MODULE 1 Great European Cities PARIS Paris is the capital and largest city of France, situated on the River Seine. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world and is visited by more t
han eight million tourists every year. The most popular place for tourists is the Eiffel Tower, the famous symbol of Paris. One of the world's largest art galleries, the Louvre, is also located in Paris. The city is also famous for its restaurants, cafes and theatres. About two-thirds of France's artists and writers live in Paris. BARCELONA Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain and is situated on the northeast coast, about five hundred kilometres east of the Spanish capital, Madrid. One of Barcelona's most famous landmarks is the Church of the Sagrade Familia, which was designed by an architect called Antonio Gaudi. Gaudi worked on the project from 1882 until his death in 1926.The church hasn't been finished yet! FLORENCE Florence is an Italian city which became famous because of the Renaissance, a great artistic movement which began in the 1300s and lasted for three hundred years. During the Renaissance, some of the greatest painters of all time lived and worked in Florence. Many of Florence’s most beautiful paintings and sculptures were produced by great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Florence is visited each year by about a million tourists who come to see the art galleries, churches, and museums. The Uffizi Palace is the most famous art gallery in the city. ATHENS Athens, the capital of Greece, is known as the birthplace of western civilisation. Two thousand four hundred years ago, it was the world's most powerful city. Buildings such as the Parthenon on the Acropolis Hill were built during this period. Greece's best writers lived in ancient Athens. Their work has influenced other writers ever since.
巴黎是法国最大的城市和首都， 坐落于塞纳河。 这是世界上最美丽的城市之一并且每年有超 过八百万的旅游者到这里旅游。最著名的景点就是埃弗尔铁塔，也是法国著名的标志。最著 名的艺术长廊就是罗浮宫，也坐落于法国。这座城市同样因它的餐厅，咖啡，剧院而出名。 大约三分之二的法国艺术家和作家都定居法国。 巴塞罗那是西班牙第二大的城市， 坐落于海岸的东北方， 距离西班牙的东部首都马德里还有 大约 500 公里。 巴塞罗那最著名的标志性建筑之一就是圣家大教堂， 它是由建筑师安东尼奥 高迪设计的。高迪从 1882 年开始着手于这项工程，直到 1926 年他去世的那一年，这个教堂 还没有完工。 佛罗伦萨 佛罗伦萨是意大利所属的城市。它的久负盛名，是由于 14 世纪开始并持续三百年之久的文 艺复兴。在文艺复兴期间，一些最伟大的画家一直在佛罗伦萨生活和工作。大部分出色的油 画和雕刻都是出自达芬奇和米开朗基罗这一类的伟大艺术家之手。 每年到佛罗伦萨来参观那 些艺术画廊、教堂和博物馆的游客高达百万人。乌菲齐宫殿是该城市中最著名的艺术画廊。 雅典 雅典，作为希腊的首都，是因西方文明的发源地而出名。2400 年前，它是世界上实力最雄 厚的城市。 雅典卫城上的帕台农神庙这一类的建筑都是在这个阶段修建的。 希腊最著名的作 家们都曾经在古希腊居住过。从那时起他们的作品一直对其他作家有着影响深远。
MODULE 2 The Human Development Report In the year 2000, 147 world leaders agreed to work together to reduce poverty by 2015 or earlier. From this agreement came the Human Development Report. One of the most important sections of this report is The Human Development Index. This examines the achievements of 175 countries. The index measures a country's achievements in three ways: life expectancy (how long people usually live), education and income. The index has some surprises. Norway is at the top of the list, while the US is at number 7. The other top five countries are: Iceland (2), Sweden (3), Australia (4), the Netherlands (5). The UK is in the thirteenth position, while China is in the middle of the list. The bottom ten countries are all African countries, with Sierra Leone (in West Africa) at the bottom of the list. The report