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高考英语一轮复习精品语法学案 专题11 名词性从句


名词性从句一直备受高考命题者的关注,近几年来的高考题主要考查在具体语境中连接词的 选择, 尤其是连接词 what 和 that 的辨析, 以及 whether 与 if 表示“是否”时的区别。 因此, 正确区分名词性从句的类型,根据在从句中的作用和所表达的意义,确定恰当的连接词是一 轮复习的重点。此外,名词性从句和定语从句的辨析,也是高考考查的重点。

一、认识各种名词性从句 名词性从句相当于名词,可分别作句子的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此,名词性从 句具体分为主语从句、 表语从句、 宾语从句和同位语从句。 名词性从句中的连接词有连词 that / whether / if,连接代词 what / who(m)/ which / whose / whatever / whoever / whomever / whichever,连接副词 where / when / why / how 。 从名词性从句在句中所起的作用来说,名词性从句是句子不可缺少的一部分,和句子的其他 成分之间也不会用逗号隔开。而定语从句和状语从句是句子中的修饰成分,去掉之后不会影 响句子主体结构的完整性。这是判断是否是名词性从句最主要的特征。如: I wonder how much these shoes cost. (宾语从句,不可省去) He is the very man I look after. (定语从句,修饰 the man) You may borrow the book as long as you keep it clean. (状语从句)

1. 主语从句 Who will go is not important. It doesn't matter so much whether you will come or not. (形式主语 it 代替后面 的真正的主语从句) 注意:that 引导主语从句放于句首时,不能省略。 That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised. 2. 表语从句
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The question was who could go there. My idea is that we can get more people to help in the work. That is why the brothers wanted to make a bet. It looked as if it was going to rain. 3 . 宾语从句 I hope (that) everything is all right. 注意:(1)that 在引导宾语从句时,常可省略,但如果有两个以上的宾语从句时,最后一 个从句的 that 不能省略。如: I know (that) he has just graduated from college and that he is looking for a job. (2) 如果动词宾语后又有补语,那么要使用 it 作形式宾语,然后把宾语从句放在补语之后。 如: I make it known that we'll be invited to the ball. (3) 如果主句的谓语动词的时态是一般过去时,那么从句的时态要采用相应的与过去有关的 时态,但如果从句描述的是客观事实,从句时态不可调整“呼应”。如: She remembered that she had left her wallet at the school gate. Our teacher said that light travels faster than sound. 4. 同位语从句 同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语,一般位于该名词 (如:news, fact, idea, suggestion, promise 等)之后,说明该名词的具体内容。如: I have no idea when he will be back. The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.

注意: 在 动 词 : 一 坚 持 (insist) 、 二 命 令 (order , command) 、 三 建 议 (suggest , advise , recommend)、四要求(demand,require,request,ask)后的宾语从句和这些动词的过去分词 后的主语从句,以及这些动词的名词引出的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语部分常用 (should)do 形式。如: He insisted that he (should) try once again. His advice is that everyone (should) do his best to help the poor girl.
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It is required that students (should) attend at least 90% of the lectures.

二、名词性从句的连接词 名词性从句的连接词是名词性从句中最核心的问题,也是高考的常考点。连接词的选择 要考虑它在从句中的作用和所表达的意义。

在句中所 连接词 词义 作成分 The problem is that we don't have 从 that 属 连 词 The if/ whether 是否 / question is whether they have so much money. / / enough money. 例句

在句中所 连接词 词义 作成分 连 who/ 接 whom/ 代 which/ 词 whose/ what the ?that 所??的 all night was unknown. 东西/?? thing that / 表语、定语 ②Who kept the door open what 更常表示:the 主语、宾语、 the teacher said. 原疑问代词的意义; ①Pay attention to what 例句

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whoever/ whomever 无 论 谁 / 无 论 哪 个 主语、宾语、 / which (些)/无论什么 ever/ whatever 表语、定语

①Whoever

breaks

the

law will be punished. ②You whichever like. can book take you

在句中所 连接词 词义 作成分 例句

①When he will go is 原疑问副词的意义或“?? unknown. 连 when/ 接 where/ why/ 副 how 词 (the reason why)” ; ?? was born. 的方式(the way that) ④This is how we work. place where);??的原因 ③This room is where I when) ; ?? 的 地 点 (the 状语 me. 的 时 间 (the time why he tried to avoid ②I wonder

1. what 与 that (1) 【误】 All what he did was for you. 【正】 What he did was for you. 【正】 All that he did was for you.

