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人教新课标必修四 UNIT4 Body language


人教新课标高中英语必修四

贵州省思南中学 许义怀 编辑

What is body language?
Body language is one form of nonverbal
saying words Eye communication without _____________. contact (眼神交流)

or ________________, facial expressions _________, gestures postures and__________, or the

ways you stand, are different kinds of body
language.

Look at the following facial

expressions, and try to tell us
what his feeling is.

good

come here

bad

good luck

me

I don’t know

Good!

Thumbs up

Bad!

Thumbs down

Come here!

Moving his hand up and down

Good luck!

Keeping his fingers crossed

Me?

Putting the fingers on the chest

I don’t know!

Shrugging his shoulders

Look at different gestures, try to guess.
applause

ok

stop

victory

silent

well done

I love you.

I give up.

I’m sorry!

Match the two columns
Action Waving one’s hand Shaking one’s head Nodding Meaning in China Love Not afraid / be proud I’m sorry I did something wrong. You are welcome Hello!/Hi!/Goodbye! I’m full./I’ve a stomachache Disagreement Agreement

Putting up one’s hand
Kissing Holding up one’s head Hanging one’s head Smiling and a handshake Touching one’s stomach Cupping one’s ear

May I ask a question? I can’t hear you.

1 look at the pictures and try to describe them.

The mother is trying to quiet her crying child.

Someone is thinking deeply.

Someone is feeling ill/having a stomachache.

The policeman is directing traffic/telling cars to go.

Read the following statements. Choose a phrase and act it out without speaking. Can your partner guess what you are trying to communicate?

―Hello‖ ―Goodbye‖ ―Come here‖ ―Go away!‖ ―Expensive!‖ ―I’m surprised!‖ ―I’m tired.‖

―I’m confused.‖ ―OK!‖ ―Good luck!‖ ―I’m delighted!‖ ―I’m upset!‖ ―I’m sad!‖ ―I forgot!‖ ―You’re great!‖

Pre-reading 1 What do you think is the purpose of language?

The purpose of language is to communicate with other people.

2 How can you communicate with someone if you cannot speak? Give an example.
I can use body language to communicate with someone if I cannot speak. For example, if I’m angry, I might turn away and not to talk to others. If I’m happy to see someone, I might smile and hold out my hand or open my arms.

3 There are many different ways to greet someone using words. How many ways can you think of to greet someone if you CANNOT speak?

Ways to greet someone without words: smile, wave, shake hands, hug, kiss, etc.
handshake

4 Look at the title and picture of the passage on the next page. What do you think the topic will be?

Topic: different body language in different cultures

Communication:
No problem?

Main idea of the passage
The passage is mainly about different body language in different countries. In _____________

order to avoid difficulties in today’s world of
cultural crossroads, we should study international customs ___________________________.

Divide the passage into four parts and find out the main idea of each part. Part 1 : (Para1) Meet the visitors at the airport. (Para 2 and 3) People from different Part 2: countries express greetings in different ways. Part 3: (Para 4 ) Different peoples have different body language. Part 4: (Para5) Summary of body language.

Read the passage again and choose the best answers.

Find out the two mistakes the writer found in the airport:
He approaches Ms Smith Mr. Garcia by _______ touching ______ her from The shoulder andkissed _________ _______ ( Columbia ) first cheek her on the ________. mistake She ______ stepped________ back Julia Smith appearing _________ surprised from and take a few steps ( Britain ) _______ away from ______ Mr. Garcia.

a Japanese The second mistake George Cook from (Canada )

bowed to Mr. He ________ Cook and his nose touched Mr. _________ moving Cook’s _______ hand ________. reached He ________ ________ _______ his hand out ________ to the Japanese.

Country/ Area Britain

Ways to greet each other shake hands, do not stand very close to others or touch strangers when they meet shake hands

Canada Japan

bow

Spain, Italy,

South
American countries

approach others closely
and are more likely to

touch them
shake hands and kiss each other twice on each cheek

France

(men from)

shake hands and stand

Middle East
and other Muslim cultures

quite close to other men,
nod to women and do not

shake hands with them

Decide if the following statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. Englishmen often stand close to others or touch strangers as soon as they meet. F 2. Most people around the world

now greet each other by kissing. F

3. Japanese will bow to others as greeting. T 4. People from Jordan will move very close to you as you introduce yourself to them. T 5. Some body languages in some countries

are good while some countries’ body
language are bad. F

6. People from different countries may have a major misunderstanding while greeting each other. T 7. The physical distance from each other that people are comfortable with T generally depends on the culture. 8. All members of a culture behave in the same way. F

Summary
Body is different/differs from ______language ______________ culture Not all ________of members culture to ________. behave same way. all cultures ________in the ______ We should try to understand andrespect __________ each other’s culture in order to make communication good _____________.

?

交际 没有问题了吗?