describes eight development goals. The most important goals are to: 1）reduce poverty and hunger; 2）make sure that all children have education up to the age of 11; 3）fight AIDS and other diseases; 4）improve the environment of poor people, e.g. make sure they have safe drinking water; 5）encourage developed countries to give more help to other countries. The 2003 Human Development Report gives examples of successful development. For example, in nine years (1953–1962), China increased life expectancy by 13 years. In the last ten years in China, 150 million people moved out of poverty. However, the challenges are still great. Every day 799 million people in developing countries are hungry. Over half of these are in South Asia or Africa. Although more than 80% of children in developing countries go to primary school, about 115 million children are not being educated. More than 1 billion people in developing countries do not drink safe water. However, in other regions of the world, e.g. Eastern Europe, water is now mostly safe to drink. The report shows that we are making some progress but that we need to make greater efforts. Although developed countries give some financial help, they need to give much more. Interestingly, the countries that give the most money are the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. These are among the five richest countries in the world, so it is right that they should do so. 人类发展报告 在 2000 年， 来自世界各国的 147 位领导人一致同意共同努力到 2015 年或在 更早的时间减少贫困。 由此产生了人类发展报告。 这份报告一个最重要的部分是人类发展 指标。它审阅了 175 个国家的发展成就。指标从三个方面衡量一个国家的成就：寿命、教育 和收入。这项指标显示了一些令人意外的情况。挪威高居榜首，而美国则排在第七。位于前 五位的其他国家是：冰岛（2） ，瑞典（3）澳大利亚（4）荷兰（5） 。英国位居第十三位，而 中国处于中等地位。处于末端的十个国家均是非洲国家，塞拉利昂（西非）排在最后。 报 告描述了八个发展目标。其中最重要的是： 减少贫穷和饥饿； 确保所有儿童 11 岁之前 都能接受教育； 对抗艾滋病和其他疾病； 改善穷苦人民的环境，例如，确保他们有安全 饮用水； 鼓励发达国家给予其他国家更多的帮助。 2003 年人类发展报告列举了一些成 功发展的例子。譬如，在九年（1953-1962）的时间里，中国的人均寿命增加了 13 岁。过去 的十年之内，中国有 1.5 亿人脱贫。然而，挑战仍很严峻。在发展中国家，每天有 7.99 亿人 在挨饿。其中一半以上的人来自南亚或非洲。虽然发展中国家 80%以上的儿童能上小学， 但仍有 1.15 亿的孩子得不到教育。发展中国家里十多亿的人喝不上安全的饮用水。当然在 世界的其它地方，例如东欧，现在的饮用水大多是安全的。 报告显示我们正在进步，但是 我们必须做出更大的努力。 虽然发达国家提供了一些经济援助， 但是提供援助的数量应该大 大增加。有趣的是，捐钱最多的国家是荷兰、挪威和瑞典。它们都属于世界上五个最富的国 家，所以他们这样做是合情合理的。
MODULE 3 What Is a Tornado? A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. The most violent have winds of more than 400 kilometres per hour. Almost all of them occur in the US, in the area from Texas in the southeast to South Dakota in the north. Tornadoes can pick up cars, trains and even houses and put them down in the next street—or even in the next town. They can take the fur off the back of a cat and the feathers off a chicken. They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. On average, there are 800 tornadoes in the US each year, causing about 80 deaths and 1,500 injuries. The worst tornado of all time occurred in 1925, affecting three US states: Missouri, Illinois and Indiana. By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and 2,700 had been injured. What Is a Hurricane? Hurricanes are strong tropical storms, and they usually occur in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. There are violent winds of 120 kilometres per hour or more, which cause huge waves, heavy rain and floods. There are on average six Atlantic hurricanes each year and they usually affect the east coast of the US from