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高中英语 Unit2 The United Kingdom Reading & Comprehending课件 新人教版必修5


Reading & Comprehending 第二课时

PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY

1.puzzle 1) n. (1)谜;智力游戏 ①He has found out the puzzle. 他已猜中这条谜语了。 ②This Maths exam is a puzzle to me! I don'

t think I am going to pass. 这次数学测验极为深奥,看来我难以及格。

(2)不解之谜,疑问 ①Her decision was a puzzle to him. 她的决定对他来说是个谜。 ②I'm in a puzzle as to how to cope with the new situation. 我不知道该如何应付这新局面。

2)v. (使)迷惑,(使)困惑 ①I am puzzled by his failure to reply/that he hasn't replied to my letter. 他不给我回信使我百思不解。 ②What puzzles me is why they didn't show up. 令我百思不解的是他们为什么没有出现。

知识拓展 1)puzzling adj. 令人迷惑的,茫然不知所措的,莫名其妙的 ①It's all very puzzling. 这都很令人莫名其妙。 ②The teacher's explanation clarified the puzzling problem. 老师的说明澄清了困扰(我们)的问题。

2)puzzled adj. 感到困惑的;迷惑不解的 ①She listened with a puzzled expression on her face. 她脸上带着困惑的表情在倾听着。 ②He was puzzled at his error. 他对自己的错误困惑不解。

词语辨析 puzzle, confuse 这两个动词均有“使困惑、使迷惑”之意。 1)puzzle 侧重使人难于理解、困惑、伤脑筋。 What he did puzzled me greatly. 他的作为使我深感迷惑不解。

2)confuse 语气较弱,指由于混淆、混乱而糊涂。 They asked so many questions that they confused me. 他们问了许许多多问题,把我弄糊涂了。

活学活用 Yesterday Alice received a strange letter. She read the________letter with a________expression on her face. A.puzzled; puzzled C.puzzling; puzzled B.puzzling; puzzling D.puzzled; puzzling

答案:C

2.clarify v. 1)(使)更清晰易懂,阐明;澄清 ①I hope that what I say will clarify the situation. 我希望我说的话能澄清这一情况。 ②He clarified the difficult problem by giving a full explanation. 他以一个圆满的解说阐明了那个疑难问题。

2)纯净,净化 ①The cloudy solution clarifies on standing. 混浊的溶液经过静放后澄清了。 ②It requires of us great efforts to clarify sewage in cities. 净化城市的污水需要我们很大的努力。

知识拓展 1)clarified adj. 纯净的 clarified water 纯净水 2)clarify one's position 阐明某人的立场 clarify a problem/situation 澄清问题/情况

活学活用 Nobody wanted to________matters for him though everyone knew that he was blameless. A.solve C.handle B.clarify D.set about

答案:B

3.accomplish vt. 完成,达到,实现 ①They didn't accomplish the purpose desired. 他们没有达到预期的目的。 ②The journey was accomplished in five weeks. 全部旅程用了五个星期的时间。

词语辨析 complete, finish, end, accomplish 这些动词均含“结束,完成”之意。 1)complete 侧重指完成预定的任务或使某事完善,补 足缺少的部分等。 Complete the sentences in the exercise by filling in the blanks. 在空白处填充使练习中各句成为完整句。

2)finish 与 complete 基本同义,着重圆满地结束或完 成已着手的事。 When does he finish his college course? 他何时大学毕业?