? 昨天,我和另一个同学代表我们大学的同学会去首都国 际机场迎接今年的国际学生。他们来北京大学学习。我 们会首先把他们带到宿舍,然后去学生食堂。在等了半 个小时之后,我看见几个年轻人走进了等候区,好奇地 向四周张望。站着观察他们一分钟后,我便走过去打招 呼。 ? 第一个到达的是从哥伦比亚来的托尼.加西亚,随后紧 跟着的是英国的朱莉娅.史密斯。在和他们碰面并介绍 他们彼此认识之后,我(对看到的情景)感到吃惊。托 尼走进朱莉娅,摸了摸她的肩,并亲了她的脸!她后退 了几步,看上去有些吃惊,并举起了手,好像是在自卫。 我猜想这里有个巨大的误会。随后,来自日本的永田明 微笑着走了进来,同时进来的还有加拿大的乔治 .库克。 当我为他们作介绍时,乔治把手伸向了这位日本学生。 然而此时永田明正在鞠躬,他的鼻子碰到了乔治伸过来 的手。两个人都互相道了歉—这又是一个文化差错。

? 另一位国际学生艾哈迈德.阿齐兹是约旦人。昨天我向他作自我 介绍时,他靠我很近。我往后退了一点儿,他又向前问了我一个 问题,然后同我握手。法国的达琳.库隆匆忙走进门的时候,她 认出了托尼.加西亚微笑的面孔。两个人握了握手,并且在对方 的面颊上吻了两下。通常,法国成年人见到熟人就是这么做的。 而艾哈迈德.阿齐兹却只是朝女孩子们点了点头。来自中东或穆 斯林国家的男士,在谈话时通常站得离其它男士很近,但一般不 会与女士接触。 ? 随着认识的国际朋友越来越多,我也了解到更多不同文化背景下 的“身势语”。各种文化背景下的人互致问候的方式不尽相同, 身体接触和相互间距的程度也不尽相同。用口头语言交流的同时, 人们还使用不出声的语言—身体间的距离、动作和姿态等,来表 达情感。比如,英国人通常不会站在离别人太近的地方,也不会 一见面就(用身体)接触陌生人。但是来自像西班牙、意大利或 南美等国家的人会站在离别人很近的地方,而且很可能(用身体) 接触对方。现在世界上大多数人见面都会互相握手问候,但有些 文化(背景下的人)会采取另外一些寒暄方式。比如,日本人就 更愿意鞠躬。 ? 这些行为都无所谓好与坏,只不过是文化发展的不同方式而已。 然而我发现身势语的文化习俗是多元的—同一个(民族)文化中 也并非所有成员的行为都一样。但总的说来,在当今文化交融的 世界,学习不同国家的习俗肯定能帮助我们避免交往中的困难。

1 How do different international students behave when they greet people? Complete the chart with information from the passage.

Name Description
Tony Garcia
Julia Smith man from Colombia

kiss on the cheek

Body Language

To Whom
everyone
everyone everyone

woman no touching from Britain

Akira man from Nagata Japan

bowing

Name Description
George man from Cook Canada
Ahmed Aziz Darlene Coulon

Body Language
shaking hands

To Whom
everyone

man from Jordan
woman from France

to men shaking hands to women
nodding

shake hands people she and kiss twice knows on each cheek

2 Use the passage to help you answer the following questions.

1. Is the author of this passage male or female? How do you know?

The author is male. Ahmed Aziz will not shake hands with women, but he shakes hands with the author.

2. What were the two mistakes that the author noticed? He noticed that the Colombian man kissed the British woman, but in her culture, a kiss from a stranger is not expected. He also noticed that the Japanese man bowed just as the Canadian man started to shake hands, so one man’s nose touched the other man’s hand.

3. Who seemed to prefer to keep more physical distance from others? Who seemed to prefer closer physical distance ?
The British woman, Julia and probably the Canadian man, George, seemed to prefer to keep more physical distance from others. The Colombian man, Tony, and the Jordanian man Ahmed, seemed to prefer closer physical distance.

4. Did any students have similar greeting customs? If so, which one? Yes. Tony from Colombia and Darlene from France had a similar greeting custom — a kiss. George from Canada and Ahmed from Jordan also had a similar greeting custom — a handshake, but Ahmed shakes hands only with men.

5. ―When in Rome, do as the Romans do.‖ What do you think this famous saying means? This saying means that when we are in a certain place, we should follow the customs of the people who live in that place, not our own customs.

6. Do you agree with the author’s statement that body language is not good or bad? Why or why not?

1. If you meet a foreigner who comes up

close to you to talk, what countries
might he be from? How can you show

him that you are uncomfortable with
that?

2. If a girl in shorts goes into a Muslim house and a man takes her outside pointing at her shoes and shorts, what should she do? Guess why he is so particular. 3. What are some situations where body language is the only form of communication? Why?

Sample dialogue for Ex3 on page 27
S1: I would feel most uncomfortable if someone came to close to me and asked me for information, wouldn’t you? S2: Me too! At first I might think that he meant to attack me or steal something from me. But of course some countries do get very close to each other. I know that they do this in Arab countries.

S1: They do, but not with women! S2: True. I think it’s the part of the world where women have to keep themselves out of sight. S1: So the man might be from any Arab country. It might be Saudi Arabia, Yemen or Jordan. S2: Right. I’ll remember that!

