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牛津高中英语1-8模块重点词汇讲解[三]


牛津高中英语 1—8 模块重点词汇讲解(三) 21. approach( P18, M4): You must decide what approach you want to use. approach Usage 1: 【C】, a method of doing sth. or dealing with a problem e.g.: a new approach to c

ancer treatment 治疗癌症的新方法 Usage 2: 【U】, 靠近,接近,临近 e.g.: (1) Our approach drove away the wild animals. 我们的靠近驱走了野生动物。 (2) The approach of winter brings cold weather. 冬天来了,天气冷了。 Usage 3: 【C】, a way of getting in e.g.: All approaches to the town were blocked. 所有通往城里的路都被堵上了。 Usage 4: 【C】, an act of speaking to sb. (about sth.) for the first time 初次跟人打交道,接触 e.g.: We have made approaches to them with a view to forming a business partnership. 为了和他们建立商业伙伴关系,我 们进行了接洽。 Usage 5: vi. or vt., 走进,靠近,接近 e.g.: (1) Silently we approached the enemy’s camp. 我们悄悄地靠近了敌人的营地。 (2) The time is approaching when we will have to leave. 我们离开的时间到了。 (3) We had to work in temperatures approaching 35℃. 我们不得不在接近 35 ℃的高温下工作。 (4) He’s a good player, but doesn’t approach international standard. 他是个不错的选手,但还没达到国际标准。 (5) He’s approaching 80. 他快 80 了。

. Usage 6: to speak to sb. , esp. in order to make a request or suggestion for the first time (初次)接洽;交涉;打交道 e.g.: Did he approach you about lending him some money? 他有没有找你借钱? 扩展: approachable, adj., easy to speak to or deal with; friendly 易亲近的,易交谈的,易与之打 交道的;友善的; able to approach 可接近的;能够达到的 e.g.: You’ll find the director a very approachable person. 你会发现董事长是非常可亲的人。 Usage 7: vt., to begin to consider or deal with 开始考虑,对付,处理 e.g.: There are several ways of approaching this problem. 处理这个问题有好几种方法。 21. concern(P38, M5): As the third longest river in the world, it is clear to see why the environmental problems of the Yangtze River have raised concern both nationally and internationally. concern Usage 1 : uncountable noun, worry; anxiety 担心;忧虑 e.g.: (1) a matter of considerable public concern 公众非常担心的问题 (2) a teacher’s concern for his students 教师对学生的关心之情 e.g.: (3) There is no reason for concern; your son’accident was not too serious. 没必要担心,你儿子的事故不太严重。 (4) The report expressed serious concern about the doctor’s

competence. 报告表达了对该名医生能力的极大担忧。 Usage 2: 【C】所关切的事;有利害关 系的事 e.g.: (1) How much money I earn is none of your concern. 我赚多少钱与你无关。 (2) a policy that fails to deal with the concerns of ethnic minorities

一项未能针对少数民族人民所关切 之事的政策 Usage 3: vt., to be about 与…有关系,涉及 e.g.: The article concerns a man who is wrongly imprisoned. 这篇文章写的是一个被冤屈而 坐牢的人。 Usage 4: vt., to be of importance or interest to; have an effect on 与…有关;对…有影响 e.g.: (1) These problems concern all of us. 这些问题关系到我们所有的人。 (2) This regulation does not concern you, so don’t worry. 这项规定与你无关,别担心。 (3) To whom it may concern… 敬启者… 扩展 1: concerned adj. Usage1: anxious, worried; having an active personal interest . e.g.: (1) He has never been very concerned about what other people may think of him. 他从不在乎别人对他的想法。 (2) I am concerned for their happiness. 我关心他们的幸福。 (3) The children’s mother was very concerned for their safety when they didn’t come back from school at the usual time.