Texas to Maine. The worst hurricane disaster of all time occurred on the 8th September 1900 in Galveston, Texas. Winds of 200 kilometres per hour and five-metre high waves hit the city. The disaster killed 6,000 people in a population of 37,000 and destroyed 3,600 buildings. An Extraordinary Event This is a story about the 1900 Galveston hurricane. Charles Coghlan was a nineteenth-century Irish actor who went to live in Canada. He then moved to New York, where he became famous. By the late 1890s, he had moved to Galveston, where he died in 1899, a year before the hurricane struck. The cemetery where Coghlan was buried was destroyed by the hurricane and Coghlan's coffin ended up in the sea. Eight years later, the coffin was found by fishermen in the sea near his home on Prince Edward Island in the east of Canada. The Gulf Stream had carried it 3,000 kilometres up the eastern US coast to Prince Edward Island. Coghlan travelled back to Canada—after he had been buried in Texas! 什么是龙卷风？龙卷风是指一个从空中的雷暴延伸到地面而生成的旋转气柱。 最强烈的风速 可达每小时 400 多公里。 他们几乎都发生在美国， 从东南部的德克萨斯州到北部的南达科他 州。龙卷风能卷起汽车，火车，甚至房子，把它们卷到旁边的街道——甚至能卷到邻近的城 镇。它们能吹掉猫背后的毛和鸡身上的羽毛。他们能毁掉房子，却把房间类的家具留在原处 平均来说，美国每年发生大约 800 次龙卷风，造成大约 80 人死亡，1500 人受伤。最严重的 一次龙卷风发生在 1925 年，影响了美国的 3 个州，密苏里州。伊利诺伊州和印第安纳州。 等到风停时，已经有 700 多人死亡，2700 人受伤。 什么是飓风？飓风是强烈的热带风暴，它们通常发生在大西洋南部、加勒比海和墨西哥湾。 猛烈的飓风以 120 千米每小时甚至更快的速度移动，引起巨大的波浪，大雨和洪水。平均每 年会发生 6 次大西洋飓风， 通常会影响美国东部海岸从得克萨斯州到缅因州。 最严重的飓风 灾害是 1900 年 9 月 8 日发生在得克萨斯州的加尔维斯顿，飓风以 200 千米每小时的速度卷 起 5 米高的波浪向城市袭来，那次灾害夺去了 37000 人口中的 6000 条人命，摧毁了 3600 栋建筑物。 一个离奇的事件 这是一个关于 1900 年的加尔维斯顿飓风的故事。查尔斯?科格伦是 19 世 纪一位居住在加拿大的爱尔兰演员，那时，他搬到纽约并在那里出了名，19 世纪 90 年代后 期，他搬到了加尔维斯顿，并于 1899 年，也就是飓风来袭的前一年去世。埋葬科格伦的公 墓被飓风摧毁了，科格伦的棺材最后被卷入了大海。八年之后，科格伦的棺材在加拿大东部 的爱德华王子岛省被一位渔夫在离他家不远的海里发现了。墨西哥湾流载着它漂了 3000 千 米沿着美国东海岸漂到了爱德华王子岛省。被葬在得克萨斯州后，科格伦又漂回了加拿大。
MODULE 4 Sandstorms in Asia Sandstorms have been a major disaster for many Asian countries for centuries. Scientists have tried many ways to solve this problem and in China, a mass campaign has been started to help solve it. Sandstorms are strong, dry winds that carry sand. They are often so thick that you cannot see the sun, and the wind is sometimes strong enough to move sand dunes. The four main places in the world where there are sandstorms are Central Asia, North America, Central Africa and Australia. Ren Jianbo, from Inner Mongolia described a terrible sandstorm he experienced as a child in the desert.―To have been caught in a sandstorm was a terrible experience,‖ he said. ―There was nothing to be done. It was the most frightening and the most dangerous situation I've ever been in. You just had to hope you'd survive. I thought I was going to disappear under the sand.‖ Northwest China is part of the sandstorm centre in Central Asia. Sandstorms begin in desert areas. Sandstorms in China appear to have increased in recent years as a result of ―desertification‖. This is a process that happens when land becomes desert because of climate changes and because people cut down trees and dig up grass. Sandstorms sometimes affect Beijing. Citizens wake up to an orange sky and strong winds that cover the city in a thick, brown-yellow dust. The storms sometimes continue all day and traffic moves very slowly because the thick dust makes it difficult to see. The Chinese Central Weather Station can forecast a sandstorm some weeks before it arrives in Beijing, but the strength of the storm sometimes surprises people. When a sandstorm arrives in the city, weather experts advise people not to go out. Huang Xiaomei, who lives in Beijing says, “To be cycling in a sandstorm is frightening. The winds are very strong. It's difficult to breathe and the dust makes me ill. So if you want to go out, you'd better wear a mask.