由一个主语和一个谓语动词所组 成的句子是简单句。谓语动词有及物 动词、不及物动词和连系动词之分。 正是谓语动词的特点决定着句子的不 同结构，如连系动词后要接表语;大多 数及物动词后要接一个直接宾语，有 的及物动词要接直接宾语和间接宾语， 还有的及物动词要接复合宾语 (宾语+宾语补足语)．
句型一 主语+不及物动词Ｓ +Ｖ 此
句型的特点是: 谓语动词是 不及物动词,本身能表达完整的意 思,后面不需跟宾语,但有时可跟副 词、介词短语等作状语。如： I agree. She studies hard. My brother works in Beijing. I am reading now.
1. Time 2. The moon 3. The man 4. We all 5. Everybody 6. I 7. They 8. He 9. He 10.They
flies. rose. cooked. eat and drink. laughed. woke. talked for half an hour. walked yesterday. is playing. have gone.
(1)不及物动词不能直接加宾语。如 agree, lie, work, argue, belong, come, go, reply等。 (2) 不及物动词加一个介词后构成动词 短语可以加宾语。如agree with, lie in, work at, argue with, belong to, come across, go to, reply to等。 (3) 有些动词既是及物动词又是不及物 动词。如begin, sell, write, wash, answer, read等。
例如： The meeting begins at half past nine. ( 不及物动词 ) The professor began his speech directly. ( 及物动词 ) The books of this kind sell well and he will sell them. (第一个sell为不及物动词，而第二个sell 是及物动词)。
1. 指出划线部分动词的词性，是及物动词还 是不及物动词。 (1) Speak aloud so that everyone can follow you. ( 不及物 ) (2) Besides Japanese, he can also speak Spanish. ( 及物 ) (3) His father used to work hard to make much money. ( 不及物 ) (4) I intended to lie to him, but failed. ( 不及物 ) (5) Unfortunately, I failed the driving test. ( 及物 )
2. 在每一空格上填上恰当的介词。 (1) I don’t agree _____ with you completely. I have my own opinion. (2) The dictionary is not Tom’s. It belongs _____ to me. up (3) Use your head, and you will think _____ some ways to solve the problem. at (4) To improve my English, I work hard _____ it. at (5) Look _____ the cloudy sky! It is going to rain.
此句型的特点是: 谓语动词是及物动词, 不能表达完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语。如： (1) I am reading a story book. (2) My mother is doing the housework. (3) Lily likes apples very much. (4) We watched a football match yesterday. (5) I don’t want to play with them. (6) I am going to play basketball this afternoon.
如：Doing morning exercises benefits our health. (1) I wrote a passage last night. I wrote a passage last night. (2) I doubt whether he will join us in the debate. I doubt whether he will join us in the debate. (3) We missed going to college for that reason. We missed going to college for that reason. (4) What he said touched me greatly. What he said touched me greatly.
句型三 主语+连系动词+表语 此句型的特点是: 谓语动词是 连系动词,不能表达完整的意思,必 须加上一个表明主语特征、身份、 状态的表语。
1. This 2. The dinner 3. He 4. Everything 5. He 6. The book 7. The weather 8. His face
is smells(闻) felt looks is is became turned
an English dictionary. good. happy. different. tall and strong. interesting. warmer. red.
(1) 系动词的三种分类：我们学过的表示“保持或 状态”类的有be, remain, stay, keep, prove等； 表示“变化趋势”类的有grow, turn, get, become, fall, go, come , seem, appear等；表示“感官” 类的有look, sound, smell, taste, feel等。例如： I am a senior school student while he is a junior one. 我是高中生，他是初中生。 After four years, Tom became a doctor. 四年后，汤姆成了一名医生。 The story sounds interesting and instructive. 这故事听起来既有趣，又有教育意义。
(2) 可以充当表语的有形容词、名词、副词 (短语)、介词短语、表语从句、分词(短语)等。 例如： In order to keep healthy, he takes exercise everyday. (形容词作表语) In my mind, mother is my hero. (名词作表语) Look! Your pet dog is there. (副词作表语)
The schoolbags come in different sizes. (介词短语作表语)
You’ve changed a lot. You are not what you were. (表语从句作表语)
Many passengers got injured in the accident. (过去分词作表语) The machine keeps running for a long time. （现在分词短语作表语） My job is teaching you English. （动名词作表语） She is reading a story book. （主+谓+宾 结构）
(3) 使用系动词应注意的地方：第一，没有被 动语态；第二，一般没有进行时(除了feel 以外)；第三，有些动词既是系动词又是普 通动词。如：keep, grow, taste, feel, get, smell等。第四，非谓语一般用现在分词。 例如：After two days’ treatment, he felt well again. (不用was felt) He remains an excellent engineer in the factory. (不用 is remained)
比较以下句子： The pet dog keeps clean. It is kept by Johnson. (keeps是系动词，而kept是及物动词) We grew some trees around our school and they grow green now. (grew是及物动词，而grow是系动词) Just now I felt the table and it felt smooth. (第一个felt是及物动词，而第二个是系动词)
选择一个合适的词或根据汉语提示填空， 注意动词的适当形式。 (1) I ________(remain) a nurse while he has remain _______(turn ) an engineer. turned (2) Put the meat in the refrigerator (冰箱).
