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高考英语一轮语法专题复习课件-定语从句 2

定语从句:在复合句中修饰并限定名词或代词的从句。这 个名词或代词称为“先行词”,而引导定语从句的词称为“关 系词”。定语从句置于先行词的后面。如: He is the man who/that wants to see you. 他就是想见你的那个人。 在上句中, man 是先行词, the who/that 是关系词, who/that 引导的定语从句修饰 the man。

一、关系词的选用与判断 正确选择关系词是掌握定语从句的关键。关系词的选择取 决于先行词和关系词在定语从句中所充当的句子成分。关系词 一共有九个,它们在从句中的用法如下表。

He is the man whom/that I saw yesterday.(whom/that 在从句 中作宾语) Please pass me the book whose cover is green.(whose 在从 句中作定语) The package which/that he was carrying was mine.(which/that 在从句中作宾语) We are facing the same problems as we did years ago.(as 在 从句中作宾语) There are occasions when one must yield.(when 在从句中作 状语) Beijing is the place where I was born.(where 在从句中作状 语) Is this the reason why he refused our offer?(why 在从句中 作状语)

二、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 1.限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉定语从 句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。 I was the only person in our office who was invited to the party. (去掉 who 引导的定语从句,句子意思就不完整) 2.非限制性定语从句:从句对先行词关系不密切,去掉 定语从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号与主句分隔开,不能 用 that 引导。 Tom's father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night. (去掉 who 引导的非限制性定语从句,句子意思仍完整)

二、限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 1.限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉定语从 句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。 I was the only person in our office who was invited to the party. (去掉 who 引导的定语从句,句子意思就不完整) 2.非限制性定语从句:从句对先行词关系不密切,去掉 定语从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号与主句分隔开,不能 用 that 引导。 Tom's father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night. (去掉 who 引导的非限制性定语从句,句子意思仍完整)

2)用 which 而不用 that 的情况: ①引导非限制性定语从句。 ②代表整个主句的意思。 ③介词+关系代词。 He had failed in the maths exam, which made his father very angry. This is the room in which my father lived last year.

2.as 引导定语从句时的用法 1)as 引导限制性定语从句通常用于 the same ? as, such? as 结构中。 Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China. 我们车间使用的这种机器是中国制造的。 2)as 引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在 主句之后,用来补充说明整个句子。通常用于下列句型: as is known to all 众所周知 as is said above 综上所述 as is reported in the newspaper 正如报纸所报道的 as is announced 正如宣布的那样 as we all know 正如我们所知

as I expect 正如我预料的那样 as everybody knows 正如大家所知 as we can see 正如我们所看到的那样 as I have said 正如我所说的那样 as is often the case 通常如此 as might have been expected 不出所料 as is mentioned above 正如上面提到的 As I expected, he got the first place again in this midterm examination.

3.关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词用单数 还是复数应由先行词决定。 The man who lives downstairs speaks English fluently. The students who are in Grade Three are going to climb the hill tomorrow. 4.定语从句有时不直接紧靠先行词,中间由一个定语、 状语或谓语隔开。 There is an expression in his eyes that I can't understand. that 引导的定语从句修饰先行词 an expression, 两者被状 语 in his eyes 分隔开。

5.引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词+which” 来代替。 October 1, 1949 was the day on which(=when) the People's Republic of China was founded. 6.介词在关系代词前,只能用 which 和 whom,且不能省 略;介词在句尾,关系代词可用 which, that, whom, 口语中也 可用 who,且可省略。 This is the classmate with whom I'll go to the cinema. The subject in which I'm most interested is English. The man (whom/who/that) you were talking about has come to school.

四、同位语从句与定语从句的区别 同位语从句通常被用来解释名词(如 news, fact, suggestion, truth, plan, belief, doubt, possibility, idea 等)的含义或内容,而定 语从句对名词或代词起限定和修饰的作用。如: They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again.(同位语从句,解释 hope 的内容) The hope that/which she expressed is that they would come to visit China again.(定语从句,限定 hope)

五、定语从句考点评析 在 2007 年、 2009 年和 2010 年广东高考英语试卷语法填空 题中,分别考查了 2 个、1 个和 1 个定语从句: 2007: 1) ? the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to a small town some 20 kilometres away_______there was a garage.

【答案】where 考查的是关系副词 where 引导的定语从 句,先行词是 a small town。

2) ?I wanted to reward the old woman for the trouble I had caused_______.
【答案】her 考查的是填定语从句中的宾语,先行词是 the trouble, 省略了关系代词 which/that, 作 caused 的双宾语 之一。

2009: 3)Jane paused in front of a counter ______ some attractive ties were on display.
【答案】where 考查的是由关系副词 where 引导的定语 从句,先行词是 a counter。

2010: 4)He filled his leather container so that he could bring to elder______had been his teacher.