‖ The desert is only 250 kilometres away to the west of Beijing. To prevent it coming nearer, the government is planting trees. Already the government has planted more than 30 billion trees and plans to continue planting for the next five years. 亚洲沙尘暴 几个世纪以来，沙尘暴已经成为很多亚洲国家的严重灾害。科学家已经想了 很多办法来解决这个问题，在中国，已经开展了一场帮助解决沙尘暴问题的大型战争。 沙 尘暴是带有沙石和尘土的强大而干燥的风。 沙尘暴通常很浓密以至于人们都看不见太阳， 有 时候， 风的强度大到可以掀动沙丘。 世界上四个主要的有沙尘暴的地方是： 亚洲中部、 北美、 非洲中部和澳大利亚。 来自内蒙古的任建波描述了他小时候在沙漠中经历过的一次严重的沙 尘暴， “被困在沙尘暴中是一种很可怕的经历， ”他说， “什么也干不了, 那是我遭遇过的最 可怕、最危险的境况，你只能希望自己能够幸存，我原以为我会消失在沙石底下。 ” 中国 西北是亚洲中央沙尘暴中心的一部分。沙尘暴开始于沙漠地带，近年来因为“沙漠化” ，中 国发生沙尘暴的次数明显增加了。 这是发生在由于气候变化以及人们砍伐树木、 开垦草地等 使得陆地变成沙漠时的过程。 有时候沙尘暴会影响北京， 市民醒来时， 发现昏黄的天空， 狂风夹着黄沙在城里肆虐。暴风有时持续一整天，因为浓密的尘土降低了能见度，所以车辆 等开得很慢。 中国中央气象台在沙尘暴到达北京前的几个星期就能预见到，但是风暴的 威力有时是惊人的。当沙尘暴到达一个城市时，专家会建议人们不要出门。居住在北京的黄 小梅说； “在沙尘暴中骑车是很可怕的，风力非常强，很难呼吸，而且尘土会让我得病，所 以如果你想出门，最好带上面罩。 ” 沙漠位于北京西边距离北京仅仅 250 千米，为了防 止沙漠进一步向北京延伸，政府正在植树。目前政府已经种了超过三十亿棵树，而且计划在 接下来的五年中继续植树。
MODULE 5 Philosophers of Ancient China Ancient China was a place where states were often at war with each other. But it was also a time when there were many great philosophers. Confucius(551BC-479BC) is the philosopher whose influence has been the greatest. He stressed the importance of kindness, duty and order in society. Chinese society was influenced by these ideas for more than 2,000 years. Mencius was a thinker whose teachings were very similar to those of Confucius. Mencius was born in 372 BC. His father died when he was young, and he was brought up by his mother, He became a student of Confucius's ideas, and was then given an important position in the government of a state. However, when he saw that the ruler was not following his advice, he resigned. For many years he travelled from state to state, teaching the principles of Confucius. He then became an adviser to another ruler. He spent his last years preparing a book of his teachings called The Book of Mencius. Mencius believed that the reason why man is different from animals is that man is good. He taught that if the government was kind, then people would be good. He believed that people were more important than rulers, and hated the state when it treated people badly. Mozi was another teacher who was very influential. Born in 476 BC, he came from a family which was very poor. He became famous for his unusual clothes and behaviour. Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism. In some ways, his beliefs were similar to those of Confucius. For example, he considered that government was most important. As a result, he spent many years trying to find a state where people would follow his teachings. Mozi believed that all men were equal. His idea of love was different from the Confucian idea of kindness. Mozi taught that we should love all human beings and look after those who are weaker than ourselves. He hated the idea of war. Mozi died in 390 BC.
