当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >> 第二讲 对词性

第二讲 对词性


第二讲 对词性、句子及句型的认识
一. 十大词类 名词----------表示人或事物的名称 形容词-------表示人或事物的特征 副词----------修饰动词、形容词、或其他副词 动词----------表示动作或状态 代词----------代替名词、数词 数词----------表示数量或顺序 冠词----------限制名词的意义 介词-------表示名

词、代词和其他词的关系 连词-------连接词与词或句与句 感叹词-----表示说话时的感情或语气 二、句子成分划分: 英语的基本成分有六种:主语(subject) 、谓语(predicate) 、表语(predicative) 、 宾语(object) 、定语(attribute)和状语(adverbial) a.主语:句子所谈的对象,可以由名词,代词,数次,动名词,不定式或者 从句构成。 Eg: Smoking is harmful to your health; To learn English well is not easy; what he said at the meeting surprised everybody present. b.谓语:说明主语的情况(简单谓语:动词或动词短语和复合谓语:情态动 词加 do,动词加 to do,系动词加表语) Eg: I tried to repair my computer but was in vain. c.表语:表示主语的特征,状态和身份。位于连系动词后并与之构成系表结 构。可以作表的有名词,代词,数词,形容词,不定式,动名词,分词,介 词短语,从句等。 d.宾语:动作的承受者,可以充任宾语的有名词,代词,数词,不定式,动 名词和从句等。 复合宾语:宾语(名词或代词)加宾语补足语(名词,形容词,介词短语, 分词,不定式) 。 You call me Mr. Chen; Let’s set the bird free; The teacher finally let him in; They had their hands cut off(ed); I saw a boy playing football there; I will invite you to have dinner with me. e.定语:说明名词或代词的品质与特征。可以作定语的有形容词,名词,代 词,数词,副词,不定式,动名词,分词,介词短语或从句。 Twenty students in our school received invitations to attend the party. life here is good and we can have fun in the swimming pool. The girl who wears a long dress over there is our English teacher. f:状语:修饰形容词,动词,副词,短语,从句和全句;可以用作状语的有 副词,数词,形容词,不定式,分词,介词短语,从句等。 Down fell the mirror, breaking into pieces; He hurried to the station just to find that the train had left; g: 同位语:指同一个事物的句子成分放在同等位置,其中一个用来解释和 说明另外一个,可以充当同位语的有名词,代词,数词,不定式,动名词,

1

介词短语,从句等。 At the moment they have only one dream—to go to a key university. I like my job, teaching English. The news came that the poor guy failed in the exam. 练习、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分: 1. The students got on the school bus. 2. He handed me the newspaper. 3. I shall answer your question after class. 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. 6. His job is to train swimmers. 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. 8. There is going to be an American film tonight. 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. 10. His wish is to become a scientist. 11. He managed to finish the work in time. 12. Tom came to ask me for advice. 13. He found it important to master English. 14. Do you have anything else to say? 15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good. 16. Would you please tell me your address? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. 18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy. 19. He noticed a man enter the room. 20. The apples tasted sweet. 三、句子的结构 1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语) 。 e.g. He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. 2) 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, or 等)或分号(; )把两个或两个以上的 简单句连在一起构成。 e.g. You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的。 3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子。复合句包含:名词性从句(主 语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句) 、定语从句和状语从句等。 e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall 四、英语简单句的五大基本句型 简单句的基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns) 英语句子有长有短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎千变万化,难以捉摸, 但从实质看,可以发现其内在联系,找出其共同规律。英语句子的基本结构 可以归纳成五中基本句型。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构 的基础。 1. 主谓句型( + ) 1.1 Great changes have taken place.