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(2) 【误】 I was thinking that I could do for you. 【正】 I was thinking what I could do for you. 【解析】 what 引导名词性从句,what 相当于 the thing that/ the ?that/ all that 等,具体的意义要根据上下文确定。在名词性从句中,what 既有意义,又在从句中作一定的 成分,而 that 无意义,且在从句中不作成分。

2. who 与 whoever 【误】 Who is the first to come will get a gift. 【正】 Whoever is the first to come will get a gift. 【正】 Anyone who is the first to come will get a gift. 【解析】 whoever 引导名词性从句,意为“无论谁”,相当于 anyone who;而 who 意为 “谁”。

3. whether 与 if (1) 【误】 They don't know if to go there. 【正】 They don't know whether to go there.

(2) 【误】 It depends on if we have enough time. 【正】 It depends on whether we have enough time. 【解析】 在以下情况只能用 whether 不能用 if:

① 作介词宾语时,连接词一般用 whether。 It all depends on whether they will come back. ② 后面直接跟 or not 时,用 whether。 I didn't know whether or not he had arrived in Wuhan. ③ 主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中,只能用 whether。 Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet. The question is whether they have so much time. ④ whether 可与动词不定式连用,但 if 不能。 I have not decided whether to go or not.
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⑤ whether 可引导一个让步状语从句,表示“不管,无论”,而 if 不能。 Whether he comes or not, we will begin our party on time.

4. whoever 与 whomever 【误】 Please give the book to whomever needs it most. 【正】 Please give the book to whoever needs it most. 【解析】 此处,whoever 在从句中作主语,因此不能用 whomever。名词性从句引导词的 选择要注意其意义及它在从句中所作的成分。

5. 【误】 He will win the match is certain. 【正】 That he will win the match is certain. 【正】 It is certain that he will win the match. 【解析】 that 位于句首引导主语从句时,不能省略。

6. 【误】 What we bought was some bananas. 【正】 What we bought were some bananas. 【解析】 what 引导的从句作主语时,若表示复数概念,谓语动词则用复数。

7. 名词性从句的语序 【误】 So now you know what should you do. 【正】 So now you know what you should do. 【解析】 名词性从句应用陈述语序。

8. 【误】 There's a fact that English is being accepted as an important language. 【正】 It's a fact that English is being accepted as an important language. 【解析】 It is a fact that?句型中,It 为形式主语,真正的主语为后面的 that?从 句。it 不能换成 there。

9. 【误】 He is late. That's why he got up late this morning. 【正】 He is late. That's because he got up late this morning.
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【解析】 That's why???的原因;That's because ?那是因为??此处起床晚是迟 到的原因,故用 That's because?

10. 【误】 We'll discuss the problem that the sports meeting will be held in Beijing Stadium. 【正】 We'll discuss the problem when/whether the sports meeting will be held in Beijing Stadium. 【解析】 如果用 that 引导同位语从句意义不完整,这时可根据情况选用 whether, when 等。

1. [2010·全国卷Ⅰ] We haven't discussed yet ________ we are going to place our new furniture. A.that B.which C.what D.where

【解析】D where 引导宾语从句,在从句中作地点状语。

2. [2009·北京卷] At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see ________it got any better. A.when B.how C.why D.if

【解析】 D

考查宾语从句的引导词的选择。句意为:最初他不喜欢这份新工作,但是

他决定给自己几个月的时间来看一下这份工作是否会变得更好。所以用 if 引导宾语从句。

3. [2010·全国卷Ⅱ] —Have you finished the book? —No. I've read up to ________ the children discover the secret cave. A.which B.what C.that 【解析】 D D.where

考查宾语从句连接词。答句句意为:我已经读到孩子们发现神秘洞穴的部

分。where 引导的从句充当 up to 的宾语,强调地点概念。

4. [2010·福建卷] We should respect food and think about the people who don't have ________ we have here and treat food nicely.
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A.that

B.which C.what

D.whether

【解析】 C

考查引导词。句意为:我们应该尊重食物,考虑那些没有我们拥有的东西

并很好地对待食物的人们。who 引导的定语从句修饰 the people,定语从句中又含有一个宾 语从句,这个宾语从句中 we have 缺少宾语,所以用 what 引导宾语从句。

5.________ the flight to New York will be delayed is ________I'm especially worried about. A.If; what C.When; that 【解析】 D B.Whether; that D.Whether; what