Body language varies from culture to culture. Gesture eye contact Country Meaning

some countries show interest
other countries rude or disrespectful

Gesture a circle with one’s thumb and index finger

Country most countries Japan France Germany Brazil

Meaning OK money zero rude

Gesture

Country the US Nigeria Germany

Meaning great / good job rude No.1

thumbs up

Japan

Gestures

countries

Meaning Yes No

Shaking one’s hand

Bulgaria, parts of Greece, Iran
Other countries

Gestures
Kiss on the cheek A firm handshake A loving hug A bow / a nod of head

countries
France

Meanings

Russia
Other countries Greet friends

Useful phrases
student association look around step back in defence dash through on the contrary nod at be likely to in general kiss sb. on the cheek
学生会 环顾四周 后退 防卫地;戒备地 飞快地穿过 正相反 朝?点头 很可能? 大体上,一般来说,通常 亲吻某人脸颊

1.Yesterday,…representing our university’s student association,…

represent v.代表,象征;体现,表达;描绘, 声称; 1).The competition attracted over 500 players representing 8 different countries. 2).He represented himself as an expert. 3).Let me try to represent my ideas to you in another way. 4).The King is represented as a hero in the play.

【归纳总结】represent 1)vt. 代表;描绘;表现,体现,象征;声称, 宣称;说明 2) represent sth 代表某物 3)represent sb as/to be…宣称某人为…… 4)represent sth to sb 向某人说明某事;向某人 传达某事 5)represent sth/sb as sth/sb 把……描绘成…… 【辨析】 stand for只代表某事物或缩略词。 eg.字母WHO代表什么?

What does the letter ―WHO‖ stand for?

2. … I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously.

looking around curiously是动词-ing用作状语, 表示伴随状态。

He left off driving a car. He said it angrily, pointing at the notice on the wall.

curious adj. 好奇的,求知的,古怪的 (1) be curious about... 对……感到好奇

be curious to do sth. 极想做某事 It's curious that... ……很反常,……真奇怪 (2)curiosity n. 好奇心,求知欲;奇物

from/out of curiosity

出于好奇

meet/satisfy one's curiosity满足某人的好奇心 with curiosity=curiously 好奇地

3. The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia, closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain. closely followed …是过去分词短语,修饰前 面的Tony Garcia,相当于非限制性定语从句 who was closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain。Tony Garcia与follow之间是动宾关 系。比较下面两句话: There was a terrible noise following the sudden burst of light. Then soldiers walked forward, followed by their dogs.

4. Tony approached Julia, touched her shoulder and kissed her on the check! approach v. 接近;靠近; National Day is approaching. approach n. 接近;方法;途径;通道 approach to (doing) sth.(做)某事的方法 Snow announced the approach of winter. The lion’s approach drove away the small animals. All approaches to the city were blocked.

【归纳总结】

1)approach vt./vi. 接近,靠近,建议,要求, 着手处理,开始对付 n. 接近,方法,途径,通道 2)approach sb./sth.接近/靠近某人/某物 3)approach sb. about/for sth. 向某人要求/建 议某事 4)approach sb about doing sth. 建议某人做 某事 5)the approach to (doing) sth. 做……的方法 /途径

approach / way / means / method
四者皆有“方式”“方法”“途径”之 意,但approach侧重指待人接物或思考 问题的方式;

way为一般用语; means指可以得到结果的方法;
method指有规律的、有条理的做法。

1)表“做…的方法”时各自的搭配: the approach to (doing) sth. the way to do/of (doing) sth. the means of (doing) sth. the method of (doing) sth. 2) 表“用这种方法”时各自的搭配: with this method in this way by this means

5…touched her shoulder….. touch v. touched adj.感激的,激动的,受感动的; touching adj.令人同情的,感人的,动人 的 【观察思考】 1)Don’t touch that plate― it’s hot. 2)His story touched us all deeply. 3)Are you still in touch with your friends from college? 4)In his speech he was only able to touch on a few aspects of the problem.

【归纳总结】 1) v.触摸;(使)接触,感动 n. 接触,联系 2) touch sb./sth. 触摸/碰某物 3) touch sb. 感动/触动某人 4) be in touch with sb. 与某人有联系 5) touch on/upon sth. 谈及/提及某事 【拓展】 be out of touch with sb 与某人失去联系 lose touch with sb 与某人失去联系 get in touch with sb 与某人取得联系 keep in touch with sb 与某人保持联系; be touched by… 被……感动

6. …and kissed her on the cheek!

Kiss sb. on the cheek
动词(hit, pull, pat, strike, catch, hold, take) +sb.+介词 (in, on, by)+ the + 身体部位或衣着 例:1)She touched him on the shoulder. 她碰了碰他 的肩。 2)He took the girl by the hand. 他拉着小女孩的手。 3) He hit her on the nose. 他打了她的鼻子。 4)The stone struck the man in the eye. 石头击中了那 人的眼睛。

5)I caught her by the right hand. 我抓住她的右手。

7. She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence. appearing surprised在这里用作状语。 defence n. 防御;保卫 The high wall was built as a defence against intruders. [C] A lot of money is spent on defence. [U] defend v. 保护;保卫 Chinese people defended against the Japanese army during World War 2.

in defence自卫,防御

in defence of 保卫…,为…辩护
defend…against / from 保卫…以免受 defend oneself自卫,为自己辩解

The young man joined the army in defence of his country. Soldiers should defend their country against the enemies.

8. major 【观察思考】 adj.1) This is a major road. 2) Water plays a major role in our life. n. Her major is History. vi. She majored in English at Shandong University. 【归纳总结】 1)adj. 主要的,重要的,大的 play a major role in sth 在某事中起重要作用 2)n. 主修课程,专业课 3)v. 主修 major in sth 主修(=specialize in sth ) major on sth 专门研究(课题、文体等)

9. Not all cultures greet each other the same way, nor are they comfortable in the same way with touching or distance between people.

nor / neither 否定副词, 常置于句首, 此时 句子要倒装, 即助动词/系动词/情态动词放 在主语之前. nor = and also not / neither I don’t like her, nor/neither does Lily. I am not a nurse, nor/ neither is Lily.