2

1.2 We all breathe, eat and drink. 1.3 The blind study in special schools. 1.4 Fighting broke out between the South and North. 1.5 To tell the truth always pays. 1.6 What he said doesn’t matter. 以上例句中的斜体部分是句子的______语。主语是一个句子的主题,是句子 所述说的主体。它的位置一般在一句之首。可用作主语的有_____, ______, _______, _______, _______等等。谓语动词说明主语的动作和状态。以上例 句中,我们不难看出,句子的谓语动词是不及物动词,这些不及物动词可以 是单个动词也可以是短语,由此,可以归纳出这些例句都属于_______ 句型。 此句型的特点是谓语动词是不及物动词,本身能表达完整的意思,后面不需 要跟宾语,但有时可跟副词、介词短语等做状语。如: He laughed. John has read widely. He lives in London. 【练一练】找出下列句子的主语并注意谓语动词。 1) Two days passed. 2) The war ended peacefully. 3) The girl came in quietly. 4) The group of children went there on foot. 5) It is blowing. 6) Everybody is now studying hard. 7) The story spread all over the town. 8) The book sells well. 9) We live to devote. 10) The sun has risen. 2. 主谓宾句型( + + ) 2.1 I like China. 2.2 He hates you. 2.3 ---How many do you need? ---I need two. 2.4 We should help the old and the poor. 2.5 I like working with you. 2.6 I hope to see you again. 2.7 Did you write down what he said? 2.8 I’m looking forward to hearing from you. 2.9 It took me a while to adapt to the job. 2.10 He looks after his little daughter on Sundays 分析以上例句,可以看出斜体部分是句子的______语。句子的宾语可以由 _____, ______, ______, _______, _______, ________等充当,它表示及物动词 或及物动词短语的对象或内容。或者用于介词后构成介词短语。句子的谓语 动词可以是单个的动词也可以是短语,如例句中的 look forward to, look after 等。这类句型即________句型。此句型的特点是谓语动词是及物动词,不能表达完整的 意思,必须跟有一个宾语。如:Our team beat all the others.. 【练一练】翻译下列句子,并指出句子的主干(主谓宾) 1)I ride a bike to school. 2)You’d better follow my advice.
3

3)Do you mind my smoking. 4)You should practice writing more. 5)The room needs painting. 6)Do remember to lock the door. 3. 主系表句型( + + ) S + Link.V + P 3.1 He is a teacher. 3.2 The best composition is hers. 3.3 Five and five is ten. 3.4 He is asleep. 3.5 His father is thin. 3.6 The picture is on the wall. 3.7 My watch is gone/lost/missing. 3.8 To see is to believe. 3.9 The question is whether they will come. 以上例句中的斜体部分是句子的______语。 表语说明主语的性质, 状态, 特征或身份。 通常由_______, _______, _______, _______, _______, ________等充当。 以上句型属于 _________句型。此句型的特点是谓语动词是连系动词,不能表达完整的意思,必须 加上一个表明主语特征、身份、状态的表语。本句型中,系动词除了 be 以外, 还可以是: 1). Several players lay flat on the playground. 2). We should remain modest and prudent any time. 3). The picture looks more beautiful at a certain distance. 4). It is getting warmer and warmer. 5). Don’t have the food. It has gone bad. 6) The facts prove true. 7). The rose smells sweet. 以上系动词可以分类为:感觉(feel, look, smell, taste, sound); 仍然(remain, continue, stay, keep) ; 变成 (become, come, go, get, turn, grow) ; 似乎 (seem; appear) ; 证明是(prove, turn out) 【练一练】 汉译英。 1) 失败乃成功之母。 2) 这花闻起来很香。 3) 今天我感觉不舒服。 4) 早起对健康有益。 5) 我对此十分生气。 6) 小心你的健. 7) 布莱克的脸慢慢变红了。 8) 这个计划听起来很实际。 9) 他的实验证明是成功的。 4. 主谓双宾句型(主语 + 及物动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语) S + Vt. + Oi + Od 4.1 She ordered herself a new dress. 4.2 She cooked her husband a delicious meal. 4.3 He brought you a dictionary. 4.4 He denies her nothing.
4

