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高考英语第二轮复习 阅读理解猜测词意


高三总复习

高考大纲中关于阅读理解的要求

要求考生读懂熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简 短文字材料,例如公告、说明、广告以及书、报、 杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章。考生应能: 1、理解主旨要义; 2、理解文中具体信息; 3、根据上下文推断生词的词义; 4、作出简单判断和理解; 5、理解文章的基本结构; 6、理解作者的意图和态度。

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上下文

猜测词意

构词法

A mosquito is a small flying pest that thrust the skin and then drink blood.

Desert can be defined as a large area of land where there is not enough rain and vegetation to support human life. 沙漠

蚊子

1、定义或解释说明 ●信号词:be, be called, means, be defined as

Ex. 1
◎A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter. 木匠 ◎His uncle is a zoologist, an expert who does research on animals. 动物学家 ◎The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.

牧人

◎We are on the night shift --- from midnight to 8 a.m. --- this week.

夜班

Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 污秽的 John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things, his wife, however, is very thrifty. 节约的 2、对比关系

信号词: but, however, yet, otherwise, while, though, on the one hand…on the other hand, for one thing…for another thing, instead of 等

Ex. 2
◎In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil.

混乱
◎If you agree, write “ yes”; if you dissent, write “no”.

不同意

Rubber can be made to stretch more than nine times its normal length because it is very elastic. 弹性的
The river is so turbid that it is impossible to see the bottom even when it is shallow.

3、因果关系

混浊的

信号词: because, since, as, for, due to, so, therefore, so…that, such…that, thus

Ex. 3

◎He’s such a shrewd businessman that he loses no money in any trade.
精明的 ◎She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 修剪

Cars must have certain safety devices such as seat belt, headlights, and good brakes.

装置
On the farm they mainly raise poultry, such as chickens, ducks and geese, for their eggs and meat. 家禽 4、举例法 信号词: such, such as, like, for example/ instance, especially, include, consist of

In some countries where there is very little rain, the farmers have to irrigate, or water, their fields.

灌溉

All whales fall into two groups, those with teeth and those without, Dolphins belong to odontoceti, that is to say, they are toothed whales.

5、重述 信号词: or, that is ( to say ), in other words, to put it another way, i.e.

有牙齿的

The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that was in effect last year.

替代

Mother was tall, fat and middle-aged. My aunt was an old woman, almost as plump as mother, and much shorter.

圆胖的,

6、同义词、近义词 信号词: or, like , as…as, the same as

When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anaesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him. 麻药
When you throw a stone into still water of a lake, you will watch a ripple spread in rings on the surface of water.

波纹

7、生活经验, 生活常识, 逻辑推理

小试身手
1.Over the course of a friendship, even the best people make mistakes. Sometimes, it may be best if the wronged person takes the lead and apologizes. The “wronged person” underlined in the sentences refers to a person_____

A. who has been mistaken for another
B. who has been blamed unfairly

C. who has treated friends badly
D. who has admitted his mistakes

2.Any of these coming at right time, can serve as an igniter to start one’s enthusiasm for learning or for a better career, to turn him from a passive state of waiting to an active state of pursuing, to lend him strength to go ahead bravely. In that case, what he has prepeared for years will be quickly turned into fruitful reality. The underlined word “pursuing” means_____ A. dreaming about success. B. trying to achieve something. C. preparing for the worst. D. hoping to be a leader. !

3.Many years ago, when I was fresh out of of school and working in Denver, I was driving to my parents’ home in Missouri for Chrismas. I stopped at a gas station about 50 miles from Oklahoma City, where I was planning to stop and visit a friend. While I was standing in line at the cash register(收 款台),I said hello to an older couple who were also paying for gas. I took off, but had gone only a few miles when black smoke poured from the back of my car. I stopped and wondered what I should do. The underlined words”took off” mean______ A. turned off B. moved off C. put up D. set up

4.The coyote(丛林狼)originally lived in the middle of the continent. One of its most obvious chareaters is its smartness, which has made the animal a notorious(臭名昭著的)pest. Hunters trapped, shot and poisoned more than a million coyotes in the 1900s. It’s still one of America’s most hunted animals. Yet the coyote has survived. How has the coyote shown this extraordinary ability?”I guess if you wanted to use one word, it’d be plasticity”, says Eric Gese, an expert at Utah State University.
The underlined word”plasticity” refers to_____ A. the ability to fit the environment B.hunting ability C. notorious smartness D. being human-tolerant !


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