进陷阱； and thirdly cooling them so that they would become sleepy and could be easily caught. 第三，降低它们的体温，使它们困乏，这样就容易把它们 捉住。 I decided to use the last one. 我决定采用最后一种方法。 I bought an ice-cream maker which was made of stainless steel. Between the outside and the inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes when cooled. 我买了一个制冰淇淋的不锈钢碗，在碗的内壁和外壁 之间有些胶状物，冷却后会冻结。 I put the bowl into the fridge and waited for 24 hours. 我把 这个碗放进冰箱，冷冻了24小时。At the same time I prepared some ice-cubes.与此同时，我还 准备了一些冰块儿。 The next morning I got up early before the sun was hot. 第二天早晨太阳光还不太热， 我就 早早起床了。I placed the frozen bowl over the snakes' habitat and the ice-cubes on top of the bowl to keep it cool. 我把冰冻的碗放在蛇窝的上方，再把小冰块放在碗上，以使碗保持冷却 状态。 Finally I covered the whole thing with a large bucket. 最后再用一个大桶把碗罩住。于 是我就等着。Then I waited. After two hours I removed the bucket and the bowl. 过了两个小时 我才把桶和碗一起拿开。 The snakes were less active but they were still too fast for me. 蛇不像 以前那么活跃了。 They abruptly disappeared into a convenient hole in the wall. 但是对于我来 说， 它们行动还是太快了， 突然一下子就消失在附近的墙洞里去了。So I had to adjust my plan. 于是我只得调整我的计划。
For the second attempt I froze the bowl and the ice-cubes again but placed them over the snakes' habitat in the evening, as the temperature was starting to cool.第二次试验我用的还是冰 冻的碗和冰块儿，但是这次我是在夜晚气温开始变凉的时候把它们放在蛇窝的上方， Then as before, I covered the bowl with the bucket and left everything overnight. 然后用桶把碗罩住， 通宵放在那儿。 Early the next morning I returned to see the result. 第二天一早我就去看结果。 This time with great caution I bent down to examine the snakes and I found them very sleepy. 这 一次我蹲下去检查的时候， 发现蛇都是睡意浓浓的。 But once picked up, they tried to bite me. 但是一把它们提起来，它们就要咬我。 As they were poisonous snakes, I clearly needed to improve my design again.因为它们都是毒蛇，所以很显然我还得改进我的捕蛇方案。 My third attempt repeated the second procedure. 第三次试验重复了第二次的程序， next The morning I carried in my hand a small net used for catching fish. This was in the expectation that the snakes would bite again. 第二天早晨我的手里拿了一个捕鱼的小网， 这是因为我预料蛇还 会再咬人。But monitored carefully, the snakes proved to be no trouble and all went according to plan. 经过仔细的监视， 证明这些蛇不会惹麻烦， 一切都按计划进行着。 collected the passive I snakes and the next day we merrily released them all back into the wild.我把这些温顺的蛇收集 起来，第二天就把他们全部释放到野外了。 Pressed by my friends and relations, I decided to seize the opportunity to get recognition for my successful idea by sending my invention to the patent office. 由于朋友和亲戚的敦促，我决 定抓住这次机会把我的发明送到专利局去，请他们对我这次成功的思路给予认可。 Only after you have had that recognition can you say that you are truly an inventor. 只有你得到这种承 认， 你才可以说是一个真正的发明家。 The criteria are so strict that it is difficult to get new ideas accepted unless they are truly novel. （评定）专利标准非常严格，除非新的想法真是新颖的， 否则很难被接受。In addition, no invention will get a patent if it is:此外，你的想法如果属于下 列情况，那么你也不可能得到专利： ◎ discovery 一种发现 a ◎ scientific idea or mathematical model 一种科学理论或数学模式 a ◎ literature or art 文学或艺术 ◎ game or a business 一场游戏或一笔交易 a ◎ computer programme 一个电脑程序 a ◎ new animal or plant variety 一种新的动植物物种 a
Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everyone else's. 你的产品要经过仔细调查，证明它确实与众不同的，你才能 获得专利。 There are a large number of patent examiners, too, whose only job is to examine whether your claim is valid or not. 专利局还有一大批审查人员，他们的唯一职责就是审查你 的专利申请是否有效。 If it passes all the tests, your application for a patent will be published 18 months from the date you apply. 如果通过了所有这些审查，你申请的专利就会在你提出申请 的18个月之后公布出来。 So I have filled in the form and filed my patent application with the Patent Office. 于是，我填了表，向专利局提交了申请书。 Now it's a matter of waiting and hoping. 现在就是等待和期盼了。 You'll know if I succeed by the size of my bank balance! 将 来你看看我的银行结余金额就会知道我是否成功了。 Wish me luck!祝我好运吧！