【答案】who/that 考查的是定语从句,先行词 elder 指的 是人,关系代词在句中作主语。

一、用适当的关系词填空。 1.You must show my wife the same respect ________ you as show me. whose 2. This is the only one of the students________handwriting is the best. 3.He studied hard and later became a wellknown writer, ________ his father expected. which 4.________ was expected, he succeeded in the exam. As why 5.Do you know the reason ________ she has changed her mind?

6.The old man had three sons, all of ________ died during whom World War Ⅱ. 7.The room ________ Mr.White lives is not very large. where 8.I live in the house ________ windows face south. whose 9.The headmaster doubted the reason ________ I didn't why come to school. which 10.This is the school ________ we visited three days ago.

11.Because of my poor memory, all ________ you told me that has been forgotten. 12.We are just trying to reach a point ________ both sides where will sit down together and talk. 13.He's got himself into a dangerous situation ________ he where is likely to lose control over the plane. 14.The film brought the hours back to me ________ I was when taken good care of in that faraway village. 15.When he came back from abroad, John told his parents that about the cities and the people ________ he had visited.

16.Morning is the best time ________ we should make full that use of to read aloud. who 17.Jack is a man ________ I believe is honest. 18.How many students are there in your class ________ whose homes are in the country? 19.In order to develop our skills, we should do more such exercises in the future, I think, __________we did today. as who 20.Those ________ want to go please sign their names here.

二、根据句子意思,用“介词+关系代词”填空。 1.In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom ________ she could turn for help. 2.The man ________________ you are going to make with whom friends is my father's neighbor. 3.They will visit the farm ________________ my brother on which works. in which 4.Nearby were two canoes ________________ they had come to the island. with whom 5.Wu Dong, ________________ I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much.

6. stories about the Long March, ________________ this The of which is one example, are well written. 7.In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30, by which ________________ many people have got home. 8.This is the book ________________ you asked. for which 9.The man ________________ I learned the news came. from whom 10.Water is very important for us ________________we without which cannot live.

三、用定语从句完成下面句子。 1.他有一本封面非常漂亮的书。 He has a book____________________________. whose cover is very beautiful 2.他们常常谈论那些他们感兴趣的人和事。 They often talk about the people and the that they are interested in things________________________________. 3.我们应该帮助那些需要帮助的人。 who need help We should help those______________________________. 4.我仅仅在那读了两年的学校有三公里远。 where I studied for only two years The school ________________________________was 3 kilometers away.

5.李明迟到了,这让张先生非常生气。 which made Mr.Zhang very angry Li Ming was late, _________________________________. 6.正如上面提到的,纸是中国首先制造出来的。 ____________________, paper was first made in China. As is mentioned above 7.曾有一段时间中国的经济落后于世界许多国家。 when Chinese economy was far behind There was a time __________________________________ __________________ in the world. many other countries 8.中国有许多大河流,其中黄河和长江是最重要的河流。 There are many big rivers in China, the most important of which is the Yellow River ________________________________________________ and the Yangtze River.

9.我们学校有 300 多位老师,70%都是男老师。 There are more than 300 teachers in our school,

70% of whom are men ________________________________________________. 10.我们学校是个漂亮而又宁静的地方,前面有很多高大 树木。 Our school is a beautiful and quiet place, in front of which stand a lot of tall trees ________________________________________________.

四、语法填空。 Though I can't remember everything 1.________ happened that when during the time 2.________ I was in university, I still remember that some people and things 3.________ were related to my best friend, who 4.________ used to be monitor in our class.If you want to know who is the lady that I referred to in my diary, I can tell you: her, it's that/which Miss Brown.Here is a story 5.____________ makes me remember Miss Brown until now.One afternoon, she and I arrived in New where York, 6.________ we would spend our summer holiday which together.We went to the biggest bookstore in 7.________ there were different kinds of books to be sold.

that/which There, she persuaded me to buy a grammar book 8.________ could offer me knowledge of grammar and a dictionary which/that 9.________ I could look up the new words in.Miss Brown also bought the same books 10.________ I did.Just when we left the as bookstore and were ready to go back to our university, a big man stopped us and robbed me of my necklace.Miss Brown tried her best to help me and lost one of her fingers.

五、基础写作。 根据下面信息,用 5 个句子表达全部内容,并尽可能应用 定语从句。 1.我有一个同学叫李明,他是我们的班长,他母亲是我 高一的英语老师。 2.李明学习认真,乐于助人,我们大家都很喜欢他。 3.上周他代表学校参加市数学竞赛并获得一等奖,这让 我们非常自豪。 4.今年暑假,李明计划和他母亲一块去云南旅游。 5.众所周知,云南有很多旅游胜地,他打算在那尽情享 受自然风光,好好放松一下自己。

【答案】 I have a classmate named Li Ming, who is our monitor and whose mother was my English teacher in Senior One.Li Ming studies very hard and is always ready to help others, so we all like him very much.Last week he took part in the maths contest of our city on behalf of our school and won first place, which made us feel very proud.On this summer vocation, Li Ming plans to go on a trip to Yunnan with his mother.As we all know, Yunnan has many places of interest, where he is going to enjoy the natural scenery and relax himself.


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