当孩子们放学后不能按时回家时, 母亲非常担心他们的安全。 Usage 2: 有关的,有牵连的;参与的 e.g.: (1) Everyone who was concerned in the affair regrets it very much. 所有参与此事的人都非常后悔。 (2) I have enjoyed my visit very much, and would like to thank all the people concerned. 我对访问非常满意,感谢所有有关人员。 (3) I’ll pass on your comments to the people concerned. 我会把你的评论转达给相关人士。 扩展 3: 固定词组:be concerned with : to be about e.g.: This story is concerned with a Russian family in the 19th century. 故事讲述的是十九世纪时的一个俄国家庭。 扩展 4: 固定词组:as far as I’m / you’re, etc.,concerned e.g.: As far as I’m concerned the whole idea is crazy. 就我而言,整个想法是疯狂的。 扩展 5: where something is concerned 就某事而言,在某种事情上 e.g.: Where money is concerned, I always try to be very careful. 在钱这种事上,我总是力图谨慎。 扩展 6:concerning prep.较正式, 关于 e.g.: (1) Concerning your request, I am pleased to inform you that … (2) Police are anxious to hear any information concerning his whereabouts.

警察非常想得到有关他的下落的信息。 22. take on(P11, M6): In an interview, he told us that he is always happy to take on new foreign students. take on Usage1:接受(工作等; 承担(责任等) e.g.: My doctor says I’m too tired and

has advised me not to take any more work on. 医生说我太累了,建议我不要再 接受工作。 Usage 2: to start to employ e.g.: We’ve decided to take on a new clerk in the accounts department. 我们决定在会计部雇用一名新职员。 Usage 3: 开始具有(呈现) (某种品质、 面貌等) ;露出 e.g.: (1) These insects can take on the color of their surroundings. (2) His face took on a worried expression. 扩展 1: take off Usage 1: 脱下,脱去(衣服) e.g.:Take your coat off. 相反词: put on Usage 2: (飞机、航天器等) 升空,起飞 Usage 3: vi., to begin to become successful, popular, or well-known 开始有成就; 开始受欢迎;开始成名 e.g.: It was at this point that her acting career really took off. 她的演艺事业是在此时开始成功的。 Usage 4: to have a holiday from work on the stated day or for the stated period 请假 . e.g.: (1) I’m taking Thursday off because I’m moving house. 我星期四要请假,因为我要搬家。 (2) Take a few days off, Michael. 歇几天吧, Michael 。 扩展 2:take over vt. / vi. 接手, 接管 e.g.: (1) Who do you think will take over now that the governor has been dismissed? 州长已被免职,你认为谁会接替他? (2) I’m feeling too tired to drive any

more; will you take over? 我累得开不动了,你来开,好吗? 扩展 3: take to Usage1: to feel a liking for, esp. at once (尤指立刻)对…产生好感,喜欢上 e.g.: I took to Paul as soon as we met. 我们一见面,我就喜欢上 Paul 了。 Usage 2: 染上…习惯, 嗜好 e.g.: (1) All this gloomy news is enough to make you take to drink. 这些令人沮丧的消息足以让人去酗酒了。 (2) Just lately he’s taken to hiding his socks under the carpet. 近来,他染上了把袜子藏在地毯底下的习惯。 Usage 3: 到(某处)休息;到…躲藏;逃往 e.g.: (1) Father’s ill, so he’s taken to his bed. 父亲生病了,所以上床休息去了。 (2) The criminals took to the hills to escape from the police. 罪犯们逃到山间以躲避警察。 扩展 4: take up Usage 1: to begin to spend time doing; interest oneself in e.g.: John took up acting when he was at college. 约翰在上大学的时候开始从事表演。 Usage 2: (事物或事件)占用了 (空间和时间) e.g.: (1) The job took up most of Sunday. 这件工作占用了星期天的绝大多数时间。 (2) These boxes of yours are taking up too much space. 你的这些盒子占去了太多的空间。 23. hold up (P42, M6): There was a boat we could go on but we got held up as Mr. Hudson remarked that the boat was too crowded. hold up Usage 1: to delay 推迟, (使)耽搁 e.g.: (1) The building of the new road has been held up by bad weather. 糟糕的天气耽搁了新路的修建。