6.选修八 Unit3 ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL 亚历山大· 格雷厄姆· 贝尔 Alexander Graham Bell was born in 1847 in Scotland, but when he was young his family moved to Boston, USA.亚历山大· 格雷厄姆· 贝尔1847年出生于苏格兰。但在他还小的时候， 他家就搬到了美国的波士顿。His mother was almost entirely deaf, so Alexander became interested in helping deaf people communicate and in deaf education.他的母亲几乎全聋了， 因此 他有志于帮助聋人交流，并从事聋人教育事业。This interest led him to invent the microphone. 这一爱好促使他发明了麦克风。He found that by pressing his lips against his mother's forehead, he could make his mother understand what he was saying. 他发现他把嘴唇放在母亲的额头上， 并以一定的方式来移动额骨，就可以使她听懂他所说的话。 He believed that one should always be curious and his most famous saying was: 他认为一个人应 该总是有好奇心理。他最有名的一句话是： "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods. ―偶尔离开平路去寻求困境。 Every time you do you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.每次当 你这样做的时候，你一定会发现你从未见过的东西。 Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind. 跟踪下 去， 不断探索， 不知不觉中， 你就会发现某种值得思考的东西盘踞着你的头脑。 All really big discoveries are the result of thought."所有真正伟大的发现都是思考的结果。‖ It was this exploring around problems and his dynamic spirit that led to his most famous invention - the telephone in 1876. 正是这种对问题的探索和富有活力的精神造就了他那最著
名的发明——1876年的电话。 Bell never set out to invent the telephone and what he was trying to design was a multiple telegraph. 贝尔并非一开始就想要发明电话的，他本来想设计的东西 是多路电报。This original telegraph sent a message over distances using Morse code (a series of dots tapped out along a wire in a particular order). 这种原始的电报是在一段距离中用莫尔斯电 码传递信息（莫尔斯电码是通过电线发出的以特定的次序敲击出的一连串点划） But only ， one message could go at a time. 但是这样只能一次发一个信息。 Bell wanted to improve it so that it could send several messages at the same time.贝尔想改进电报通讯方式， 以便同时能发出 好几个信息。He designed a machine that would separate different sound waves and allow different conversations to be held at the same time.他设计了一种机器，以使声波分成不同的音 调，从而有可能在同一时间里进行不同的通话。But he found the problem difficult to solve.但 是他发现这个问题很难解决。 One day as he was experimenting with one end of a straw joined to a deaf man's ear drum and the other to a piece of smoked glass,有一天做实验，他把一根干草的 一端和一个聋子的耳鼓膜连接起来， 另一端连接一块被烟熏过的玻璃。 Bell noticed that when he spoke into the ear, the straw drew sound waves on the glass.贝尔发现，当他对着耳朵说话的 时候，这根干草就把声波画在被烟熏过的玻璃上。Suddenly he had a flash of inspiration.突然 间他灵机一动，灵感来了。If sound waves could be reproduced in a moving electrical current, they could be sent along a wire.如果声波能够以连续运动的电波形式复制的话，那么声波就可 以沿着导线传送出去了。In searching to improve the telegraph,Bell had invented the first telephone!在探求改进电报的过程中，贝尔发明了第一台电话机！ Bell was fully aware of the importance of his invention and wrote to his father:贝尔完全懂 得这项发明的重要性，他写信告诉他的父亲说："The day is coming when telegraph wires will be laid on to houses just like water or gas – and friends will talk to each other without leaving home." ―这样的一天即将到来。到那时，电报线将会铺到各家各户，就像水和煤气通到各家 各户一样。朋友之间不必离开家就可以彼此通话了。‖ The patent was given in 1876, but it was not until five days later that Bell sent his first telephone message to his assistant Watson.这项专利是1876年发布的， 但是贝尔是在五天以后才跟他的助 手华生通了第一次电话。The words have now become famous:他说的话现在已成为名言了。 "Mr. Watson - come here - I want to see you." ―华生先生——到这儿来——我想见你。‖ Alexander Graham Bell was not a man to rest and he interested himself in many other areas of invention.亚历山大· 格雷厄姆· 贝尔是个闲不住的人，他对许多其他领域的发明都感兴趣。