3)end 最普通用词, 着重事情的完成。 也指某种活动因 达到目的而自然结束或由于某种原因而突然中止。 I hoped that this might end my suffering. 我希望这会结束我的痛苦。

4)accomplish 正式用词,强调一个过程的完成;也可 指依靠努力达到一定目的或取得一定的结果。 They have accomplished their mission successfully. 他们成功地完成了任务。

活学活用 The project,________by the end of 2010, will expand the city's telephone network to cover 1,000,000 users. A.accomplished B.being accomplished C.to be accomplished D.having been accomplished

答案:C

4.conflict 1)n. 矛盾,冲突 ①The long and bitter conflict between employers and workers seems to have no end. 这场旷日持久的劳资双方的激烈争执似乎没有结局。 ②She had often come into conflict with her husband. 她经常与丈夫发生争执。

2)vi. 战争,冲突,抵触 ①Do English laws conflict with international laws? 英国法律与国际法律冲突吗? ②The statements of the two witnesses conflict. 两个证人的证词不一致。

知识拓展 conflict with 与??冲突,与??战斗 come into conflict with 与??冲突,与??战斗 in conflict with 与??冲突,与??战斗

词语辨析 conflict, fight, war, battle 这些词均含“冲突,战争”之意。 1)conflict 多指对立的思想或意识所导致的冲突、分歧。 2)fight 多指短兵相接的肉搏和厮杀。 3)war 战争的全体称为“战争”。 4)battle 多指敌对双方使用武器而进行的大规模的战 斗,战役。

活学活用 A________of opinions arose over technical questions. A.conflict C.fight B.war D.battle

答案:A

5.credit 1)n. (1)赊购,赊购制度 This store does not give credit. 本店概不赊欠。 (2)存款;存款数额 My account is in credit. 我的银行账目有存款。

(3)借款;贷款 They established a credit for 100,000 dollars in favor of me. 他们给我 10 万美元贷款来帮助我。 (4)赞扬;荣誉;功劳 I gave her credit for being sensible. 我称赞她很明智。

(5)信任,相信 Do you place any credit in the government's story? 你相信政府的说法吗? (6)学分 He hasn't enough credits to get his degree. 他的学分不够取得学位。

2)vt. 相信,信任 She could not credit their statement. 她无法相信他们的声明。

知识拓展 to one's credit “为??带来荣誉;值得赞扬;在?? 名下” give sb. credit for“为??而称赞某人; 为某人提供信 用贷款”

活学活用 (1)________, Jack never told anyone exactly what had happened. A.To his credit C.For his credit B.As his credit D.With his credit

(2)People gave Joan________for the show's success. A.prize C.award B.credit D.reward

答案:(1)A (2)B

6.convenience n. 1)[U]方便;适宜;便利 ①I keep my reference books near my desk for convenience. 我把参考书放在书桌旁用着方便。 ②In this resort you can enjoy all the comfort and convenience of modern tourism. 在这个度假胜地你可享受到所有现代旅游的舒适和便 利。

2)[C]便利的事物(或设施);方便的用具 ①It was a great convenience to have the doctor living near us. 有医生住在我们附近真是太方便了。 ②The house had all the modern conveniences that were unusual at that time. 这座房子拥有当时并不常见的一切现代化设施。

知识拓展 1)for one's convenience|for the convenience of sb. “为 了??的方便” We have provided seats for the convenience of our customers. 为方便顾客我们备有座位。

2)for (the sake of) convenience“为方便起见” For (the sake of) convenience, the two groups have been treated as one in the report. 为方便起见,这两个组在本报告中被视为一组。

3)at one's convenience“在方便时;在适宜的地方” Can you telephone me at your convenience to arrange a meeting? 你能不能在你方便时给我来个电话,安排见一次面。

4)convenient adj. 方便的,便利的 It is convenient for sb. to do sth. “某人方便做某事” 注意: 在这些结构中本意是: for “相对于而言, 针对” 来讲。

活学活用 (1)There is a kindergarten on campus, which is a great________to female teacher. A.comfort C.happiness B.convenience D.convenient

(2)I'd like to see you whenever it's________for you. A.convenient C.suited B.fit D.efficient

答案:(1)B

(2)A

7.attract vt. 1)~sb.(to sb./sth.)吸引;使喜爱;引起??的好感(或 爱慕) What first attracted me to her was her sense of humour. 她首先吸引我的是她的幽默感。 2)~sb./sth.(to sth.)招引 The flower show attracted large crowds this year. 今年的花展吸引了大批观众。