4.5 I showed him my picture. 4.6 I gave my car a wash. 4.7 I told him the bus was late. 4.8 He showed me how to run the machine. 仔细观察以上例句,可以看出,斜体部分是句子的宾语,下划线部分也是句 子的_____语,也就是一个句子中有两个_______语。不难发现,斜体部分为 “人或者物”,称为间接宾语;下划线部分为“物或者事”,称为直接宾语。这 类句型叫做________句型。 此句型的特点是谓语动词是及物动词,后面跟有两个宾语,这两个宾语都是 动作的对象或承受者,其中指人的是间接宾语,指物的是直接宾语。当间接 宾语放在直接宾语之后时,通常需要介词 for 或 to。可跟双宾语的动词有: answer, bring, buy, find, get, give, lend, make, pass, pay, send, show, sing, take, teach, tell, write 等。如: Mr. Li told us an interesting story. Would you please give this dictionary to Li Hua.? She ordered a new dress for herself. I showed my picture to him. 【练一练】改写句子,不改变句意。 1) He gave me a red rose. = ______________________. 2) She made me a beautiful dress. = _________________________. 3) He brings cookies to me every day. = ________________________. 4) My father bought my sister a personal computer. = __________________________. 5) He never lends his car to others. = _________________________. 6) Show me your license. = ________________________. 7) Can you spare the children some minutes? = ______________________________. 8) The police offer 3 meals a day to the prisoners. = __________________________. 5. 主谓宾补句型(主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语) S + Vt. + O + C 5.1 They named the child Jim. 5.2 He boiled the egg hard. 5.3 He painted the door green. 5.4 I found the book very interesting. 5.5 We saw him out. 5.6 The comrades wanted Dr. Bethune to take over. 5.7 I call this robbing Peter to pay Paul. 我把这个叫做拆东墙补西墙。 分析以上句子,可以看出,动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能 表达完整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语才能使意思完整,这个 补充成分叫做_________语。(斜体部分即宾语的补足语),可以用作宾语补 足语的有_______, _______, ________, _________, _________等。这个句型称 作_________句型。此句型的特点是谓语动词后虽然跟有一个宾语,但意思还不完整, 必须加上另外一个成分 (宾语补足语) 对宾语进行补充说明。 常用于这个句型的动词有: 1) 感官动词:see, notice, observe, watch, hear, listen to, feel, find, smell 2) 使役动词:have, let, make, get 3) 表示心理状态的动词:consider, think, believe, find, imagine, suppose, prove
5

表示情感状态的动词:love, prefer, hate, want, wish, expect 动词 keep/leave 使/让…保持某种状态 We must keep our school clean. They made him their monitor. 【练一练】单项选择 1)I am sorry to have kept you _______. A. wait B. to wait C. waiting D. waited 2)She found her dog ______ over by a car on the road. A. run B. ran C. to run D. running 3)I will make your dream _______. A. comes true B. to come true C. coming truly D. come true 4)We must have the machine _______. A. to repair B. repairing C. repair D. repaired 5)The speaker found himself ______ all alone. A. misunderstand B. misunderstanding C. misunderstood D. to misunderstand 6. 复杂句式都是由这五种基本句型拓展而成。如果在名词或代词前或后面加 上词,短语或者句子来修饰,那么这些修饰或限制名词或代词的词,词组 或句子就是定语。 如: 6.1 He is a chemistry teacher. 6.2 We belong to the third world. 6.3 He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson. 6.4 The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. 6.5 The boys playing football are in Class 2. 6.6 You should do everything that I do. 6.7 I have an idea to do it well. 通过以上例句可以看出,用作定语的可以是名词,代词,数词,形容词,介词短语,动 名词,分词,不定式或从句。 7. 在英语中,修饰动词,形容词,副词以及全句的成分叫状语。如: 7.1 The girl is improving remarkably. 7.2 He ran for shelter. 7.3 Because he was ill, Tom lost his job. 可以用作状语的有副词,分词,不定式,介词短语或从句。 练习 对词性、句子及句型的认识自主检测

4) 5)

一、分析下列句子属于基本句型的哪一种? 1. Our school is not far from my home. 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you. 3. All o us considered him honest. 4. My grandfather brought me a pair of sports shoes. 5. He broke a piece of glass. 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city. 7. I love you more than her, child. 8. Trees turn green when spring comes 9. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 10. They pushed the door open. 11. He wrote carefully some letters to his friends. 12. All the students think highly of this teaching.
6

13. We need a place twice larger than this one. 14. He asked us to sing an English song. 15. Don’t get nervous. 16. We will make our school more beautiful. 17. He didn’t come. That is why he didn’t know. 18. She showed us her many of her pictures. 19. The old man lives a lonely life. 20. Luckily the 1989 earthquake did not happen in the center of town. 二、汉译英 (一)________结构 1. 你应当努力学习。

2.