(2) A strike has held up production. 罢工延误了生产。 Usage 2: to (try to ) rob by using the threat of violence e.g.: The criminals held up the bank and took all the money. 犯罪分子劫持了银行,拿走了所有的钱。 Usage 3: to show as an example e.g.: The old man always held up his youngest son as a model of hard work. 老人总是把自己最小的儿子当作勤劳 工作的典范。 扩展 1: hold out Usage 1: to offer 提供;提出 e.g.: I don’t hold out much hope that the weather will improve. 我对天气好转不爆多大希望。 Usage 2: to continue to exist; last 继续存在,持续,维持 e.g.: How much longer can our supplies hold out? 我们的供给还能维持多久? Usage 3: to continue in spite of difficulties; 坚持,忍住 e.g.: The town was surrounded, but the people held out until help came. 城被困了,但人们一直坚持到救援来。 24. refer to (P50, M6): I am pleased to have the chance today to talk to you about the United Nations or the UN, as it is often referred to. refer to Usage1: to mention or speak about e.g.: (1) The scientist referred to the discovery as the most exciting new development in this field. 这位科学家把该发现称作是此领域内 最令人激动的新进展。 (2) Which companies was she referring to when she spoke of competing firms? 当她说起竞争商家时,她指的是哪些公司? (3) The figures in the left-hand column

refer to our overseas sales. 左栏的数据指的是海外的销售额。 Usage 2: to look at for information 参考,查阅,查看 e.g.: (1) to refer to a dictionary 查阅字典 (2) Let me just refer to my notes to find the exact figures. 让我查查笔记,找找确切的数字。 Usage 3: to concern; be directed towards or be relevant to 有关;针对 e.g.: The new law does not refer to land used for farming. 新的法规与耕地无关。 Usage 4 : refer sb. / sth. to sb. 提交…给…做决定(处理) e.g.: (1) The shop referred the complaints to the makers of the articles. 商家把投诉转交给了生产厂家。 (2) The professor referred me to an article she had written on this subject. 教授让我查阅她就这个主题曾经写过 的一篇文章。 (3) The proposal will have to be referred to the Finance Committee. 这项提议将会转交给财经委员会。 扩展 1:reference Usage 1: 【c; u】 ,谈到,提及 e.g.: (1) King WilliamⅡ was known as “Rufus”, a reference to his red hair. 国王威廉二世因一头红发被称为鲁弗斯。 注:Rufus 系拉丁语,意为“红发” 。 (2) When I spoke to him about the expedition, he didn’t make any reference to your coming with us. 当我向他说起这次远征时,他并未提到 你会和我们一起来。 (3) Her speech contained only a passing reference to the problem of unemployment. 她的演讲只对失业问题一带而过。 Usage 2: 【C; U】 ,参考,查阅

e.g.: Use this dictionary for easy reference. 这部字典查起来很方便。 扩展 2: reference book 参考书,工具书 reference library (图书不外借的)参考书阅览室; 参考图书馆 25. lack (P51, M6): Apart from the urgent problems caused by wars and conflicts, the UN helps countries with other problems such as lack education, lack of food, poverty, disasters and disease. lack Usage 1: 【U;C】 ,缺乏,不足,没有 e.g.: (1) The plants died through for lack of water. 这些植物因缺水而死。 (2) There’s a certain lack of enthusiasm for these changes among the membership. 会员们对这些变化不太热心。 Usage 2: vt.,,缺乏,不足,没有 e.g.: (1) The female bird lacks the male’s coloration. 雌鸟没有雄鸟缤纷的羽毛。 (2) He’s good at his job he seems to lack confidence. 他工作干得不错,但好像信心不足。 (3) What the company lacks is sufficient money to invest in new products.

公司缺少足够的资金来投资新的产品。 扩展: lacking, adj., 缺少的, 不足的, 没有 的;缺少…的 e.g.: (1) We cant’ confirm these rumours because accurate information is lacking. 我们不能证实这些谣言,因为缺少确切的信息。 (2) I was happy as a child, but there was something lacking. 我小的时候很开心,但总觉的缺点什么。 (3) I’m afraid he’s somewhat lacking in