3)引起(反应) The noise attracted his attention. 喧嚷声引起了他的注意。 4)(物)吸引 The earth attracts all matters, and all matters attract the earth. 地球吸引一切物体,物体也吸引地球。

知识拓展 1)attraction n. (1)[U, sing.] (尤指两性之间的)爱慕,吸引 She felt an immediate attraction for/to him. 她对他一见钟情。

(2)[C]向往的地方;有吸引力的事 One of the main attractions of the job is the high salary. 这份工作最吸引人的是薪水高。 (3)[C & U]有吸引力的特征(或品质、人) I can't see the attraction of sitting on the beach all day. 我看不出整天坐在沙滩上有什么意思。

2)attractive adj. (1)(人)性感的;妩媚的;英俊的;诱人的 I like John but I don't find him attractive. 我喜欢约翰,不过我认为他长得并不英俊。 (2)(物或地方)漂亮的;有吸引力的 I dream of owning a big house with an attractive garden. 我梦想拥有一所带有美丽花园的巨宅。

活学活用 (1)The film named Crazy stone has a lot of________for young people. A.attractions C.attractive B.attraction D.attack

答案:B

(2)(2010· 苏 )Thousands of foreigners were_____ 江 ___to the Shanghai World Expo the day it opened. A.attended C.attracted B.attained D.attached

答案:C

考查动词辨析。句意:世博会开幕当天吸

引了成千上万的外宾。 attract“吸引”, 此处用了 attract sb. to sth.“吸引某人注意某事”的被动形式。 attend“出 席”;attain“获得”;attach“把??固定,缠着”。

8.collection n. 1)[C](常指同类的)收集物;收藏品 ①The painting comes from his private collection. 这幅画来自他的私人收藏。 ②She selected a diamond ring from the collection. 她从收藏品中挑选了一枚钻石戒指。

2)[C]一批物品;一群人 ①There was a collection of books and shoes on the floor. 地板上有成堆的书和鞋。 ②There is always a strange collection of runners in the London Marathon. 每次总会有一批稀奇古怪的选手参加伦敦马拉松比 赛。

3)[C & U]拿走,取走;聚集,聚积 ①There are two collections a day from this letterbox. 这个信筒每天收信两次。 ②The first stage in research is data collection. 研究工作的第一步是收集资料。

知识拓展 a collection of 一批物品;一群人(作主语时,谓语动词 采用单数形式) ①He has a very good collection of foreign coins. 他收藏着不少外国硬币。 ②There is a collection of dust in an unused room. 空着不用的房间常常积起大量灰尘。

高考链接 (2005· 东 ) Mr. Smith owns________collection of 山 coins than anyone else I have ever met. A.larger C.the larger B.a larger D.a large

答案: 句意: B 与我曾经见过的其他任何一个人相比, 史密斯先生收集的硬币数量更多。a collection of“一批”; 属 于 “a+ 抽 象 名 词 + of” 结 构; 相 似 的结构 还 有 : a knowledge of;a waste of;a variety of;a must of;a way of 等。此外,形容词的比较级在修饰名词做定语时,用不定 冠词 a,常用来表达最高级含义。

活学活用 (2004· 江苏)Tom owns________larger collection of___ _____books than any other student in our class. A.the;不填 C.a; the B.a;不填 D.不填; the

答案:B

9.influence 1) n. (1)[U & C]~(on/upon sb./sth.)影响,作用 What exactly is the influence of television on children? 电视对儿童究竟有什么影响?