他昨天回家很晚。

3.

那天早上我们谈了很多。

4.

会议将持续两个小时。

5.

在过去的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变化。

(二)________结构 1. 昨晚我写了一封信。

2. 今天下午我想同你谈谈。

3. 这本书他读过多次了。

4. 你们必须在两周内看完这些书。

5. 他们成功地完成了计划。

(三)________结构 1. 我的兄弟都是大学生。

2. 冬季白天短,夜晚长。

3. 布朗夫人看起来很健康

4. 十五岁他就成为有名的钢琴家了。
7

5. 孩子们,请保持安静。

(四)__________结构 1. Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。

2. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。

3. Mary 把钱包交给校长了。

4. 请把那本字典递给我好吗?

5. 他把车票给列车员看。

(五)主谓宾补结构 1. 他的父母给他取名为 John.

2. 我们大家认为他是诚实的。

3. 我们要使学校变得更美丽。

4. 卫兵命令我们立即离开。

5. 明天我要找人来修理机器。

6. 每天早晨我们都听到他大声朗读英语。

7. 我要请人把我的录音机修理一下。

8. 我从来没看见这个字这样用过。

9. 他感到很难和你交谈。

10. 学校制定了一条规则,开始上课时学生要起立。 _______________________

8


更多相关文档:

第二讲 对词性

第二讲 对词性、句子及句型的认识一. 十大词类 名词---表示人或事物的名称 形容词---表示人或事物的特征 副词---修饰动词、形容词、或其他副词 动词---表示...

名词性从句第二讲

词性从句第二讲 隐藏>> 名词性从句 1、连词只起连接作用,不在从句中充当任何句子成分。 第二讲词性从句包括主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句。名...

语法第二讲:名词性从句(二)

语法第二讲词性从句(二) 主语从句和同位语从句 【学习要点】 1. 什么是主语从句和同位语从句 E.g. The fact surprised us all. That he finished writing ...

2第二讲:名词性从句(2),状语从句(1)

第二讲词性从句(2) ,状语从句(1) 名词性从句(2) ,一.新概念课文中的...(care) (doubt) 3.主编对老年人会喜欢读这种杂志表示怀疑。 4. 我毫不怀疑...

第二讲:否定句及辨析词性结构

第二讲:否定句及辨析词性结构 隐藏>> 辨析词性结构英语中有许多词汇不仅仅有一...他们的所有生活是受到控 制的,可能比起其他人更是通过对先例的尊重来挽救西班牙...

上海高三英语辅导讲义-第二讲 名词性从句

上海高三英语辅导讲义-第二讲 名词性从句_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。名词...查了两个名词性从句:主语从句和宾语从句,what 在这两个名 -4- 词性从句中都...

第二讲名词性从句之宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句

第二讲词性从句之宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句_高二英语_英语_高中教育_教育...我们都认为对这件事马上做出决定很重要. ②有些动词带宾语从句时需要在宾语与...

第二讲 名词性从句3课时

第二讲词性从句3课时 英语名词性从句英语名词性从句隐藏>> 第三节 名词性从句 3 课时 在句中充当名词的从句,包括宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、 同位语从...

词性使用失误及其对词性教学的启示

词性使用失误及其对词性教学的启示 姓名单位时间 王惠...(二)、缺乏词性概念导致词性使用错误 在外语学习过程...年第 7 卷第 04 期 4. 《浅析高中生英语词性...

大学语文第一次作业满分卷

你认为她讲得对吗? 1、 错 2、 题号:1 内容:...C、之二虫又何知? D、寡人之於国也,尽心焉耳矣...下列句子中“其”字的词性与其他各项不同的是( )...
更多相关标签:
李丰吉特巴教学第二讲 | 孙全圣画牡丹第二讲 | 王建军慢四教学第二讲 | 第二讲专家教师的特征 | 乾隆扇分解教学第二讲 | 谈谈历史安阳 第二讲 | 工匠精神读本第二讲 | 修身贤文第二讲观后感 |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com