句意为:到纽约的航班是否会被耽搁是我特别担心的事情。放在句首的主

语从句表“是否”要用 whether 引导,而不能用 if,what 引导表语从句。表示所担心的事情。 选 D。

6. [2010·重庆卷] To improve the quality of our products,we asked for suggestions ________ had used the products. A.whoever C.whichever 【解析】 A B.who D.which 考查宾语从句引导词。句意为:为了提高产品的质量,我们向任何使用过

我们产品的人征求意见。这里可以表示“任何人”的只有 whoever,引导宾语从句,在从句中 作主语。正常语序应为?asked whoever had used the products for suggestions。

7. [2010·北京卷] ________some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. A.Whether B.What C.That D.How

【解析】 B 本题考查主语从句的引导词。在主语从句________some people regard as a drawback 中,regard 缺少宾语,选 B。

8. [2010·北京卷] I want to be liked and loved for ________I am inside. A.who B.where C.what D.how

【解析】 C 本题考查名词性从句的引导词。for 后跟宾语从句,从句中 am 后缺少表语,
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故用 what,相当于一个名词加 that。

9.[2010·北京卷] Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel,David Copperfield,was ________ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A.what B.that C.why D.whether

【解析】 B 本题考查表语从句的引导词。当 the reason 作主语,后面接表语从句时, 习惯上用 that 来连接。

10.Mum is coming. What present________ for your birthday? A.you expect she has got B.you expect has she got C.do you expect she has got D.do you expect has she got 【解析】 C 考查双重疑问句,疑问词+do you think/believe/expect+句子的其他成 分(句子用陈述句语序)。

11.People believe that there is no doubt ________a cure for H1N1 has been found. A.which B.that C.what D.whether

【解析】 B 考查同位语从句。There is no doubt that 为固定句型,that 在从句中不 充当成分。

12.[2010·江苏卷] —I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. —That's ________ I don't agree. You should have a more active life. A.where B.how C.when 【解析】 A D.what

本题考查名词性从句。where 引导表语从句,在从句中作地点状语。注意

agree 是不及物动词。

13.Father made a promise ________I passed the examination he would buy me a new dictionary.
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A.that

B.if C.whether

D.that if

【解析】 D 句。

that 引导同位语从句。在同位语从句中又含有一个由 if 引导的条件状语从

14.________ children should learn from around us is a question of great importance. A.Where B.Whom C.When D.How

【解析】 B 考查对句式和引导词的判断能力。分析句子结构可排除 A、C、D,也可根据 句意“孩子们该向谁学习??”得知答案。

15.—Alice looks blue today. —Yes, I asked her, but she wouldn't say ________ troubled her. A.why was it that C.it was what 【解析】 D B.that was why D.what it was that

考查宾语从句的语序和强调句型。句意为:“爱丽丝今天显得沮丧。”“是

的,我问她为何,她没说究竟是什么让她伤心。”

16.[2010·浙江卷] —How about camping this weekend,just for a change? —OK,________you want. A.whichever C.whatever B.however D.whoever

【解析】 C 句意:“这个周末野营怎么样,来点新鲜的?”“好啊,按你的意思吧!” 答语中谓语动词 want 缺少宾语,排除 B、D 项;whichever 需要在语境中给出具体范围,所以 排除 A 项。whatever 等于 anything that。

17.[2010·陕西卷] It never occurred to me ________you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind. A.which B.what C.that D.if

【解析】 C 本题考查名词性从句中的主语从句。It 为形式主语,真正的主语从句中不 缺任何成分,根据句子意思,只需要用 that 连接。

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18.[2010·四川卷] How much one enjoys himself traveling depends largely on ________ he goes with,whether his friends or relatives. A.what B.who C.how D.why

【解析】 B 考查连词词义辨析。宾语从句中 with 缺少宾语,whether his friends or relatives 暗示缺少的是指人的宾语。

19.—You know, I'm poor in Chinese; you are not good at English, and ? —That's ________ we should help each other. A.when B.where C.how D.that

【解析】 B 考查名词性从句。where 引导的从句作表语,where 意为“??的地方”。

20.The free tickets will go to ________ comes first to the concert. A.whoever C.whichever B.whomever D.no matter who

【解析】 A 本题考查名词性从句。题干句子空白处用 whoever 连接宾语从句同时在宾 语从句中作主语,指人。句意为:免费票将送给第一个来听音乐会的听众,不管他是谁。注 意 no matter who 只能引导状语从句,不能连接名词性从句。

1.(2011·陕西西安分科质检)After working on the maths problem for hours,he found________he thought was the key to it. A.what C.where B.that D.which

