V-ing 用法详解 v-ing 形式概述： v.-ing 形式包括传统语法的现在分词和动名词两部分，和动词不定式一样，它既具有动 词的时态和语态的特征；又具有名词、形容词和副词的特征，它可以在句中作主语、宾语， 表语、定语、 、状语、宾语补足语、主语补足语等。 v-ing 形式的时态和语态： 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 doing being done 完成式 having d
one having been done v.-ing 形式的一般式 V.-ing 形式的一般式，表示泛指动作，没有时间的区分；或动作发生在谓语动作的同时、 之前或之后。 用来泛指动作，没有时间的区分。 Seeking after knowledge is human nature． Travelling abroad can widen one’s outlook． Eating too much chocolate is bad for your teeth． 行为与主要动作同时发生，表示伴随。 The students came into the classroom laughing and talking． As she saw me，she came over smiling． 行为在主要动作之前或之后。 Antonio remembered sending his mother an email three times last month． Mr. Lee went out shutting the door behind him． v.-ing 形式的完成式： v.-ing 形式的完成式由“having + v.-ed 形式”构成，表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。 He doesn’t remember having promised me that． She regretted having missed the film． Having finished his homework，he went to bed． Having realized why he had failed in the exam， he has made up his mind to work harder from now on． v.-ing 形式的被动式 一般式的被动式由“being + v.-ed 形式”构成，表示句子主语是 v.-ing 形式的动作的承受者。 What’s the subject being discussed at the meeting? The large building being built(=which is being built) will be our school library． The highway being built will lead to Tanggu port． I still remember being taken to Hangzhou when I was a child． This problem is far from being settled． The squirrel was lucky．It missed being caught． He hated being laughed at．
You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere． v.-ing 形式的完成被动式由“having been + v.-ed 形式”构成，表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。 Having been given such a good chance，how could you not cherish it at all? Having been invited，he went to Japan to attend the conference． v.-ing 形式的否定式 v.-ing 形式的否定形式由 not 加 v.-ing 形式构成。 The boy made his father angry by not taking his medicine． I regret not being able to help you． Not having received an answer，he decided to write again． Not knowing his address and telephone number，we couldn’t get in touch with him． I’m sorry for not being present at your party in time． She hated herself for not having worked hard． v.-ing 形式的逻辑主语 当 V-ing 形式需要自己的逻辑主语时，一般在其前加物主代词或名词所有格。这种结构也称 之为 V-ing 形式的复合结构。在口语中，当这种结构用作宾语时，物主代词可以用宾格，名 词还可以用普通格来代替所有格。 I would appreciate your keeping it a secret. Would you mind my/me using your computer? She insisted on Peter’s / Peter going there first. My coming late a second time made Mr Smith angry. 名词化的口 v.-ing 形式 有些 v.-ing 形式可以进一步名词化，即具有更多的名词的特点.可以有自己的冠词，可以 有定语，甚至在某些情况下可以有复数形式。 The room should be given a good cleaning． Who did the recording? I’ll do some shopping／reading this afternoon Please send our greetings to them． 动词-ing 形式的功能： 动词-ing 形式具有名词，形容词或副词的特征，在句中可担任主语，表语，宾语，定语，状 语和补语，但不能单独作谓语。 v.-ing 形式作主语 v.-ing 形式在句中作主语，谓语动词用单数。 A.：v.-ing 形式直接作主语。 Seeing is believing. 百闻不如一见(眼见为实)。 Playing table tennis is his favourite. Crossing the Atlantic by plane takes only a few hours. Talking is easier than doing. B:用 it 作形式主语，v.-ing 形式短语是真正主语。 为了保持句子的平衡，避免头重脚轻，在下面一些句子结构中，常用 it 作形式主语，而把 真正的主语动词-ing 形式后置。 ① It is 后接 no use, no good, fun, a waste of 等名词 ② It is 后接 useless，nice，good，interesting 等形容词 It’s no use crying over spilt milk．