She can’t dance, ________ nor can he. I don’t want to go, ________ nor will I.我也不会去。 I don’t know about it, _______ nor do I care. If you don’t go, ________ nor will I.我也不会去。

Not all“并非全部”,表部分否定。

all, every, everybody, everything, both, always等与否定词 not 连用时,不管not 放 前还是放后,均表示部分否定,而非全部否 定。 如:Not all…= all…not―不是全部都…‖,用 于三者以上。 All the girls don’t like dancing.
=Not all the girls like dancing. 不是所有的女孩都喜欢跳舞。

10. …and more likely to touch them. likely 常用于如下结构: sb./sth. is likely to do sth; 很可能…;有希 望… It’s likely that-clause. 注意:likely 的主语可以是人也可以是物, 但不 说: It’s likely to do sth. It’s possible, though not probable, that he will come tomorrow. He’s very likely to be late for class. It isn’t likely to rain.(it表天气,并非形式 主语。)

possible, probable, likely 1) possible 常用于下列结构: It’s possible (for sb.) to do sth; It’s possible + that-clause.

注意: possible 的主语不能是人 2) probable语气比possible重,是most likely 之意。常用于这种结构: It’s probable + that 从句 注意: probable 的主语不能是人, 英语中 不说: It’s probable to do sth.

3) likely 常用于如下结构: sb./sth. is likely to do sth; 很可能…;有希 望… It’s likely that-clause. 注意:likely 的主语可以是人也可以是物, 但 不说: It’s likely to do sth. It’s possible, though not probable, that he will come tomorrow. He’s very likely to be late for class. It isn’t likely to rain.(it表天气,并非形式 主语。)
可能性由弱至强:possible likely probable

11. They are simply the ways in which cultures have developed. 译:他们仅仅是文化发展的方式。 【观察思考】 1)I’m not happy with this way of working. 2) This is the way (that ) they used to solve the problem. 3)She was pleased with the way (in which) he apologized to her.

【归纳总结】 1)the way(s)之后的定语有三种形式: the way(s) to do sth; the way(s) of doing sth; the way(s)+定语从句。 2)the way(s)之后的定语从句有两种情况: ①当way后面的从句中缺少主语、宾语或表 语时,要用关系代词that或which,关系代词作 宾语时可以省略。 ②当way后面的从句中缺少状语时,则用that 或in which引导定语从句,或者可以省略。

12. general 1). adj. 一般的,普遍的,全面的 A matter of ~ concern/ interest 普遍(公众)关心/感兴趣的事情 Air-conditioner is in general use now. 2).总的,整体的 general idea of the passage 3) n.将军 Washington was a famous general. 华盛顿是一位著名将领。

In general 大体上, 通常, 总的来讲 In general, he is a good guy. generally speaking frankly speaking honestly speaking

This is a much frequented canteen. 这是一家就餐人数很多的食堂。 He hangs out in the school dormitory. 他留在学校的宿舍里。 A tear rolled down his cheek. 一滴泪珠沿著他的面颊流下来。 Children are not admitted, for this is an adult film. 儿童不得入内观看,因为这是一部成人电影。 The accident took place at the crossroads. 事故就发生在十字路口。

练习坊
一、根据句义和提示写出正确的单词。 1. With the a___________________ approach / approaching of the New Year, people are all busy buying presents for their family and friends. 2. He stood silently, tears rolling down his c_________. cheeks 3. He is a c_________ boy who is always curious asking questions. 4. The letters USA __________ represent (代表) the United States of America.

5. We are working in ____________ association (联合) with a number of local companies to raise money for the homeless. 6. His remarks showed that he misunderstood ___________ (误解) my position on the question. 7. I woke up and was ________ greeted (greet) by bird song. 8. They built a robot capable of understanding ______ spoken (speak) commands.

二、选用合适的单词填空。 likely, dash, flight, greet, in general 1. He greeted ______ me in the street with a friendly wave of the hand. dashed to the scene 2. An ambulance _________ of the accident within ten minutes. general it’s easier for boy graduates to 3. In _________, get a job in a big company than girl graduates. likely that my mother will ring me 4. It’s very _____ tonight. 5. I’ll book you on a direct ______ flight to London.

to stand close to (站得近) 1. It’s dangerous ______________ the fire. introduced into(引入) Europe 2. Tobacco was ________________ in the sixteenth century. nor do I know (我也不知 3. I don’t know her, ____________ 道) who she is. lived in Shanghai for many years 4. Having __________________________________ (在上海住了这么多年), he knows the place very well. 5. 今年秋天约翰可能在伦敦。 _____________________________________. John is likely to be in London this autumn

Discovering useful words and expressions
1. Find the word from the text for each of
these meanings.

1 action of defending oneself against an enemy’s attack defence 2 very probably likely 3 European country that is shaped like a Italy boot

4 small restaurant provided by a school for its students or by a company for its employees 5 to be chosen to speak or act in place of canteen someone 6 to run or travel somewhere in a great hurry represent
7 to come nearer to something or someone dash from a great distance approach

8 group of people organized for a special purpose association 9 either side or the face below the eye cheek 10 the act of flying, especially scheduled on a plane flight

2. Complete the passage with the words below in their proper forms.
approach cheek contrary curiously dash Jordan misunderstand Joan was sitting in the park. A tall, dark woman approached __________ her, singing loudly. She looked as if she was from a Middle Jordan Eastern country, maybe ________.