中国古代的哲学家 古代中国各诸侯国之间经常发生战争。但那也是一个产生了许多哲学家的时期。孔子（公元 前 551-公元前 479）是影响最大的哲学家。他强调了仁爱、责任和社会秩序的重要性。中国 社会受孔子学说的影响已长达两千多年。 孟子是一位思想家， 他的理论和孔子的理论很相似。 孟子生于公元前 372 年，自小就丧父，他母亲把他抚养成人。他成为儒家弟子，并在一个国 家政府谋得很重要的职位。但是当他发现统治者并不听从他的建议时，他辞职了。好几年的 时间，他周游列国，宣扬儒家学说。然后他又成为了另一个统治者的顾问。他晚年一直在准 备记载他自己学说的书 《孟子》 。 孟子认为人区别于动物的本质就是人是性善的。 他主张 “仁 政” 、 “王道” ，提倡“民为重，君为轻” ，反对暴政。墨子是又一位极具影响力的先哲。 墨子于公元前 476 年出生于一个贫苦家庭。 他因为不同寻常的服装和行为举止而出名。 墨子 创立了墨家学派，他的理论在某些方面和孔子的理论相似。例如，他认为统治非常重要，因 此他花了好多年努力寻找一个人们愿意听从他的理论的国家。 墨子认为人人都是平等的， 他 主张的“兼爱”与孔子的“仁爱”不同。墨子认为我们必须爱护所有的人，照顾比我们弱小 的人。墨子反对统治者发动的侵略战争。墨子逝世于公元前 390 年。
MODULE 6 The Three Gorges Dam “Walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain” Mao Zedong wrote a poem in which he dreamed of ―Walls of stone to hold back clouds and rain till a smooth lake rises in the narrow gorges‖. Now his dream has come true. The power of the Yangtze River, which is the world's third longest river, has been harnessed by the Three Gorges Dam. The Three Gorges Dam, which is the biggest construction project in China since the building of the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, has been built to control flooding and provide hydro-electric power for the central region of China. The dam is nearly 200 metres high and 1.5 kilometres wide. It is the largest hydro-electric power station and dam in the world and has cost more than any other construction project in history. Sun Yat-sen, who was the leader of the 1911 Revolution, first suggested the ides of a dam across the Yangtze River in 1919. Three quarters of China's energy is produced by burning coal. In 1993, China used 1.2 billion tons of coal for heating and generating electricity. Unfortunately, burning coal causes serious air pollution and increases global warming. The dam will generate electricity equal to about 40 million tons of coal without causing so much air pollution. The reservoir has flooded 2 cities, 11 counties, 140 towns and more than 4,000 villages. More than a million people who lived in the region have moved from their homes. Now they're living a happy new life in different areas. The Three Gorges area is one of the most beautiful areas of China and the project has flooded some of China's most famous historical sites, including the Qu Yuan Temple, the Han Watchtower and the Moya Cliff carvings. About 800 historical relics have been submerged. Some of them are being removed and some are being put into museums.
三峡大坝 “更立西江石壁，截断巫山云雨”毛泽东写过一首词，在词中，他想象了“更立西江石壁， 截断巫山云雨，高峡出平湖”的壮丽景观。如今，他的理想变成了现实，世界第三长河—— 长江的水力已经被三峡大坝很好地利用了。 三峡大坝是中国自万里长城和京杭大运河以来最大的建筑工程， 它是作为防洪大坝和中国巨 型水利枢纽而建的。大坝高约 200 米，宽约 1.5 千米，是世界上最大的水力发电站和水坝， 耗资超过历史上其他所有的建筑工程。 孙中山是 1911 年的革命领袖， 他在 1919 年最先提出横跨长江建立大坝的想法。 中国四分之 三的能源是通过燃煤获得的。1993 年，中国燃掉了 12 亿吨煤用于供热和发电。遗憾的是， 燃煤造成严重的空气污染并使得全球变暖。大坝将要生产相当于燃烧 4000 万吨煤所产生的 电量，但却不会造成那么严重的空气污染。 水库淹没了 2 个城市、11 个县市、140 个城镇和 4000 多个村庄，超过一百万住在这个地区 的人们离开了他们的家乡。现在，他们在不同的地区过着幸福的生活。 三峡坝区是中国最美丽的地方之一，三峡工程淹没了一些中国著名历史遗迹，包括屈原祠、 汉阙、 摩崖石刻。大约有 800 个历史遗迹被水淹没，这些被淹没的遗迹有的搬迁到其他地 方了，有的搬到了博物馆。
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