(2)[U]~(over sb./sth.)支配力,控制力,影响力 His parents no longer have any real influence over him. 他的父母对他不再有任何真正的约束力了。 (3)[C]~(on sb./sth.)有影响的人(或事物) Those socalled friends of hers are a bad influence on her. 她那些所谓的朋友对她的影响很坏。

2) v. (1)影响,对??起作用 ①My teacher influenced my decision to study science. 我的老师对我学理科的决定起了影响作用。 ②The wording of questions can influence how people answer. 问题的措辞会影响人们的回答。

(2)影响,左右 ①I don't want to influence you. You must decide for yourself. 我不想影响你。你必须自行决定。 ②A number of social factors influence life expectancy. 很多社会因素左右着人的预期寿命。

知识拓展 1)under the influence of 在??的影响下 He committed the crime under the influence of drugs. 他是在吸毒后犯罪的。

2)a man of great influence 很有势力的人 Mr. Smith is a man of influence in this town. 史密斯先生是这个镇上有权势的人物。

词语辨析 influence, affect, effect 这些词均含“影响”之意。 1)influence 侧重在思想、性格、行为等方面所产生的 潜移默化的影响,有时它包含着“诱使”的意思。也可指 自然力的影响。 No one can avoid being influenced by advertisements. 谁也不能避免受到广告的影响。

2)affect 的主语通常是物而不是人, 指一物对另一物产 生的消极影响,或作用于人的感情,使人有悲伤或同情的 感觉。 The adverse criticism the book received didn't affect the author one way or another. 对这本书的敌对性评论丝毫没有影响该作家。

3)effect 作名词时指“影响”,作动词时,意思是“造 成,产生”。 Inflation is having a disastrous effect on the economy. 通货膨胀给经济带来灾难性的影响。

活学活用 (1)________by her English teacher, now she has been a famous translater. A.Forced C.Moved B.Followed D.Influenced

(2)He has great influence________his son. A.of C.on B.at D.in

答案:(1)D (2)C

1.refer to 1)描述;涉及,与??有关 ①This paragraph refers to the events of last year. 这一段说的是去年发生的事。 ②The new law does not refer to land used for farming. 这条新的法律不适用于农用土地。

2)查阅,参考;征询 ①If you don't know what this means, refer to the dictionary. 如果你不知道这是什么意思,去查一下字典。 ②He referred to me for information. 他向我打听消息。

知识拓展 1)refer to sb./sth.(as sth.)提到,谈及,说起 ①She always refers to Ben as“that nice man”. 她总是称本为“那个大好人”。 ②What I have to say refers to all of you. 我要说的事和你们大家都有关。

2)refer sb./sth. to sb./sth.将??送交给??(以求获得 帮助等) ①The matter was referred to the United Nations. 此事被提交给联合国。 ②The shop referred the complaint to the manufacturers. 商店把投诉转交给了制造商。

词语辨析 refer to/look up (1)refer to 表“查阅;参考”时其宾语是书、词典等表 示查阅范围的词。 (2)look up 也表示“查阅; 查找”, 但它的宾语是单词、 短语等需要查找的对象。 ①If you want to know his telephone number, you may refer to the telephone directory. 如果你想知道他的电话号码,你可以查电话薄。

②If you don't know what it means, look it up in the dictionary. 如果你不知道它的意思,在词典中查一查。

高考链接 (2005· 江 )The president spoke at the business 浙 meeting for nearly an hour without________his notes. A.bringing up C.looking for B.referring to D.trying on

答案:B 句意:总统在商务会议上没有看讲稿,作了 接近一个小时的报告。 refer to 表示“查阅, 参考, 征询”; bring up 表示“教育、养育;提出、引出”;look for 表示 “寻找”;try on 表示“试穿”。

活学活用 (1)Although she didn't mention any names, everyone knew whom she was________. A. bringing up C. looking for B. referring to D. trying on

答案: 考查动词短语辨析。 B 根据句意“尽管她没有 提到任何名字,但大家都知道她指的是谁。”refer to 这里 意为“提到, 谈到”; bring up“抚养长大”; look for“寻 找”;try on“试穿”。

(2)This is a________book that you may________in daily English study. A. referring; refer to C. reference; refer to B. referring; refer D. reference; refer