He experimented with helicopter designs and flying machines.他试验直升飞机和飞行器。While searching for a kite strong enough to carry a man into the air, Bell experimented putting triangles together and discovered the tetrahedron shape.他寻找一种强度足以把人带上天空的风筝，与此 同时，他又试着把三角形拼装在一起，因而发现了四面体。Being very stable, it has proved invaluable in the design of bridges.这种四面体非常稳定，被证明是在桥梁设计中的无价之宝。 Bell was an inventor all his life.贝尔的一生都在发明创造。He made his first invention at eleven and his last at seventy- five.他11岁时就有了第一项发明， 而他的最后一项发明则是在他 75岁高龄的时候。Although he is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, he was indeed a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody's life.虽然人们常把他与电话的发明联系在一起，但是他的确是一位永不停息的探索家，不断 寻求着改善人们生活质量的途径。
7.选修八 Unit4 PYGMALION 皮格马利翁 MAIN CHARACTERS: 主要人物： Eliza Doolittle (E): a poor flower girl who is ambitious to improve herself
Professor Higgins (H): an expert in phonetics, convinced that the quality of a person's English decides his/her position in society Colonel Pickering (CP): an officer in the army and later a friend of Higgins' who sets him a task 伊莱扎· 杜立特尔（伊） ：穷苦的卖花姑娘，立志要改善自己的生活 希金斯教授（希） ：语言学专家，坚信一个人的英语水平决定这个人的社会地位 皮克林上校（皮） ：陆军军官，后来成了希金斯教授的朋友。希金斯还给上校安排了一项任 务 Act One FATEFUL MEETINGS 第一幕 决定性的会面 11 :15 pm in London, England in 1914 outside a theatre. 1914年某日晚上11点15分，在英国 伦敦某剧场外。 It is pouring with rain and cab whistles are blowing in all directions. 下着倾盆 大雨，四处响着出租车的鸣笛声。A man is hiding from the rain listening to people's language and watching their reactions. 有一位男士在躲雨， 边听人们谈话， 边观察着人们的反应。 While watching, he makes notes. 一边观察，一边做记录。Nearby a flower girl wearing dark garments and a woollen scarf is also sheltering from the rain. 附近有一个卖花姑娘也在躲雨。A gentleman (G) passes and hesitates for a moment.这时有位先生（先）从这儿路过，他迟疑了片
刻。 E: Come over’ere, cap’in, and buy me flowers off a poor girl. 伊：长官，过这边来呀，买我这个苦命孩子一束花把！ G: I'm sorry but I haven't any change. 先：对不起，我没有零钱。 E: I can giv’ou change, cap’in. 伊：长官，我可以给你找零钱呀。 G: (surprised) For a pound? I'm afraid I've got nothing less. 先： （惊奇地）一个英镑你找得开吗？没有再小的钱了。 E: (hopefully) Oah! Oh, do buy a flower off me, Captain. Take this for three pence. (holds up some dead flowers) 伊： （带有希望的神色）啊！好啦，买一束吧。拿这一束，只要三个便士。 （举起一束已经枯 萎的花） G: (uncomfortably) Now don't be troublesome, there's a good girl. (looks in his wallet and sounds more friendly) But, wait, here's some small change. Will that be of any use to you? It's raining heavily now, isn't it? (leaves) 先： （不舒服地）别烦我了，好姑娘。 （在钱包里找什么，这时语气好些了）等一等，这儿有 几个零钱。这点钱对你有用吗？雨下大了，不是吗？（说完就走了） E: (disappointed at the outcome, but thinking it is better than nothing) Thank you, sir. (sees a man taking notes and feels worried) Hey! I ain’t done nothing wrong by speaking to that gentleman. I've a right to sell flowers, I have. I ain’t no thief. I'm an honest girl I am! (begins to cry) 伊： （对先生付的钱表现出失望的样子，但是有总比没有好）先生，谢谢了。 （看到有人在记 什么，感到很担心）嗨，我跟那位先生说话，又没有做错什么事情。我有权卖花吧，我有权 嘛！我不是小偷，我是个老实姑娘，老老实实的。 （开始哭起来） H: (kindly) There! There! Who's hurting you, you silly girl? What do you take me for? (gives her a handkerchief) 希： （友善地）好啦，好啦！谁伤害你了，傻姑娘！你把我当成什么人了？（递给她一条手 帕） E: I thought maybe you was a policeman in disguise. 伊：我还以为你是一个便衣警察呢。