After a minute, the woman stopped and cheek Joan started hitting her own ______. curiously thinking that the watched _________, woman seemed a little crazy. Suddenly, dashed over to the woman saw Joan and _______ her. Joan then realized that she had ______________ misunderstood the woman’s actions – she wasn’t crazy. She was, on the contrary ________, asking for help to kill a bee!!!

3. Use words from the box to complete the paragraph below. adult crossroads major greeted flight spoken dormitory association Colombia curious representing Julie was at a __________. crossroads She had just graduated from university and was ready to begin life as an independent _______. adult

She had already received some great job major companies and offers from several ______ was very excited about the opportunities. dormitory room While cleaning out her __________ on her last day at university, she received an unexpected phone call. The caller _______ greeted her in careful English and then introduced himself as _____________ representing an association international __________.

He had met Julie a few weeks ago at a job fair and was impressed with her spoken English. The only difficulty was _______ that his company was in the country of Colombia Julie was _______ curious to find __________. out more, so after talking with her flight parents that evening, she booked a _____ to South America.

Discovering useful structures

Verb’s-ing Form as
Attribute or Adverbial

Read the sentences from the text.
1. I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously. attributive 2. I stood for a minute watching them and went to greet them. adverbial adverbial 3. She stepped back appearing surprised … 4. Then Akira Nagata from Japan came in smiling, together with … adverbial 5. …, she recognized Tony Garcia’s smiling face. attributive

Grammar V-ing 形式
一: V-ing 形式由 “do+ing‖ 构成, 其
否定形式是 “not doing‖, 没有人称和

数的变化, 但有时态和语态的变化。

语态 时态 一般式

主动语态 (not) doing

被动语态 (not) being done

完成式

(not) having done

(not) having been done

V-ing 形式在句中作定语和状语是本单元 的学习重点。 1. V-ing 形式作定语 V-ing 形式可以单独充当名词的前置修饰 语, 这时有两种情况。 1) -ing形式表示 “供作......之用”的意思, 这 类作定语的-ing形式叫动名词。 A swimming pool= a pool for swimming A sleeping car = a car for sleeping

2) -ing形式表示 “正在进行”的意思, 这 类作定语的-ing形式叫现在分词。 A sleeping child=the child is sleeping The building being built now is our new library. 现在正在建造的 这栋楼房是我 们的 新图书馆 注意:①V-ing短语在名词之后=定语从句。 They are visitors coming from Longyao. =There are visitors who are coming from Longyao.

2.现在分词作状语

现在分词作状语往往和逻辑主语之间存 在主动关系。现在分词作状语,常常用 来表示原因、时间、方式、结果、条件、 伴随状况等。现在分词一般不用作表目 的地状语(通常用不定式表目的的状 语)。

1)表时间状语 Walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine.

(=When I was walking in the street, I came across an old friend of mine.)
While waiting for the bus, he read a copy of China Daily.

(=While he was waiting for the bus,he read a copy of China Daily.)

2) 表原因状语

Being ill, he didn’t go to school.
(=as he was ill, he didn’t go to school.) 既然你是一个学生,你就应该努力学习。
Being a student, you should study hard.

(=Since you are a student, you should study hard.) 由于想到他或许在家,所以我就给他打了电话。
Thinking he might be at home, I called him. (As I thought he might be at home, I called him.)

3)表方式、伴随情况的状语 :作伴随状语 的分词表示的动作,必须是主语的一个 动 作,或是与谓语所表示的动作(或状态)同 时发生,或是对谓语表示的动词(或状态) 作进一步地补充说明。 Eg. He sat on the sofa, watching TV. (=He sat on the sofa, and watched TV.)
He stood leaning against the wall. (=He stood and leaned against the wall.)

4) 表结果 Eg. Her mother died in 1990, leaving her with her younger brother. (=Her mother died in 1990, and left her with her younger brother.) 全国到处在传唱这首歌曲,使它成了一首 最受欢迎的歌曲。 The song is sung all over the making it the most popular song country,________________________________ __.

5)表条件 Using your head, you will find a way. (=If you use your head, you will find a way.) 一直往前走,你就会看到一座白色的房子。 Walking ahead you will see a white house. ______________,

6) -ing形式作状语时, 它的逻辑主语必须

与主句的主语是一致的。
Time permitting, I will pay a visit to the whole city. (分词的逻辑主语是time , 而句子的主语是 I , 两者不构成主谓关系, 所以只能用独立主 格结构, 也就是给现在分词补充一个主语。)

有时也可用with (without) +名词(代词宾格 )+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点 着灯睡着了。 (7)作独立成分: Judging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 从外表看,他一定是个演员。

Answer key for Exercise 2 on page 29

1.approaching 2. laughing/smiling 3. smiling 4. shaking 5. shaking 6. laughing 7. competing 8. touching

Answer key for Exercise 1 on page 64

1. The smiling man held the front door open and bowed deeply. 2. The car raced past, almost hitting us as it turned the corner. 3. I looked up to see a long line of flying birds. 4. Your mother just called, hoping to talk to you.