答案:C 考查 refer 的用法。 句意: 这是一本参考书, 你可 以在日常 英语学习 中参考。 reference book“ 参考 书”;refer to“参考”。

(3)The Shenzhou

professor________the Ⅶ________“the most

perfect exciting

return thing

of in

history”in his speech. A. referred to; for C. referred to; as B. referred; as D. referred; for

答案:C 考查 refer 的用法。句意:教授在他的演讲 中提到神舟七号的完美回归时,认为那是历史上最令人兴 奋的事情。 refer to...as...表示“认为??是??”, 故选 C。

2.break away (from) 1)突然挣脱,逃脱 The prisoner broke away from his guards. 犯人挣脱了看守。 2)脱离,背叛(政党、国家等,尤指再组建新的) The people of the province wished to break away and form a new state. 该省人民希望分离成立一个新国家。

3)(尤指赛跑)抢跑;甩掉 She broke away from the pack and opened up a two second lead. 她甩掉其他参赛者,以两秒领先。

知识拓展 1)rid sb./sth. of sb./sth. ①摆脱,从??中解脱 He wanted to rid himself of the burden of the secret. 他想把秘密说出来,让自己得到解脱。 ②(=to remove sth.)去除,清除 Further measures will be taken to rid our streets of crime. 将采取进一步的措施来防止街头犯罪。

2)get rid of sb./sth. ①摆脱,免除 I can't get rid of this headache. 我这头疼老也不好。 ②(=to throw away)丢弃,扔掉 We got rid of all the old furniture. 我们扔掉了所有的旧家具。

3)常与 break 搭配的短语还有:break down (机器,车 辆等)坏了;(计划、谈判等)失败;坚持不下去了;(身体) 垮了; break into 强行进入; 非法进入; 破门而入; break off 突然停止;中断(谈判);断绝(关系);break out 爆发;突 然发生(争吵、疾病等);break up 破碎;瓦解;(婚姻或关 系)结束;驱散。

活学活用 Not having received support from his parents, he decided to________from them. A.break away C.break down B.break up D.break off

答案:A

3.look around/round 1)环视,环顾,四下察看 People came out their houses and looked around. 人们走出家门四处查看。 2)~(sth.)游览,参观 Let's look round the town this afternoon. 咱们今天下午游览市区吧。

知识拓展 1)look after ①(=to take care of)照顾 Who's going to look after the children while you're away? 你不在时谁来照料小孩? ②(=to be responsible for)对??负责 I'm looking after his affairs while he's in hospital. 他住院时由我处理他的事务。

2)look on/upon...as... 把 ?? 看 作 ?? ; 把 ?? 视 为?? She's looked on as the leading authority on the subject. 她被视为这门学科的主要权威。 3)look out (表示警告,尤指有危险)小心,当心,留神 If you don't look out, you may fall on the ice. 如果不小心的话,你会在冰上摔倒的。

4)look out for (1)当心,提防,留心防备 You should look out for pickpockets. 你应当提防扒手。 (2)留心寻觅 I'll look out for you at the conference. 我会在开会时来找你。

5)look through sth. 快速查看,浏览 She looked through her notes before the exam. 她考试前匆匆看了一下笔记。 6)look sth. up (在词典或参考书中)查阅,查检 Can you look up the time of the next train? 你查一查下一班火车的时间好吗?