H: Do I look like a policeman? 希：我像警察吗？ E: (still worried) Then why did 'ou take down my words for? How do I know whether 'ou took me down right? 'ou just show me what 'ou've wrote about me! 伊： （仍在担心）那你为什么要把我说的话记下来呢？我怎么知道你是不是写对了呢？那你 把你写的东西给我看看。 H: Here you are. (hands over the paper covered in writing) 希：你看吧！ （把写满字的纸递给她） E: What's that? That ain't proper writing. I can't read that. (pushes it back at him) 伊：这是什么呀？不像规规矩矩的字，我看不懂。 （把纸退回给他） H: I can. (reads imitating Eliza) "Come over' ere, cap'in, and buy me flowers off a poor girl." (in his own voice) There you are and you were born in Lisson Grove if I'm not mistaken. 希：我来读。 （模仿伊的声音读）长官，过这边来呀，买我这个苦命孩子一束花吧！ （改用自 己的声音说）好了吧，你呀，如果我没有弄错的话，你出生在里森格罗佛。 E: (looking confused) What if I was? What's it to you? 伊： （困惑不解似的）如果我是又怎么样呢？跟你有什么关系吗？ CP: (has been watching the girl and now speaks to Higgins) That's quite brilliant! How did you do that, may I ask? 皮： （本来是一直望着这个姑娘的， 这时跟希金斯说话了） 太棒了！ 请问你是怎么知道的呢？ H: Simply phonetics studied and classified from people's own speech. That's my profession and also my hobby. You can place a man by just a few remarks. I can place any spoken conversation within six miles, and even within two streets in London sometimes. 希：对人的发音进行研究、分类，如此而已。这是我的专业。也是我的业余爱好。我可以根 据几句话判定是哪个地方的人。差距不过六英里。有时候在伦敦甚至不超过两个街区呢。 CP: Let me congratulate you! But is there an income to be made in that? 皮：恭喜你了！不过，你这样做有收入吗？ H: Yes, indeed. Quite a good one. This is the age of the newly rich. People begin their working life in a poor neighbourhood of London with 80 pounds a year and end in a rich one with 100 thousand. But they betray themselves every time they open their mouths. Now once taught by me, she'd become an upper class lady ...
希：当然有啊，还挺高呢。这是个致富的年代。人们从伦敦的穷人区开始工作，年收入才80 英镑，最后到了富人区工作，年收入就是10万英镑了。但是他们一张嘴就露出马脚（暴露自 己的身份） 。如今让我一教，她就会变成一个上层阶级的淑女…… CP: Is that so? Extraordinary! 皮：是吗？那太妙了！ H: (rudely) Look at this girl with her terrible English: the English that will condemn her to the gutter to the end of her days. But, sir, (proudly) once educated to speak properly, that girl could pass herself off in three months as a duchess at an ambassador's garden party. Perhaps I could even find her a place as a lady's maid or a shop assistant, which requires better English. 希： （粗鲁地）你瞧那个姑娘，英语说的那么糟糕，命中注定要在贫民窟里呆一辈子了。不 过，先生， （高傲地）要是一旦有人教她把英语说好了，她就可以在三个月以内冒充公爵夫 人出席大使主办的花园晚会了。 说不定我还可以给她找份工作， 当一名贵妇人的侍女或商店 的店员。这些工作都要求英语说得好呢。 E: What's that you say? A shop assistant? Now that's sommat I want, that is! 伊：你说啥来着？店员？这正是我想要做的，真的！ H: (ignores her) Can you believe that? 希： （不理睬她）你相信我说的话吗？ CP: Of course! I study many Indian dialects myself and ... 皮：当然相信。我自己就学了好多种印度语，而且…… H: Do you indeed? Do you know Colonel Pickering? 希：真的吗？那你认不认得皮克林上校呢？ CP: Indeed I do, for that is me. Who are you? 皮：当然认得，皮克林就是我。那么请问你贵姓？ H: I'm Henry Higgins and I was going to India to meet you. 希：我是亨利· 希金斯。我还打算要去印度见你呢。 CP: And I came to England to make your acquaintance! 皮：我也正是到英国来找你的！ E: What about me? How'll you help me? 伊：我呢？你们怎么帮助我呢？ H: Oh, take that. (carelessly throws a handful of money into her basket) We must have a
celebration, my dear man. (leave together) 希：啊，拿去吧！ （漫不经心地朝她的篮子里扔去一把钱）好老兄，我们该美美地庆祝一番 了。 （一道离去） E: (looking at the collected money in amazement) Well, I never. A whole pound! A fortune! That'll help me, indeed it will. Tomorrow I'll find you, Henry Higgins. Just you wait and see! All that talk of (imitates him) "authentic English" ... (in her own voice) I'll see whether you can get that for me ... (goes out) 伊：(惊奇地看着收集起来的钱)啊，我还从来没有见过！整整一个英镑呢！一笔财富呀！这 的确给我帮大忙了。真的。明天我一定去找你，亨利· 希金斯。等着瞧吧！你那口（模仿他 的声音）―真正的英语‖……（用自己的声音）我倒要看看你能不能帮我找到……（离去）