goes It __________ (go ) bad easily.
sounds (3) What he said __________(sound / look / smell / taste) reasonable. comfortable (4) He feels __________(comfortable / comfortably) working in the air-conditioned office.
(5) We do morning exercises to __________(keep / turn / become) healthy. keep
tastes (6) The apple __________(tastes / is tasted) sweet. quiet (7) Please keep ________ (quiet / quietly ); asleep The baby has fallen _____(sleep /asleep).
(8) They work day and night to make their true dream come ____(truth /true).
句型四 主语+及物动词+双宾语 （间接宾语+直接宾语） 此句型的特点是: 谓语动词跟 有两个宾语,这两个宾语都是动作 的对象或承受者,其中指人的是间 接宾语,指物的是直接宾语。当间 接宾语放在直接宾语之后时,通常 需要加介词for或to。
（1）双宾语指直接宾语与间接宾语。一般 地说，宾语指人为间接宾语，宾语指物为 直接宾语。例如： My father bought me a car.
主语 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语
The singer sang
some advice on learning English.
（2）如果直接宾语放在及物动词之后、间 接宾语之前，那么两个宾语之间应有一个 介词(to, for等)。 My father bought a car for me.
主语 主语 主语 谓语 直接宾语 谓语 直接宾语 谓语 间接宾语 间接宾语
The singer sang another song for us. The teacher offered some advice
on learning English to
在每一空格上填上一个恰当的介词。 (1) Mother bought a birthday cake ______me. for to (2) Give another apple_____her. She likes it. (3) The company will provide some for drinks ______ the volunteers.
句型五 主语+及物动词+复合宾语 (宾语+宾补) 此句型的特点是:谓语动词虽然跟有 一个宾语,但意思还不完整,必须加 上另外一个成分(宾语补足语)对宾 语进行补充说明。可以用作宾语补 足语的有:名词、形容词、不定式、 动名词、分词、介词短语等
宾补是用来描述或说明宾语的动作、状态或特 征。宾语是宾补的逻辑主语(暗含的主语)。宾补 可由名词、代词、形容词、副词、介词短语、 不定式(短语)、分词(短语)等来充当。例如： Tell him to follow the instructions. (不定式短语作宾补) Tom made the baby laugh. (不带to的不定式laugh作宾补) They call him John. (名词作宾补) My father bought me a car. 主语 谓语 间接宾语 直接宾语
We saw the old man crossing the street when we walked. (现在分词短语作宾补) I tried my best to make the lesson a lively one. (不定代词one作宾补) What made you here? (副词作宾补) We found ourselves in great trouble. (介词短语作宾补) Don’t leave the machine working all day long. (现在分词短语作宾补)
根据汉语或英语提示在空格上填一个恰当的单 词。 in (1) Let him ________( 进来). stand (2) Let the student ________( 站) outside the classroom. bright 明亮). (3) We made our classroom ________( (4) Father have some employees working ________(work) all day and all night. (5) Did you have your bicycle repaired ________(repair)?
cross (6) I saw him ________(cross) the road. to cross He was seen ________ (cross) the road. reading (7) He kept us ________(read) the story once and again． in the cage (8) The keeper kept the monkey ________ (在笼子里). stolen (9) Jenny had her money ________( 偷了). (10) I found myself ________ surrounded (surround) by some snakes.
(11) I would like to see the plan carried ________(carry) out. started (12) Who got the machine ________(start)? to wait (13) Jim asked me ________(wait) him at the school gate. to stand (14) The boy was made ________(stand) outside the room. to smoke (15) Don’t allow the guests ________(smoke) here.