5.There was a man sitting on the sofa and reading a newspaper. 6.Hearing that his wife had been in the accident, Mr Armstrong hurried to the hospital to see her. 7.He stayed in the waiting room for over an hour during the operation, worrying about her. 8.The field of flowers,waving in the wind, seemed to go on for miles.

Answer key for Exercise 2 on page 64 1.getting 2.encouraging 3.spoken, speaking 4.whispering 5.entering, counting 6.wearing 7.Being 8.Driving 9.boring

Suggested answers to Exercise 3 on page 64 Standing up and walking around , the young mother held her smiling baby. He was very quiet and peaceful, looking everywhere around him. After a while, his mother, being tired ,sat down. The baby immediately started to cry. Jumping up and down in her arms, he screamed louder and louder . The frowning mother quickly pulled a bottle out of her bag and gave it to her baby. Drinking noisily, the baby was again quiet and peaceful.

Reading

SHOWING OUR FEELINGS

body _________ language to Show We all use ________ Feelings Our __________.

fearful

bow

happy

Skimming
Divide the text into three parts and match the main idea with each part. Part 1 Examples of some universal (Para ? 1) body language. Part 2 (Para2-6 ?) Body language is sometimes more important than spoken language. There are differences in body language, and it’s important for us to know them.

Part 3 7) (Para ?

Which of the following can best express main idea? A.Only gestures without spoken language may cause misunderstanding. B. Some body languages or gestures are the same throughout the world. C. Different gestures stand for different feelings, wishes or attitudes while many are universal. D. It is important to give attention to the differences in body language.

Read the passage carefully and decide whether the sentences are true or false. 1. Body language is never as powerful as spoken language. 2. If you are angry at a person, you might turn your back to him or her.

3. You can threaten a person by refusing to
speak. 4. You should not greet your new boss by

giving her or him a hug.
5. Body language is the same all over the

world.
6. Most people can understand each other if

they try.

Fill in the blanks below according to the text.
Feelings Body language

Happiness
Anger or unhappiness

▲smiling
frowning and turning ▲__________ one’s back to someone fist ▲making a(n) ______ and shaking it

Agreement Disagreement or refusal Boredom Interest

▲nodding the head up and down shaking the head from ▲_______ side to side ▲looking away from people or ________ yawning ▲turning toward and __________ looking at someone or something

Respect

▲not giving a(n) ______ hug to a boss or teacher ▲not standing too close to someone of a higher ______ rank ▲standing at a little open distance with ______ hands

表达我们的情感

身势语是最强有力的交际手段之一,甚至经常比口 头语言更有力量。世界各地的人们表达各种各样的情感、 愿望和态度,他们可能从来不会大声地说出来。“读懂” 我们周围的人的意思是有可能的,即便是人们并不想让 我们捕捉到他们没有说出来的信息。当然,身势语可能 会被误读,但是很多手势和动作都具有普遍性。 最普遍使用的面部表情当然是微笑---其作用是表示快 乐和安人心静。然而微笑并不总是意味着我们是真的快 乐。世界上的微笑可能是假的,用来掩盖其他情绪,比 如生气、害怕和烦恼。还有不愉快的微笑,比如当某人 “丢了面子”就会用微笑来掩饰。但是微笑的一般目的 就是表达好的情绪。 从孩子时候起,我们就通过皱眉来表达不高兴或者愤 怒。在世界上大多数地方,皱眉或者背对着某人都表示 发怒。把手握紧,朝着别人晃拳头几乎总是意味着愤怒 并且威胁别人。

世界上有很多方式用来表示同意,但是几乎全世界都 用上下点头来表示同意。大多数人也知道左右摇头表示 不同意或拒绝做某事。 如何来表达我很厌恶呢?在多数情况下,把眼光从 人们身上移开或者打个哈欠,会使我看上去(对此人或 此事)不感兴趣。但是如果我转身面向某人或者某事, 几乎每一个文化背景的人都会认为我(对此人或此事) 感兴趣。如果我转动着眼珠,把头扭向一边,很可能是 我不相信或是不喜欢所听到的话。 根据每一种文化,对人们表示尊重都是带有主观性的。 但是一般说来,拥抱你的老板或者老师很可能是不妥当 的。在几乎每一种文化里,站得离级别更高的人太近都 不太好。站得有一定的距离,把手微微张开,会表示我 愿意倾听。 人们之间的文化差异非常多,但好在身势语有一些相 似之处。尽管我们常常会彼此误解,但我们仍能做到彼 此理解,这真是件令人惊奇的事。

Universal body languages
A smile shows happiness and puts people at ease.

smile
If someone ―loses face‖ they may smile to hide it.
A smile can hide other feelings, such as anger, fear or worry.

1 Before writing, authors usually make a writing outline. Complete this outline in your own words, using these steps. Use the topic sentences of the first and last paragraphs to help you write the main idea. Use the topic sentences of the middle paragraphs for the supporting points.

Main idea: Body language has many universal gestures. Points: 1 Showing happiness 2 Showing unhappiness or anger 3 Universal body language to show agreement or disagreement 4 Universal body language to show boredom 5 Universal body language to show respect

in groups of four. Use what you have read in the passage to help you answer the following questions.

2 Work

1. How can we know others’ feelings, even if they don’t speak to us? We can watch the expressions on people’s faces; we can see whether they face us or look away; we can observe how they hold their arms and hands; we can see whether they are close to or far away from others. Are they smiling,frowning, shrugging, holding their arms in front of them or touching other people?