8.选修八 Unit4 Act Two, Scene 1 MAKING THE BET 第二幕 第一场 打赌 It is 11am in Henry Higgins' house the next day. Henry Higgins and Colonel Pickering are sitting deep in conversation. 第二天上午11点， 在亨利· 希金斯家。 亨利同皮克林上校正坐着深 切地交谈。 H: Do you want to hear any more sounds? 希：你还想不想听听更多的发音呢？ CP: No, thank you. I rather fancied myself because I can pronounce twenty-four distinct vowel sounds; but your one hundred and thirty beat me. I can't distinguish most of them. 皮：不听了，谢谢。我本来还很自负的，因为我能清晰地发出24个元音来。而你发出了130 个元音，其中多数我都分辨不清。你赢我了。 H: (laughing) Well, that comes with practice. 希： （笑起来）这都是练习的结果。 There is a knock and Mrs Pearce (MP), the housekeeper, comes in with cookies, a teapot, some cream and two cups. 敲门声起，皮尔斯夫人（管）带着甜点、茶壶、奶酒和两个杯子进来。 MP: (hesitating) A young girl is asking to see you. 管： （犹豫地）一个年轻姑娘求见你。 H: A young girl! What does she want? 希：年轻姑娘！她想要什么？
MP: Well, she's quite a common kind of girl with dirty nails.I thought perhaps you wanted her to talk into your machines. 管：哦，很普通的一个年轻姑娘，手指甲脏兮兮的。我本来还以为你是要她来对着机器讲话 的呢。 H: Why? Has she got an interesting accent? We'll see.Show her in, Mrs Pearce. 希：怎么啦？她的口音很有趣吗？咱们来看看吧。皮尔斯夫人，带她进来。 MP: (only half resigned to it) Very well, sir. (goes downstairs) 管： （半听不听地）好吧，先生。 （随即向楼下走去） H: This is a bit of luck. I'll show you how I make records on wax disks ... 希：还真是运气，我让你看看我是怎样在唱片上录音的。 MP: (returning) This is the young girl, sir. (Eliza comes into the room shyly following Mrs. Pearce. She is dirty and wearing a shabby dress. She curtsies to the two men.) 管： （返回来）先生，这就是那个年轻姑娘。 （伊莱扎跟在皮尔斯夫人后边羞怯地走进房来。 她穿着破旧的衣服，还脏兮兮的。进来就朝两位先生行屈膝礼。 H: (disappointed) Why! I've got this girl in my records. She's the one we saw the other day. She's no use at all. Take her away. 希： （失望地）好啦，我已经给这个年轻姑娘做过记录了。她就是那天我们见到过的那个， 现在根本没有用了，带她走吧！CP: (gently to Eliza) What do you-want, young lady? 皮： （温和地）年轻姑娘，你想要干什么？ E: (upset) I wanna be a lady in a flower shop 'stead o' selling flowers in the street. But they won't take me 'less I speak better. So here I am, ready to pay him. I'm not asking for any favours - and he treats me like dirt. 伊： （不安地）我想在花店里当卖花姑娘，不想到街上去卖花了。但是他们不会要我，除非 我讲话讲得好些，所以我来了，准备付给他钱。我并不是求他帮忙——可他把我当下贱人看 待。 H: How much? 希：你给多少钱？ E: (happier) Now yer talking. A lady friend of mine gets French lessons for two shillings an hour from a real Frenchman. You wouldn't have the face to ask me for the same for teaching me as yer would for French. So I won't give yer more than a shilling.
伊： （比较高兴地）啊，你发话了。我的一位女朋友跟一个真正的法国人学法文，每小时两 先令。你总不会好意思要我付跟法语同样多的钱吧。所以我最多给你一个先令。 H: (ignoring Eliza and speaking to Pickering) If you think of how much money this girl has - why, it's the best offer I've had! (to Eliza) But if I teach you, I'll be worse than a father. 希： （不理睬伊莱扎，而跟皮克林说）要是你想到这个年轻姑娘身上能有多少钱，那么，这 就是我能得到的最高薪俸了！ （对伊莱扎说）不过，要是我来教你，我会比当爸爸的还要严 格。 CP: I say, Higgins. Do you remember what you said last night? I'll say you're the greatest teacher alive if you can pass her off as a lady. I'll be the referee for this little bet and pay for the lessons too ... 皮：喂，希金斯。你还记得昨天晚上你说过的话吗？如果你能使她冒充一位贵夫人，那么我 说你就是一位最了不起的教师了。我会为这个小赌当裁判，而且课时费由我来付。 E: (gratefully) Oh, yer real good, yer are. Thank you, Colonel. 伊： （感激地）啊！你真好，真好。谢谢你，上校。 H: Oh, she is so deliciously low. (compromises) OK, I'll teach you. (to Mrs Pearce) But she'll need to be cleaned first. Take her away, Mrs Pearce. Wash her and burn her horrible clothes. We'll buy her new ones. What's your name, girl? 希：哦，她真是粗俗得可爱！ （提出折衷办法）好吧，我教你。 （对皮尔斯夫人说）不过，她 得先把自己洗干净了。把她带下去，皮尔斯夫人。给她洗一洗，把那身可怕的脏衣服全部烧 掉。