解析: what 引导的名词性从句作 found 的宾语从句的主语,而且 what 在宾语从句中作 主语。he thought 为插入语。 答案: A 2.(2011·济南第二次统考)The hospital nearby has just got a,________you’d call it,er...a scanner. A.that
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B.which

C.what 解析:

D.how 考查名词性从句。该句比较口语化。句意是“附近的医院刚搞来一个??你们

叫它什么??对,扫描器”。 答案: C 3 . (2011· 潍 坊 质 量 监 测 )Sometimes advertisements make companies to sell the customers ________money can not buy. A./;that C.that;which B.it;what D.it;whose possible for

解析: 句意为:有时广告让公司把用钱买不到的东西卖给顾客变得可能。it 是形式宾 语,真正的宾语是不定式短语。what 引导的是宾语从句,并在宾语从句中作宾语。 答案: B 4. (2011·四川绵阳模拟)Most of________we call geniuses (天才) are successful only because they have made extraordinary efforts. A.whom C.which B.who D.what

解析: 分析句子成分可知 of 后的宾语从句中,动词 call 后面缺少英语补足语,故用 what 引导。 答案: D 5 . (2011· 宁 夏 银 川 调 研 )She is very dear to us.We have been prepared to do________it takes to save her life. A.whichever C.whatever 解析: B.however D.whoever

句意为:她对我们弥足珍贵。我们已经准备好尽一切努力挽救她的生命。这里

的 whatever 既作 take 的宾语,也引导 do 后的宾语从句。 答案: C 6.(2010·西城 5 月)—Why are you staring at me? —You look stupid!The way you wear is________annoys me most. A.which C.how 解析: B.where D.what 考查名词性从句的引导词。所选关系代词引导一个表语从句,并在从句中作主

语,所以要用 what。 答案: D 7 . (2011· 湖 北 武 汉 联 考 )Faced with trouble or difficulty , a person takes ________help that is available.
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A.whatever C.wherever

B.whenever D.however

解析: 句意为:面对困难或挫折,一个人会接受任何可能得到的帮助。whatever 在此 修饰 help,意为“无论什么”,而其他三个选项,不作形容词,不能修饰名词,故排除。 答案: A 8.(2011·浙江温州联考)The fact has worried many scientists________the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years. A.what C.that 解析: B.which D.though 句意为:近年地球越来越暖的事实让许多科学家担心。从句“the earth is

becoming warmer and warmer these years”不缺少成分,因此选 C 项。that 引导的从句作 fact 的同位语。 答案: C 9.(2011·日照市调研考试)—Do you know her? —No.Her name rings a bell but I can’t remember________I read it before. A.where C.that 解析: B.what D.if 考查名词性从句。答语语意是:我不认识她。她的名字好像很熟,但我想不起

来在哪儿见到过了。A、B、C 三个选项中只有 where 可在宾语从句中作地点状语,if 不符合 语意。 答案: A 10. (2011·南通一模)________there are living creatures in the outer space as those on Earth hasn’t been proved until now. A.How C.Where 解析: B.When D.Whether 本题考查名词性从句。句意为:外太空是否存在像地球上一样的生物还不能确

定。whether 引导主语从句。 答案: D 11.(2011·南通二模)—He is eager to try something he has never tried before. —Oh,I see.That’s ________he’s different from others. A.when C.how B.where D.what

解析: 考查名词性从句。所填词引导的从句作表语,在从句中作地点状语,用 where, 选 B。
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答案: B 12.(2010·贵阳部分学校联考)The painting is so valuable that it is difficult to calculate________its price would be. A.that C.what B.which D./

解析: 考查名词性从句。这里用 what 引导宾语从句,并在从句中作表语。这画太名贵 了,很难估量其价格。 答案: C 13.(2010·济南统考)The media today can draw public attention to________help is actually needed. A.that C.where B.which D.whose

解析: 本题考查宾语从句的引导词,结合题干,where 引导宾语从句并且在宾语从句中 作地点状语。 答案: C 14.(2010·海淀一模)Sorry I’m so late,but you cannot imagine________great trouble I took to find your house. A.what C.which B.how D.why

解析: 考查宾语从句。take great trouble to do something 表示“不辞辛劳地做某 事”。在此,what 引导的宾语从句同时是一个感叹句,what 修饰名词 trouble。而 how 在感 叹句中修饰形容词、副词或动词。 答案: A 15.(2010·成都第一次诊断)Professor Backman took up scientific research for decades,and this is________he devoted all his life to. A.which C.where B.what D.how

解析: 考查名词性从句。 what 引导表语从句且在从句中作介词 to 的宾语, 表示“什么”。 答案: B

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