简单句的句子成分分析 (主语、谓语、宾语) 句子的基本成分分析是高中英语语 法学习的基础准备。不会分析句子 成分，高中阶段的主要语法的学习， 如定语从句、名词性从句、非谓语 等就会显得十分困难。
句子成分是句子中起一定功用的组 成部分。句子的主要成分由主语和 谓语部分组成。句子的次要成分有 宾语、定语、状语、表语、补语、 同位语等。其中，补语与同位语在 高中阶段较常见。
例如： The trees on the mountain grow (主语) (定语修饰主语) (系动词) green in the spring. (表语) (状语) Who left the guest waiting (主语) (谓语) (宾语) (补语) in the meeting room so long? (状语)
在括号内写出以下句子划线部分的基本成分。 1. They are workers from China. (主语) (系动词) (表语) (定语 ) 2. The singer made himself known. (主语) (谓语) (宾语) (宾补) 3. My classmates sent their best (定语) (主语) (谓语) (定语) (定语) wishes to me. (直接宾语) (间接宾语)
主语是句子的主体，是谓语陈述 或说明的对象。正常语序的句子的 主语在谓语动词前面或系动词前面。 充当主语的词性有名词、代词、数 词等.
例如： Deer are animals. (主语由名词deer来充当) Everything goes well. (主语由代词everything来充当) 99 is larger than 98. (主语由数词99来充当)
以下充当主语的情况在高中阶 段较为常见。它们是：不定式、动 名词等形式充当主语，动名词短语、 不定式短语充当主语以及主语从句 充当主语。例如： To say is one thing and to do is another thing. (主语由不定式to say和to do来充当)
To host a party is not an easy thing. (主语由不定式短语to host a party来充当) Swimming does good to one’s health. (主语由动名词swimming来充当) Walking his pet dog every day is his favorite. (主语由动名词短语walking his pet dog every day来充当) What he said hurt me greatly. (主语由what he said这一主语从句来充当)
在以下句子的主语部分加下划线并在 括号内写出主语的词性、充当主语的形 式、短语或句子。
You, he and I are all senior school students. You, he and I are all senior school students. (代词) Nothing is more important than EQ. Nothing is more important than EQ. (代词)
To learn a foreign language calls for patience. To learn a foreign language calls for patience. (不定式短语) Being honest will pay. Being honest will pay. (动名词短语) Where his mother will go is a secret. Where his mother will go is a secret. (主语从句)
谓语说明主语的动作、行为、特征或状 态，谓语动词说明主语所表示的人物“干 什么”或“怎么样”。谓语动词有不及物 动词、系动词和及物动词三大类。谓语动 词必须反映出人称、单复数、时态等信息， 除了一般现在时和一般过去时的主被动形 式外，谓语动词往往由下列词语中的两个 或两个以上依序排列构成：情态动词+时态 助动词+语态助动词+主要动词。如：
will have been planted
例如： The bike went wrong again. (went 作谓语，系动词) Most of my classmates work hard. (work作谓语，不及物动词) He told me his experience in America. (told作谓语，及物动词)
Some students are making much noise in the classroom now. (are making作谓语) We will stay at the school at the weekend. (will stay作谓语) Many flowers will have been planted by the end of the year. (will have been planted作谓语)
将以下句子的谓语动词部分划线。 1. The old lady keeps healthy by taking exercise every day. The old lady keeps healthy by taking exercise every day. 2. Our old books have been sold out already. Our old books have been sold out already.
3. Does he go to work at eight? Does he go to work at eight? 4. Are you watching football games now? Are you watching football games now? 5. You shall be bought a new MP4 player next month. You shall be bought a new MP4 player next month.
宾语表示行为的对象。宾语放在及 物动词或者介词之后。可以充当宾 语的有名词、代词、数词、不定式、 动名词、不定式短语、动名词短语、 宾语从句等。
The factory makes paper. (名词作宾语) I will make it one day. (代词作宾语) The price increased by 10%. (数词作宾语) They planned to go ahead of time. (不定式作宾语)
Do you like swimming? (动名词作宾语) Some students asked to act as volunteers. (不定式短语作宾语) I forgot telling him the story. (动名词短语作宾语) Do you know where he lives? (宾语从句作宾语)
根据汉语提示将以下句子的宾语译成英语。 school 1. I like my new ________( 学校) and my classmates 同学). _________( 2. I only told you the secret. Who made it ________( 它) known? to have ______ a 3. Do you want ______ ______ rest / break （ 休息一下）？ ______ working 工作) and go out for 4. Let’s stop ______( a change. what ______ I 5. Can you understand ______ said ______( 我所说的话) just now?
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