覆水难收。 I don’t think it’s much good writing to him． It is a waste of time arguing about it. v.-ing 形式作表语 说明主语的性质，特征或具体内容。 Reading is learning The dinner looks inviting. His job is delivering newspapers. What interests me is living and dying for what one loves． 我所感兴趣的是：为所爱而生，为所爱而死。 注意： 主系表结构中的主语和表语一般需用同类的非谓语动词， 即主语和表语都是动词不定式或 都是动词-ing 形式。 To love is to forgive. To know everything is to know nothing. Keeping is harder than winning. 创业不易，守业更难。 v.-ing 形式作定语： v.-ing 形式作定语可以放在被修饰的名词前，称为前置定语；也可放在被修饰的名词之后， 称为后置定语，在意义上相当于一个定语从句。 A:前置定语 单个动词-ing 形式作定语，一般置于被修饰的名词之前，有两个主要作用。 ① 说明被修饰名词的用途和性能。 a smoking room = a room which is used for smoking a sleeping car = a car which is used for sleeping a walking stick = a stick which is used to help you walk ② 表示所修饰的人或物的动作或状态。 a sleeping boy = a boy who is sleeping a walking dictionary = a dictionary that walks a puzzling question = a question that puzzles everyone 常见的表示用途的动词-ing 形式作定语： drinking water teaching method opening speech swimming machine sewing machine driving permit sleeping pill waiting room singing competition 常见的表示动作的动词-ing 形式作定语： boiling water developing countries the rising/setting sun barking dog failing sight the coming week working people B: 后置定语 作定语的动词-ing 形式如果是一个短语，则应放在被修饰词的后面。 The building being built now (= which is being built now) is a hospital. Those wishing to join the club (= who wish to join the club ) should sign here. The girl standing under the tree (= who is standing under the tree) is my sister. 注意：动词的-ing 形式的完成式通常不作定语。 （错误）The students having handed in their papers must leave the classroom. (正确) The students who have handed in their papers must leave the classroom.
v.-ing 形式作宾语 v.-ing 形式可以作动词的宾语，也可以作介词的宾语。 作动词宾语。 能带 v.-ing 形式作宾语的动词有两类：A．只能带 v.-ing 形式作宾语；B. 既能带 v.-ing 形 式又能带不定式作宾语。 A 类动词： avoid， consider， delay， dislike， enjoy， escape， excuse， finish， give up， cannot help，imagine．include．keep(on)，mind，miss，practise，put off．suggest，admit，feel like, advise, allow, deny forgive, permit, resist, insist on appreciate,risk 等。 He enjoys listening to light music． The young man is considering changing his job． I’m sorry I missed seeing you while in Shanghai． Would you mind filling out this form? My father gave up smoking last year． Mother suggested going to Beijing by air． 记忆口诀： 部分动词接 doing，它们形式要记清。推迟享受可后悔，建议想像必完成；延期避免非介意， 考虑宽恕不错过。允许抵制或放弃，坚持练习要记住。 B 类动词：begin，cannot bear，cease，continue，forget，hate，like，love，mean，plan， prefer， regret，remember，start，stop，try 等。 在 begin，start，continue，cease，cannot bear，hate，like，love，prefer，等动词后， 用 v.-ing 形式或不定式在意义上没有什么差别。 The students began writing / to write compositions. She cannot bear to be laughed at. /being laughed at. The boys love to play/ playing football. 在 need，want，require 后面可用 v.-ing 形式的主动形式表示被动含义，或用不定式的被动 语态，它们在意义上没有差别，但用 v.-ing 形式较普遍些。 My watch needs／wants／requires repairing / to be repaired. His letter requires answering / to be answered immediately. 在 remember，forget，regret 后用 v.-ing 形式或不定式结构在意义上有明显差别。v.-ing 形式 结构指动作先于谓语动词的动作发生，不定式结构指后于谓语动词的动作发生。 I remember posting the letter． 我记得把信寄了。(“寄信”发生在“记得”之前，即已寄过信) I must remember to post the letter． 我必须记住要去寄信。(“寄信”发生在“记得’ ’之后，即尚未寄信) I’ve forgotten returning the book to the library． 我忘记了曾经把那本书还给图书馆了。(“归还”的动作在前) I’ve forgotten to return the book to the library． 我忘记了要把那本书归还给图书馆。(“忘记”的动作在前) 在 try，cannot help, mean, stop，go on 后用 v.-ing 形式还是用不定式结构，取决于它们 本身的含义和用法。 They stopped to talk. 他们(停止原来做的事)开始谈话。(不定式作目的状语) They stopped talking． 他们停止了谈话。(v.-ing 形式作宾语，即停止谈话这个动作)