intelligence / tact / initiative. 我恐怕他不太聪明 / 不够圆滑 / 缺少 主动性。 26. address(P35,M7): The main drawbacks of the Internet I will address today are uncontrolled information and the change in the way people spend their time. address Usage 1: vt., fml., 探讨(如何处理问题) e.g.: The article addresses the problems of diseases connected with malnutrition. 这篇文章探讨了与营养不良有关的疾病问题。 Usage 2: address oneself to: to direct one’s attention or effort to 致力于,着手 e.g.: (1) He ignored side issues and addressed himself to the main problem. 他抛开枝节,着力处理主要问题。 (2) Marlowe now addressed himself to the task of searching the room. Marlowe 现在开始着手搜查房间。 Usage 3: address a meeting / crowd / conference etc.: to make a speech to a large group of people e.g.: The meeting was addressed by Senator Howard. Howard 议员在会议上发言。 Usage 4: 在(信封/包裹上等)写上姓名和地址 e.g.: (1) If you address the letter , I’ll mail it for you. 如果你把姓名地址写好,我会帮你寄。 (2) There’s a letter addressed to you. 有一封你的信。 addressee: 收信人,收件人 Usage 5: 名词,地址 e.g.: I can’t read the address on the envelope.

我看不清信封上的地址。 Usage 6: fml., a formal speech made to a group of people (audience) who are gathered especially to listen e.g.: a commencement address 在毕业典礼上的发言 27. attach (P47, M7): When you are finished, you should always attach a list of the sites you got your information from. attach Usage 1: to connect one thing to another 系,绑, 贴,固定,连接,附上 attach sth. to e.g.: (1) Attach a recent photogragh to your application form. 在你的申请表上贴上你的一张近照。 (2) The web was only attached to the leaf by one thread. 仅仅一根丝就把蜘蛛网固定在了树叶上。 (3) a small battery attached to a little loudspeaker 装在小喇叭上的一小节电池 Usage 2: be attached to : to like sb. or sth. very much, because you have known them and had them for a long time 喜欢,依恋 e.g.: (1) It’s easy to be attached to the children you work with. Too attached, sometimes. 对与你相处的孩子们产生依恋感是很容 易的。有时,太依恋了。 (2) I am deeply / very attached to this old car. 我很舍不得这辆老车。 扩展: attachment: noun, 喜爱, 爱慕,依恋;信仰,忠诚 e.g.: (1) I did feel a certain sense of

attachment for the strange old guy. 我确实对这个古怪的老家伙有一脸的感觉。 (2) She has already had a strong attachment to her baby brother. 她已深深的爱上了襁褓中的小弟弟。 (3) old people’s attachment to traditional customs and ways 老人们对传统风俗和生活方式的眷恋 Usage 3: 认为…有重要性,重视 e.g.: (1) She attaches great importance to regular exercise. 她认为正规训练很重要。 (2) It would be unwise to attach too much significance to these opinion polls. 赋予这些民意调查太多意义是不明智的。 28. decline(P30, M8): From early 1930s to the early 1950s, traditional jazz went into a bit of decline, and was replaced in popularity by a new kind of music known as swing. decline Usage 1: n., usu. sing.: 衰微,衰退,下降 e.g.: (1) There has been a sharp decline in profits this year. 今年的利润有大幅下跌。 (2) The birthrate is on decline. 出生率在下降。 Usage 2: vi., 衰落,衰退,下降 e.g.: (1) His influence declined as he grew older. 随着他逐渐老去,他的影响力越来越小。 (2) Do you think standards of morality have declined in recent years? 你是否认为道德标准近年来已有所下降? (3) The old lady wants to spend her declining years by the sea. 老太太希望在海边度过暮年。 (4) the government’s declining popularity

政府不断下跌的人气 Usage 3: vi., or vt., 婉拒,婉言谢绝 e.g.: (1) We asked him to come to our party, but he declined. 我们邀请他参加聚会,但他婉拒了。 (2) The official at first declined to make a statement, but later he agreed. 该官员起初不肯发表声明,但后来又同意了。 29. draft(P31, M8): Elvis’ music life was cur short when he was drafted into the army in 1958.d draft Usage 1: be drafted into the army (战时) 被征召入伍 (AmE.) e.g.: Joe’s been drafted into the army. 乔应召入伍。 Usage 2: 起草, 草拟(计划、信件、 报告等) e.g.: Eva’s busy drafting her speech for the conference. 依娃正忙于起草会议发言稿。 Usage 3: noun, 草稿;草图;草案 e.g.: (1) Let’s make a rough draft of the letter. 让我们先写个信的草稿吧。 (2) the first / final draft of a poem 诗的第一稿 / 最终稿 4. leave(P22, M2): Listen to me young man – remember the day when we left you in charge? 使役动词 Usage: leave + obj. + o.c. e.g.: (1) Paying for the car repairs has left us without a penny. 付完汽车修理费我们已身无分文。 . (2) I used to leave my bedroom lamp on to make them think that I was studying. 我常让卧室的灯亮着,让他们误 以为我在学习。 (3) The president’s sudden death has left the country leaderless. 总统突然去世使这个国家处于无领袖状态。