活学活用 (1)—________for the glass! —It's OK. I'm wearing shoes. A.Look out C.Go out B.Walk out D.Set out

(2)________this book and tell me what you think of it. A.Look through C.Look into B.Look on D.Look up

答案:(1)A

(2)A

4.leave out 1)不包括、不提及 ①Leave me out of this quarrel; I don't want to get involved. 请别把我拉入这场争吵中,我可不想牵连进去。 ②He hadn't been asked to the party and was feeling very left out. 他未被邀请参加聚会,感到颇受冷落。

2)忽略掉 ①This word is wrongly spelt; you've left out a letter. 这词拼错了,你漏了一个字母。 ②The picnic planner left out that it might rain. 野餐的策划者没想到下雨的可能性。

知识拓展 1)leave/let sb. alone 不打扰,不惊动 She's asked to be left alone but the press

photographers follow her everywhere. 她要求别打扰她,但是摄影记者们到处都跟着她。

2)leave/let sth. alone 不碰,不变动,不移动 I've told you before——leave my things alone. 我告诉过你——别碰我的东西。 3)leave sth. aside 不予考虑,搁置一边 Leaving the expense aside, do we actually need a second car? 且不说费用多少,我们真的还需要一辆汽车吗?

4)leave sb./sth. behind ①比??取得好得多的进展;把??抛在后面,超过 Britain is being left behind in the race for new markets. 英国在开拓新市场方面正被抛在后面。

②忘了带,丢下 Don't leave any of your belongings behind. 别忘了带上自己的随身物品。 注意:以上结构都是“动词+宾语+宾补”型的,意 为:使??处于??的状态。

高考链接 (2008· 北 )The teacher stressed again that the 湖 students should not________any important details while retelling the story. A.bring out C.leave out B.let out D.make out

答案:C 考查短语意义辨析。bring out“生产,出 版”;let out“泄露,放出”;leave out“忽略,遗漏”; make out“看清,弄懂”。leave out 符合句意。句意:老 师再次强调学生在复述故事时不应遗漏任何细节。

活学活用 In copying this paper, be careful not to________any words. A.leave behind C.leave off B.leave aside D.leave out

答案:D

1.There is no need to debate any more about why different words are used to describe the four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. 对于用来描述英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰和北爱尔兰这 四个国家的词语,现在已经毫无争辩的必要了。 There is no need 表示“没有必要(做某事)”;例如:

①There's no need to be concerned. 没必要担忧。 ②There is no need to worry at all. 根本没有必要担忧。 ③There is no need for you to get up early tomorrow. 你明天不必早起。

知识拓展 1)There is no difference 没区别 There is no difference in character between you and me. 你和我在性格上根本就没有差别。 2)There is no point (in) doing sth.做某事没有意义或没 有作用 There is no point in getting angry. 发火是没有用的。

3)There is no doubt that...毫无疑问 There is no doubt that he is guilty. 毫无疑问,他是有罪的。 4)There is no time left for sth.没留下时间做?? There is no time left for discussion/discussing. 没有时间可供讨论了。

5)There is no possibility 没有??的可能性 There is now no possibility that she will make a full recovery. 她现在已不可能完全康复。

高考链接 (2005· 广东)Some researchers believe that there is no doubt________a cure for AIDS will be found. A.which C.what B.that D.whether

答案: 句意: B 一些研究人员认为艾滋病的治疗方法 毫无疑问会被发现的。There is no doubt that...为固定结 构,表示“对??没有怀疑,疑虑”。

活学活用 (1)(2002· 上海春) Since you have repaired my TV set, ________is no need for me to buy a new one. A.it C.this B.there D.that

(2)(2001· 海 春 )________is no possibility ______ 上 __Bob can win the first prize in the match. A.There; that C.There; whether B.It; that D.It; whether

答案:(1)B (2)A

2.Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. 如今只要有人提起英格兰,你就会发现威尔士总是包 括在内的。

find Wales included 属于“find+宾语+宾语补足 语”结构,过去分词作宾语补足语。其特点是:由及物动 词转化而来的过去分词担任宾语补足语时,与宾语在逻辑 上构成被动关系,表示一个已经完成的被动动作;由不及 物动词转化而来的过去分词担任宾语补足语时,只表示状 态。例如:

①I didn't expect to come and find him gone. 我没有料到,回到家时发现他已经走了。(状态) ②They found the room crowded with people. 他们发现屋子里挤满了人。(状态) ③When he got off the bus, he found his pocket picked. 他下车后发现口袋被扒了。(动作)