我们给她买新的。姑娘，你叫什么名字？ E: I'm Eliza Doolittle and I'm clean. My clothes went to the laundry when I washed last week. 伊：我叫伊莱扎· 杜立特尔。我是干净的，上个礼拜才洗过澡。 MP: Well, Mr Higgins has a bathtub of his own and he has a bath every morning. If these two gentlemen teach you, you'll have to do the same. They won't like the smell of you otherwise. 管：希金斯先生有自己的浴缸。他每天早晨都要洗澡。如果你要这两位先生教你，你就得照 着办。另外，他们不想闻到你身上的那股气味。 E: (sobbing) I can't. I dursn't. It ain't natural and it'd kill me. I've never had a bath in my life; not over my whole body, neither below my waist nor taking my vest off. I'd never have come if I'd known about this disgusting thing you want me to do ... 伊： （哭泣）我不能，我不敢。这太别扭了，会要我的命的。我这一生从来没有在浴缸里洗
澡过，特别是全身浸泡，冲洗腰部以下或者把我的背心拿走我也算是不会洗的。要是我知道 你要我做这样的丑事，我是绝不会来的。 H: Once more, take her away, Mrs Pearce, immediately. (Outside Eliza is still weeping with Mrs Pearce) You see the problem, Pickering. It'll be how to teach her grammar, not just pronunciation. She's in need of both. 希：我再说一遍，把她带走，皮尔斯夫人，立刻带走。 （伊莱扎跟皮尔斯夫人出去了，还在 哭泣） 皮克林，你看到麻烦了吧。 不仅仅是语音问题， 还得教语法呢。 这两个方面她都需要。 CP: And there's another problem, Higgins. What are we going to do once the experiment is over? 皮：希金斯，还有一个问题。一旦试验完成了，我们准备做什么呢？ H: (heartily) Throw her back.
希： （兴奋地）把她扔回去。 CP: But you cannot overlook that! She'll be changed and she has feelings too. We must be practical, mustn't we? 皮：你可不能小看这个问题了！她是会变的，她也是有感情的。我们必须实际一些，难道不 是吗？ H: Well, we'll deal with that later. First, we must plan the best way to teach her. 希：这个以后再谈吧。首先咱们得制定一个最好的教学计划。 CP: How about beginning with the alphabet. That's usually considered very effective ... (fades out as they go offstage together) 皮：先从字母教起，怎么样？通常认为那是最有效的……（两人一道朝台下走去，声音逐渐 减弱）
9.选修八 Unit 5 A VISIT TO THE ZHOUKOUDIAIN CAVES 周口店洞穴参观记 A group of students (S) from England has come to the Zhoukoudian caves for a visit. An archaeologist (A) is showing them round. 一群英国学生（学）来到周口店洞穴参观，有一位 考古学家（考）正领着他们参观。 A: Welcome to the Zhoukoudian caves here in China. It is a great pleasure to meet you students from England, who are interested in archaeology. You must be aware that it's here that we found evidence of some of the earliest people who lived in this part of the world. We've been excavating here for many years and ...
考： 欢迎到中国来参观周口店洞穴。 很高兴见到你们这些来自英国并且对考古学感兴趣的学 生。你们想必都很清楚，正是在这个地方，我们找到了居住在世界上这个部分最早人类的证 据。 我们在这儿进行的挖掘工作已经很多年了， 而且……S1: I'm sorry to interrupt you but how could they live here? There are only rocks and trees. 学1：对不起，打断了你的讲话。请问他们怎么能够住在这个地方呢？这儿只有石头和树木 啊。 A: Good question. You are an acute observer. We have found human and animal bones in those caves higher up the hill as well as tools and other objects. So we think it is reasonable to assume they lived in these caves, regardless of the cold. 考：问得好。你是个敏锐地观察者。在高山上的那些洞穴里我们找到了人骨和兽骨，还有工 具和其他物品。因此，我们有理由认为他们不顾严寒，就住在这些洞穴里。 S2: How did they keep warm? They couldn't have mats, blankets or quilts like we do. It must have been very uncomfortable. 学2：那他们是怎样取暖的呢？他们不可能像我们现在这样有垫子、毯子和被子。想必是很 不舒服的了。 A: We've discovered fireplaces in the centre of the caves where they made fires. That would have kept them warm, cooked the food and scared wild beasts away as well. We have been excavating layers of ash almost six metres thick, which suggests that they might have kept the fire burning all winter. We haven't found any doors but we think they might have hung animal skins at the cave mouth to keep out the cold during the freezing winter. 考：我们发现在洞穴中央有生火用的地炉。他们用地炉里的火来取暖、做饭，还可以用火来 吓跑野兽。我们一直在挖掘一层层的积灰，几乎有六米厚，这意味着他们可能整个冬天都在 烧火。 我们还没有找到门， 但我们认为在天寒地冻的冬季他们可能是用兽皮挂在洞口来防寒 的。 S3: What wild animals were there all that time ago? 学3：在那以前有些什么野兽呢？ A: Well, we've been finding the bones of tigers and bears in the caves, and we think these were their most dangerous enemies. Now what do you think this tells us about the life of these early people? (shows picture of a sewing needle) 考：嗯，我们在洞里陆续发现老虎和熊的骨头。我们认为，这些野兽对他们来讲是最危险的