(4) Her narrow escape left her feeling shaken. 九死一生的经历让她心有余悸。 (5) Leave the rice to cook for 20 minutes. 让米在锅里煮上个 20 分钟。 (6) He died very suddenly, leaving much of his research work unfinished. 他突然去世,留下大量研究工作为完成。 扩展:英语中的使役动词:使役动词是表

示使、令、让、叫等意义的动词, 主要有 make,let,keep,leave 等。 (一)have 使,让,不用于被动语态 1. have +宾语+done (1) 叫、让、请别人做某事 e.g.: I’ll have my bike repaired soon. (2) 遭遇不幸事件 e.g.: He had his wallet stolen on the bus. 2. have +宾语+do 让……做某事,动作 执行者为宾语 e.g.: (1) He had her go there. (2) The teacher has us speak English in class. 3. have +宾语+doing 让……做某事 e.g.: (1) He had her standing in the rain for two hours. (2) He had us laughing all through the meal. (3) I won’t have you speaking to your mother that way. = I won’t allow you to speak to your mother that way. 4. have +宾语+adj./adv./prep. 促使某

一动作发生 e.g.: Please have your money ready. (二) make 使……,有轻微强迫之意 1. make +宾语+do,迫使某人做某 事,被动语态为 be made to do e.g.: The boy made the girl cry. 2. make+宾语+adj./adv./prep./n.使……处于某种状态 e.g.: His illness made him very weak. 3. make +宾语+done 使处于某种状 态,并强调动作的被动性 e.g.: Please speak louder to make yourself heard. (三) get 使,让 1. get +宾语+to do 让……做某事,强调 未来性动作 e.g.: He got his brother to help him. 2. get +宾语+done 让……被做,强调被 动性动作 e.g.: He got the car started. 3. get +宾语+doing 让……做某事,强 调正在进行的动作 e.g.: She got her bike running very fast. 4. get+宾语+adj./adv./prep. 使……发生 e.g.: Please get your tickets ready. (四) let 使,让 1. let +宾语+do,让……做,被动语态 为 be let (to) do e.g.: Let’s go there, shall we? 2. let+宾语+adv./prep. 让……,多表示 方向 e.g.: He let the dog out of the room. (五) set 使得,引起 1.set +宾语+to do 使……做,强调未来 动作 e.g.: He has set himself to study hard. 2. set +宾语+doing 使……做,强调正在 进行的动作 e.g.: These words set me thinking. 3. set +宾语+adj./prep./n. 使……处于某

种状态 e.g.: This medicine will set you right. (六) send 使得,迫使 1. send+宾语+doing 使……处于迅 速运转的状态 e.g.: A piece of ice sent him falling down. 2. send +宾语+adj./prep. 使……处

于特定状态 e.g.: His complaints almost sent her mad. (七) force 强迫,迫使 force +宾语+to do,迫使某人做某事, 被动语态为 be forced to do e.g.: He forced her to go home. 2. force +宾语+prep./adv. 迫使……朝向某一方向 e.g.: They forced the enemy’s plane down. (八) keep 使,让,保持 1. keep +宾语+doing 使某人处于 做某事的状态中,强调动作延续一 段时间 e.g.: I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long. 2. keep +宾语+adj./adv./prep. 使…处 于特定状态 e.g.: Please keep the classroom clean. 3.keep +宾语+done 使……处于被动状态 e.g.: I can’t keep my eyes shut to all this. (九) drive 驱动,逼迫,迫使 drive +宾语+to do 驱动…做, 被动语态为 be driven to do e.g.: His hunger drove him to look for food. 2. drive +adj./prep. 迫使…处

于某种 特定状态 e.g.: The noise almost drove her crazy.


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