2. Why should we be careful of our own body

language?

We should be careful of our own body language as we must be sure not to be impolite in other cultures, and we need to communicate without being misunderstood.

3. Why is it important to watch others as well as listen to them?

We need to watch other people because they may be communicating one idea in words and a different one in body language.

4. What are some jobs in which using body language is extremely important?
Body language is very important in any job where clear communication with others is necessary. For example, teachers and medical care people should have good clear body language; anyone who is interviewing people for jobs (and the people being interviewed) should communicate clearly; anyone giving orders or directions needs good body language; people working in diplomatic jobs and in some government jobs.

Language points
spoken language facial expression lose face hide the feelings turn one’s back to turn toward/to sb look away from 口头语言 面部表情 丢面子 掩饰感情 背对… 转向某人 不看,不注视

1. It is possible to ―read‖ others around us, even if they do not intend for us to catch their unspoken communication. 我们可以了解别人, 即使有时他们并不想要 我们了解他们没说出来的语言。

辨析: even if 与even though even if 从句所说的不肯定, 而 even though 从句所说的则是事实。

① He will not let out the secret even if he knows it. 即使他知道这个秘密, 他也不肯说出 来。(他对秘密知道与否不一定) ② He will not let out the secret even though he knows it. 他虽然知道这个秘密, 却不肯说出来。 (他知道这个秘密)

◆ intend(plan, mean to do)打算,想要企图 (1)I __________ intend to use the facial expression to

show my satisfaction. (一般人作主语)
(2) The facial expression ___________ is intended toshow my satisfaction. (一般物作主语) is intended for teachers. (3). The book ____________ 这种书是给老师(设计的) intend that the plan should be put (4).They ___________ into practice within the year.

2. In most places around the world, frowning and turning one’s back to someone shows anger. 在世界上大多数地方,皱眉或者背对着某 人都表示发怒。 ▲ turn one’s back to/on ? He always turns his back on those who need help. ? She turned her back to his advice. ? We shouldn't turn our back on her when she is in trouble.

3. Looking away from people or yawning will, in most cases, make me appear to be uninterested. 如果把眼光从某人身上移开, 或者打了个哈 欠, 这就会让人知道我不感兴趣。 ▲ look away from (1) not look at … 不看, 不注视 ① Don’t look away from me when I’m speaking to you. 当我和你说话时看着我, 不要看别处

▲ yawn (1) v. 打呵欠 e.g. She yawned during the lecture because it was boring. 她听课时打哈欠, 因为这堂课很乏味。 (2) n. 哈欠 e.g. He gave a yawn and then fell asleep. 他打了一个哈欠之后就睡着了。

4. If I roll my eyes and turn my head away, I most likely do not believe what I am hearing or do not like it. most likely在这里是省略: it is most likely that。

5. We can often be wrong about each other, so it is an amazing thing that we understand each other as well as we do. 事实证明我们都误解他啦。
The fact proves that we were all wrong about him.

他如果那样想,就很正常啦。 It was natural that he should think so. It is a/an amazing/surprising/exciting thing that sb (should) do 后经常跟虚拟语气 如果女孩这么早结婚会令人很吃惊的。 It is really a surprising thing that the girl marry so early.

Her heart was filled with unspoken words but she failed to utter a single one. 她心里有千言万语,可一句也说不出来。 The function of an adjective is to describe or add to the meaning of a noun. 形容词的作用是描述或增加名词的意思。 I don't feel at ease in the strange place. 在这个陌生的地方,我觉得很不自在。 If a teacher can't answer this simple question, he'll lose face with his class. 如果老师连如此简单的问题都不能回答, 他会在学生面前丢脸的。

He was banging on the door with his fist. 他用拳头砸门。 She yawned during the lecture because it was boring. 她听课时打哈欠, 因为这堂课很乏味。 He is respectful of his parents’ opinions. 他很尊重他的父母的意见。 His arguments were never subjective. 他的论点从来不是主观的。 It's common to hug when people meet in the US. 在美国,见面拥抱是件很平常的事。 He is above me in rank. 他的级别比我高。

Listening
Can you guess the correct order of the pictures below? Write your guesses. Then listen to the tape and write down the correct order.

Arrange them by numbers in the correct order.

2 1 3 4 6 5

LISTENING TEXT
TO DRIVE OR NOT TO DRIVE
C=CYCLIST P= POLICEMAN

Lin Pu is excited , but very nervous. He just got his driver’s license last week and yesterday bought his brotherin-law’s old car. Today, he is driving in the city for the first time. Taxis are going in every direction.

People are crossing the street without paying attention to the cars , and the people riding bikes never look before they turn. Just then, the traffic light in front of him turns red and the car in front of him stops suddenly . Lin Pu quickly turns to the right to avoid hitting the car in front of him. Crash!

He hits a bicycle and knocks over a

basket full of apples. Then he sees a
policeman, walking toward him. C: Look what you did! All my apples are on the road ! You must pay for them! P: Driver , what were you thinking? You didn’t stay in your lane! You’ll have to pay a fine for this .

L: I’m sorry! I was just trying not to hit that car in front of me . I’ve just got my license and I’m not used to driving in the city .

C: I don’t care if he is used to it or not !
Shouldn’t he have to pay for my

apples, sir?