敌人了。现在，你们看这个东西能告诉我们有关早期人类生活的什么情况呢？（指着一张画 有针线的照片让大家看） S2.: Gosh! That's a needle. Goodness, does that mean they repaired things? 学2：哎呀，那是一根针。天哪，难道他们还会修补东西吗？ A: What else do you think it might have been used for? 考：除此之外，你认为还可能派别的什么用场吗？ S4: Let me look at it. It's at most three centimetres long. Ah yes, it seems to be made of bone. I wonder how they made the hole for the ... 学4：让我看看。这个东西最多三厘米长，看起来像是骨头做的。我不知道他们是怎么样做 成针眼的。 S2: (interrupting) Do you mean that they made their own clothes? Where did they get the material? 学2： （插话）你是不是说他们自己做衣服穿？他们又是从哪里搞到衣料呢？ A: They didn't have material like we have today. Can you guess what they used? 考：他们没有像我们今天穿的这种衣料。你能猜出他们用的是什么吗？ Sl: Wow! Did they wear clothes made entirely of animal skins? How did they prepare them? I'm sure they were quite heavy to cut and sew together. 学1：哇，他们穿的衣服全都是用兽皮做的吗？他们那些衣服是怎么做成的？兽皮剪裁并缝 起来一定又厚又重啊。 A: Our evidence suggests that they did wear clothes made from animal skins. We continue discovering tools that were sharpeners for other tools. It seems that they used the sharpened stone tools to cut up animals and remove their skin. Then smaller scrapers were probably used to remove the fat and meat from the skin. After that they would rub an ample amount of salt onto the skin to make it soft. Finally, they would cut it and sew the pieces together. Quite a difficult and messy task! Now look at this. (shows a necklace) 考：我们有证据表明，他们的确穿的是用兽皮制作的衣服。我们不断发现一些磨削其他工具 用的工具。 看样子他们可能是用磨尖的石器来切割野兽并剥皮， 可能再用小一些的刮子把皮 上的脂肪和肉去掉。然后他们可能在兽皮上擦上大量的盐，使皮变柔软。最后进行剪裁，缝 起来就成了。确实是既难又脏的活！现在来看看这个吧。 （指着一串项链） S2:Why, it's a primitive necklace. Did early people really care about their appearance like we do? It's lovely!
学2：哎呀！这是一条原始的项链吧。早期人类也像我们现在一样讲究外貌吗？太漂亮了！ A:Yes, and so well preserved. What do you think it's made of?. 考：是的，还保存得很好呢。你们看看是用什么做的？ S4:Let me see. Oh, I think some of the beads are made of animal bones but others are made of shells. 学4：我来摸摸看。我想，有的珠子是用兽骨做的，有的是用贝壳做的，对吗？ A:How clever you are! One bone is actually an animal tooth and the shells are from the seaside. Can you identify any other bones? 考：你真聪明！有块骨头实际上是用野兽的牙齿，贝壳是从海边捡来的。你还认得别的骨头 吗？ S1:This one looks very much like a fish bone. Is that reasonable? 学1：这根很像鱼骨头，对吗？ A:Yes, indeed, as the botanical analyses have shown us, all the fields around here used to be part of a large shallow lake. Probably there were fish in it. 考：很对。植物学的分析结果明确地告诉我们，这儿四周曾经是一个很大的浅水湖。当时湖 里可能是有鱼的。 S3:But a lake is not the sea. We are miles from the sea, so how did the seashells get here? 学3：不过，湖并不是海呀。我们离海还远着呢。那么，贝壳又是怎么来的呢？ A:Perhaps there was trade between early peoples or they travelled to the seaside on their journeys. We know that they moved around, following the herds of animals. They didn't grow their own crops, but picked fruit when it ripened and hunted animals. That's why they are called hunters and gatherers. Now, why don't we go and visit the caves? 考：早期人类之间也许有贸易往来，或者他们也可能旅行到海边去。我们知道，他们跟着兽 群四处走。他们并不种植谷物，而是在野果熟了的时候采摘它们并捕杀野兽来充饥。这就是 他们被称之为猎人和采摘者的缘故。好了，咱们去参观洞穴好吗？