He tried to do the work better. 他设法把那项工作做得更好。 He tried doing the work in another way. 他试着用另外的方法做那项工作。 Do you mean to tell me that? 你打算把那件事告诉我吗? That’ll mean waiting for some more time． 那将意味着再等些时候。 I am quite busy, so I couldn’t help to finish that job. 我不能帮助完成那项工作。 I couldn’t help laughing when I heard the news. 听到那个消息，我情不自禁地笑了。 He went on to point out mistakes in the paper. 他接着开始指出论文中的错误。(指放下原来做的事，转而指出论文中错误) He went on pointing out mistakes in the paper. 他继续指出论文中的错误。(指同一动作的继续) 注意： (1)在少数句型中，可用 it 代替 v.-ing 作形式主语，而把 v.-ing 短语放到句子后部去。 She found it no use arguing with him。 Do you consider it any good trying again? (2)其 v.-ing 形式可作动词宾语的大多数动词(除 finish，practise 等外)都可以根据需要在 v.-ing 形式前加上逻辑主语。 逻辑主语(尤其在口语中)通常用名词或代词的宾格表示， 也可用 所有格表示。 Do you mind me(my) smoking? We are considering him(his) going there． v.-ing 形式作介词宾语 At last he succeeded in performing his task． His job consists of gathering information and writing articles． I’m surprised at finding the house empty． I’m sorry for giving you so much trouble． How／What about going to the cinema? Nothing can stop them from falling in love with each other． Tom is angry about not being invited to the party． We had no trouble in finding his house． Everyone thinks of changing the world，but no one thinks of changing himself． v-ing 形式经常用在下列结构的介词后面： be interested in doing be/get tired of doing talk of doing dream of/ about doing insist on doing succeed in doing look forward to doing be good at doing be excited about doing be responsible for doing complain about doing apologize for doing get/be used/accustomed to doing v.-ing 形式作宾语补足语 动词-ing 形式可以在 “主语+谓语+宾语+宾补”句型中充当宾补。在这一句型中，宾语往往 是动词-ing 形式的逻辑主语。 A: 在表示感觉和心理状态的动词后作宾语补足语， 这些动词常见的有 hear， feel， find， listen
to, look at, notice, ,observe, see, smell, watch 等. I heard him singing a popular song in the next room． We can see steam rising from the wet clothes． B: 上述句子若变为被动语态，v.-ing 形式短语就成了主语补足语。 He was heard singing a popular song in the next room． Steam can be seen rising from the wet clothes． C: 在表示 “致使” 等意义的动词后作宾语补足语， 这些动词常见的有 catch, have, get,keep ,set, leave 等。 I am sorry to have kept you waiting for me for so long. The joke set everybody laughing. What she has told left us thinking that she experienced much when she was young. Don’t leave the water running while you brush your teeth. v.-ing 形式作状语: v.-ing 形式作状语可以修饰谓语动词或整个句子，表示时间，原因，结果，条件，让步，行 为方式，伴随情况或补充说明等。 A. 表示时间 v-ing 形式作时间状语，相当于一个时间状语从句。 While reading the book( While he was reading the book), he nodded from time to time. Turning around (When she turned around),she saw a car driving up. B.表示原因 表示原因的 v-ing 形式一般置于句首，相当于一个原因状语从句。 Having lived in London for years (= Because I have lived in London for years),I almost know every place quite well. Not knowing how to work out this maths problem( Since she did not know how to work out this maths problem),she turned to her teacher for help. C.表示结果 v-ing 形式作状语表示结果，可拓展为一个含有并列谓语的简单句。 The fire lasted nearly a month, leaving nothing valuable(=and left nothing valuable). European football is played in about 80 countries, making it the most popular sport in the world(= and makes it the most popular sport in the world). D.表示条件 动词-ing 形式作条件状语，相当于一个条件状语从句。 Being more carful(= If you are more careful), you can make fewer mistakes. Knowing anything about it( If I know anything about it), I will tell you all. E.表示让步 V-ing 形式作让步状语，相当于一个让步状语从句。 Admitting what you say ( = Though I admit what you say ), I still think you are wrong. Knowing all this( Although they knew all this), they made me pay for the damage. 表示行为方式伴随情况或补充说明 V-ing 形式表示行为方式伴随情况或补充说明，常置于句末，可以拓展成一个并列分句。 He was walking along the street, looking this way and that (= and looked this way and that). When people heard about Qu Yuan’s death, they sailed up and down the river searching for his body (= and searched for his body). G .修饰形容词
有少数 V-ing 形式常放在某些形容词前面，起副词的作用，意思是“极”或“非常” ，表 示其程度或状态。 It was freezing/biting cold that day. The weather has been burning/steaming hot this week.
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