④A whale was found washed up on the shore. 一头鲸被发现冲到了岸上。(动作)

知识拓展 “find+宾语+宾语补足语”结构中,担任宾语补足 语的结构除用过去分词外,还可以是形容词、名词、现在 分词、介词短语、不定式等。例如: ①find+宾语+形容词 I find Russian grammar very difficult. 我发现俄语语法很难学。

②find+宾语+名词 They found him the right person for the job. 他们觉得他是最适合做这项工作的人。 ③find+宾语+现在分词 He found her weeping when he came back. 他回来时发现她在哭。

④find+宾语+to be I found the patient to be a small boy. 我发现病人是个小男孩。 ⑤find+宾语+介词短语 She woke up and found herself in a hospital bed. 她醒来发现自己躺在医院的床上。

⑥find+宾语+副词 I found him out when I called. 我去拜访他时,发现他外出了。

活学活用 (1)The police found that the house________and a lot of things________. A.has broken into; has been stolen B.had been broken into; stolen C.had broken into; had been stolen D.has been broken into; stolen

(2)The next morning she found the man________in bed, dead. A.lying C.lay B.lie D.laying

答案:(1)B (2)A

3.To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas(eg, the currency and international relations), but they still have very different institutions. 值得赞扬的是,这四个国家的确在一些方面(比如在货 币和国际关系方面)共同合作,但是它们在制度上仍然存在 着很大的差别。

but 连接两个并列分句,前一分句中助动词 do 用来强 调谓语动词 work together。在肯定句或祈使句中,强调谓 语动词时,要用助动词 do/does/did。如: Do be more careful next time. 下次一定要更加小心。 He does like to eat noodles. 他真的非常喜欢吃面条。

高考链接 (2010· 四川)If you have a job, ________ yourself to it and finally you'll succeed. A. do devote C. devoting B. don't devote D. not devoting

答案:A

句意:如果你有一份工作,一定要全身心

投入,你最后一定会成功的。由语境可知本句叙述的是肯 定的情况,排除 B、D;强调谓语动词要用助动词 do。

4.It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors. 可惜的是这些建于 19 世纪的工业城市对游客没有什 么吸引力。 It is a pity that...意为“令人同情的是??,令人遗憾 的是??”,其中 it 是形式主语,that 引导的从句是真正 的 主 语 ; 过 去 分 词 短 语 built in... 作 后 置 定 语 , 修 饰 industrial cities。如:

It was a pity that he lost his purse on his way home. 令人遗憾的是他在回家的路上把钱包弄丢了。

知识拓展 it 作形式主语而 that 引导的从句是真正的主语的常见 句型: (1)It+be+名词+that 从句。 常见的名词有: pity, fact, idea, honor, shame, wonder 等。 (2)It+be+形容词+that 从句。常见的形容词有: necessary, clear, strange, important, possible, likely, obvious, surprising 等。

(3)It + seems/happens/appears/doesn't matter/makes no difference+that 从句。 (4)It+be+过去分词+that 从句。常见的过去分词有: said, reported, hoped, believed, known, whispered 等。

① It is a pity that you didn't go to see the film yesterday. 你昨天没去看那部电影真遗憾。 ②It seems that he enjoys pop songs very much. 似乎他非常喜欢流行歌曲。 ③It is said that she is good at singing and dancing. 据说她能歌善舞。

活学活用 (1)It is obvious to the students________they should get well prepared for their future. A. as C. whether B. which D. that

答案:D

句意:对学生来说显然他们应该为未来做

好准备。这是“It's+adj.+that 从句”句型,it 是形式主 语,that 引导的从句是真正的主语

(2)The foreign minister said, “________our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.” A. This is C. That is B. There is D. It is

答案:D 此处是“It's+名词+that...”句型,其中 it 是形式主语,that 引导的从句是真正的主语。


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