10.选修八 Unit 5 THE FEAST: 18,000 BC 公元前一万八千年的一次盛宴 Worried about the preparations for her feast, Lala quickly turned for home with her collection of nuts, melons and other fruit.拉拉担心她这次盛宴的准备工作，所以赶紧把坚果、甜瓜和其 他水果收集起来就快步回家了。It was the custom of family groups to separate and then gather
again at different sites for reunions as they followed the animal herds across the grasslands.由于 在草原上放牧， 家族成员先分散开， 然后在不同的地方相聚， 这是他们的一个习俗。 wrinkle A appeared on her forehead.她的额头出现了一道皱纹。 only it could be just like last year!要是能 If 像去年那样就好了！At that time she had been so happy when Dahu chose her as the future mother of his children.当大胡选拉拉作未来孩子的母亲时，她觉得很高兴。He was the best toolmaker in the group and it was a great honour for her to be chosen.他是这个家族中最好的工 匠，被他选中对拉拉来说是莫大的荣幸。She remembered the blood pulsing through her veins. 她记得那时热血澎湃。 She had felt so proud as the group shouted loudly to applaud his choice. 当族人为他的选择欢呼鼓掌的时候，拉拉觉得非常自豪。If only she had looked ahead and planned better this year!她今年要是早有预见，计划得更好些就好了！Then she wouldn't have been feeling so worried now.那么她就不会这么担心了。 Having heard wolves howling in the forest, Lala accelerated her walk up the path to the caves fearing that there might be wild beasts lying in wait for her.听见狼群在森林里嚎叫， 拉拉加快了 回洞穴的步伐， 担心会有野兽在等着她。 She had no man with his spear to protect her.她身边没 有男人拿着矛来保护她。She had almost reached her destination when a delicious smell arrested her progress and she stopped.快到目的地的时候，一阵香气扑鼻，她不往前走了，停了下来。 So the men had brought home the meat for the feast!因此那个男人把肉带回了家用来设宴！The smell of cooking meat filled the air surrounding her, and her senses became dizzy with hunger.肉 的香味笼罩着她，使她因饥饿而头昏眼花。She could see her mother and the older children preparing the deer and pig meat over the fire.她看到母亲和大一些的孩子在烧烤鹿肉和猪肉， Her aunts were making clothes with animal skins.她姨妈在用兽皮做衣服。 Abruptly she sat down, only to be scooped up by her laughing, shouting sister, Luna.突然间她坐了下去，但又被她那又 笑又叫的妹妹卢娜一把搂了起来， Lala smiled with relief.拉拉宽慰地笑了， was good to have It her family around her.跟家人在一起实在是太好啦！ Just then a tall man came up behind her.就在这时候，她身后出来了一位高个子男人。He had a large, square face, with strongly pronounced eyebrows and cheekbones.他有一张宽大的方脸，眉 毛很重，颧骨突出，Over his shoulder he carried several fish and some pieces of wood under his arm 肩上扛着几条大鱼，腋下夹着一些木头。Lala smiled and handed some stone scrapers over to Dahu, who smiled and went outside the cave to begin his task.拉拉对大胡微笑着， 递给他一些 石头做的刮子。大胡也笑着，走出洞外，开始工作。
First he looked carefully at the scrapers and then went to a corner of the cave and pulled out some more tools.他先朝这些石刮子瞧了瞧，然后走到洞穴的一个角落，拖出来更多的工具。They were in a pile with other sharp arrowheads and stone axe-heads.这些工具同其它一些锐利的箭 头和石斧头堆放在一起。He chose one large stone and began to use it like a hammer striking the edge of the scraper that needed sharpening.他选了一个大块石头，用它做锤子敲打一个需要磨 快的石刮子边沿。Now and then Dahu would stop, look at it and try it against his hand before continuing his task.他时不时地停下来看看， 在手上试一试， 然后再继续工作。 stopped when He he felt the scrapers were sharp enough to cut up the meat and scrape the fish.当他觉得石刮子够 快，可以切肉刮鱼鳞了，他才停下来，As he passed them to Lala, the first of the guests from the neighbouring caves began to arrive for dinner.他把石刮子递给拉拉，这时候，第一批邻近洞穴 的客人就开始到来吃饭了。 Lala's spirits rose.拉拉情绪高涨起来。 Yes, it was going to be just as wonderful as last year!是的， 今年的盛宴一定会跟去年一样热闹！ smiled to herself gaily and She went out of the cave to welcome her friends and neighbours.她高兴地自己笑着，走出洞外，去 欢迎她的朋友和邻居。
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