P: Well, he’ll certainly need to pay a fine

for breaking this traffic rule .You two
will need to discuss what to do about the apples . L: I don’t have any money. I spent it all on this car! C: Well, then at least you can pick up my apples!

P: You can sell that car or something else, but you must pay this fine by the end of the month .

L: Oh, dear! Why did I ever buy a
car?

2. Act out the actions in the listening passage.
Use the expressions below to help you. You may not... Always stay... Keep away from... Do not... You should never... Look out! You must... Watch out... You will need to ... Be careful when… You’ll have to… You’ll be fined(200)yuan

Speaking
O n e of your classmates came in this morning looking very upset about something, but you cannot imagine what it is. Discuss with a partner what body language or behaviour made you think there was a problem. A: I think that there’s something wrong with Lin Pei. When she came in today, she kept her face down and wouldn’t speak.

B: Yes, when I saw her in class, she …

Sample dialogue
A: I think that there’s something wrong with Lin Pei. When she came in today, she kept her face down and wouldn’t speak. B: Yes, when I saw her in class, she looked as if she had been crying. When I asked what was wrong, she frowned and put her head down. A: I tried to talk to her, but she crossed her arms in front of her and wouldn’t look at me. She got impatient and shook her head when I asked her if I could help.

B: The teacher asked her for her homework and she just shook her head and rolled her eyes. She told me she didn’t care about school any more. A: What do you think is wrong? B: I know her mother has been very ill, and Lin Pei has had to do all the housework. Her father is very worried too. Maybe we should go to her house and offer to help her.

Writing
? Your classmate left very quickly after class, so you want to write to him/her a short letter to ask about what is wrong and whether you can help. ? Use the structure on the right to help you:

Dear (friend’s name) (1st paragraph: describe the body language that you noticed) (2nd paragraph: ask if something is wrong; perhaps make some guesses) (3rd paragraph: offer to help; remind him/her that you are a good friend) (closing) (your name)



When writing such a letter, how would you address her/him? And what about the ending? Dear Lin Pei, (Body)

Yours, Xiao Ling

● Words and expressions: 1st paragraph: seem upset, as if, cry, put your head down 2nd paragraph: ( has been) ill, do housework, tired 3rd paragraph: come, help … with, good friends

Sample letter:
Dear Lin Pei,

I noticed this morning that you seemed very upset. It looked as if you had been crying. When I asked you what was wrong, you put your head down. I’m sorry if I embarrassed you. I just want to help.

Is there anything wrong? I heard that your mum has been ill and that you are very tired doing all the housework. Is that true? I would really like to help you if I can. Can I help you with your housework or with your homework? Remember we are good friends. Yours,

Xiao Ling

Summing Up
Write down what you have learned about body language. In this unit, we have learned that body language is one form of nonverbal communication without saying words. We can use body language to show our feelings. There are different kinds of body language in different cultures. Body language is very important in our life.

from this unit you have also learned
useful verbs: greet, represent, approach, defend, misunderstand… phrasal nouns: body language, student association, a major misunderstanding, unspoken communication, facial expression… useful adjectives: curious, major, false, facial, subjective… useful expressions: dash through, be likely to, be careful with, keep a recorder of… a new grammar item: Verb’s –ing form used as attribute or adverbial.

穿着得体的人总是面带微笑。 —马丁·查宁 每个人的微笑都表达着相同的话语。 (所有的人都用同样的语言向你微笑。) —佚名 两人之间的最短距离是微笑。 (微笑使人际距离缩得最短。) —佚名

微笑表示欢迎,这在全世界都通用。 —马克思·伊斯门 微笑是强大的武器;你甚至可以用 它击破坚冰。 —佚名 和平从微笑开始。 —特丽莎么么

Using words and expressions Answer key for Exercise 1 on page 63: 1.Mr Burns looks rather upset, so he ____ is not _______ likely to listen to you. 2.Today he seems rather unhappy, but _________ in general he is a very cheerful guy. lost face in 3.Jack had a terrible day. He _______ front of the class, forgetting his words when he started to answer the teacher’s question.

4.I usually feel very nervous when I stand up in front of others, but today I felt quite ______ at ease when giving a speech to the school. 5.I think Ms Jackon is a little angry. Mr Potter came over to talk to her, but when she saw him coming, she ______________ turned her back to him. defended its homeland _______ against 6.The army ________ all enemies.

Answer key for Exercise 2 on page 63: comedy at the A: Did you see that great _______ theatre last night?

yawned the whole time. B: Oh, yes… I _______ It was so boring!
truly thought that that A: Boring?! I _____ play was one of the best I’ve seen _ it is certainly going to be a worldwide success!

optimismis nice, but you B: Oh, come on! Your ________ have to admit – the main actor was terrible. When he tried to show _____, the only thing anger that seemed angry was his shaking ____! fist is completely _________. I A: That opinion think the whole purpose of subjective the author was to show that our _____ expressions can facial make our _________ have no meaning. statements B: Well, if that was his purpose, it worked well!

Answer key for Exercise 3 on page 63:

1. He died defending the honour of his nation. 2. Elizabeth did not trust him, so she gave him a false name and address . 3. Jenny can’t function without a cup of coffee in the morning. 4. During World War II, he rose gradually from the rank of major to general. 5. Don’t forget to bring your cassette recorder tomorrow. 6. There must be some misunderstanding. I don’t know what you’re talking about.


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