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英语中的否定 讲义


英语中的否定 一.英语中常见的否定现象 1. 部分否定 代词或副词如all, both , every, everybody, every day, everyone, everything, entirely, altogether, absolutely, wholly, completely, everywhere, always, often 等与not 搭配使用 时,表

示部分否定,意为“并非都是,不是每 个都是”等。 I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with _____(97NMET) A. everything B. anything C. something D. nothing

2. 全部否定 英语中表示全部否定常用no, not, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere, neither, never等。 a. We couldn’t eat in a restaurant because ______ of us had ____money on us. (91MET) A. all; no B. any; no C. none; any D. no one; any b. I made a call to my parents yesterday. To my disappointment, _______ of them answered it. (2005福建) A. either B. none C. neither D. nobody

3. 半否定 表示整个句子的意思接近于否定。常用的半否定 副词有:hardly, scarcely, barely, rarely, seldom, only, little, few 等。 a. You and I could hardly work together, ______? (2009湖南) A. could you B. couldn’t I C. couldn’t we D. could we b. Sally’s never seen a play in the Shanghai Grand Theatre, ______? (2009上海) A. hasn’t she B. has she C. isn’t she D. is she

4. 双重否定 双重否定是指同一个句子中出现两个否定词,即 否定之否定。双重否定句表示的意思时肯定的, 通常比肯定句的语气要重。 Thank you for all your hard work last week. I don’t think we ____ it without you.(2008山 东) A. can manage B. could have managed C. could manage D. can have managed

5. 否定转移 否定转移是指将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转 移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而 从句的谓语动词用肯定式。

I don’t suppose anyone will volunteer, _______? (2001上海) A.do I B. don’t I C. will they D. won’t they

二.通过特定词汇构成的否定。 1. 形容词(短语) 常见有: far from (一点也不), free from (不 受……影响),safe from (免于), short of (缺少), ignorant of (不知道), independent of (不受……的支配), impatient of (对…… 不耐烦), blind to (看不见), absent from, different from, reluctant to , dead to (对……没反应) The art show was ____being a failure; it was a great success. (2009天津) A. far from B. along with C. next to D. regardless of

2. 副词(短语) 常见的有:much less(更不应说), still less(更不 应说), let alone (更不应说), not … at all, not … in the least, not a bit (= not at all) 注 意与 not a little (= very)的区别。 She's too shy to ask a stranger the time, _________ speak to a room full of people. A. still less B. less than C. no less than D. more less

3. 介词(短语) 常见的有:past (超过), above (超出……之外), without , beyond, but for(要不是) , instead of, in vain (徒劳), in the dark , at a loss, in spite of , out of , out of the question(不可能) , anything but 绝对不, by no means (绝不), no longer, on no account (决不), under no circumstance(决不), at no time。 ---Why do you suggest we buy a new machine ? --- Because the old one has been damaged __________. (2008江苏) A. beyond reach B. beyond repair C. beyond control D. beyond description

I’ve tried very hard to improve my English . But by no means _______ with my progress. (2006重庆) A. the teacher is not satisfied B. is the teacher not satisfied C. the teacher is satisfied D. is the teacher satisfied 4 动词(短语) 常见的有:miss (没有击中), deny(否认),lack(缺 少), refuse, escape, resist, reject, decline, doubt, wonder, fail, exclude, overlook, neglect, forbid, live up to, protect …from…, keep (prevent, discourage) sb from doing, turn a deaf ear to

Mary wanted to travel around the world all by herself, but her parents did not _____ her to do so. (2006全国II卷) A. forbid B. allow C. follow D. ask If the firms failed to make enough money, they would ________. (2007湖北) A. close down B. call off C. turn down D. set off 三.通过特定句式构成的否定 (一) 下列为形式肯定,意义否定的句子。 1. since + 从句(谓语为延续动词)

That was really a splendid evening. It’s years _____ I enjoyed myself so much. (2005安徽) A. when B. that C. before D. since 2. would rather… than…/prefer to do…rather than / prefer doing to doing

Rather than ________ on a crowded bus, he always prefers _________a bicycle. (95NMET)
A. ride; ride B. Riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding 3. the last + N to do sth/ 定语从句 He is the last man that I want to see. 他是我最不想见的 人。 She's the last person to depend on. 她是最不可靠的人。 该句式表“最不可能做某事”,表极强的否定。

4. too…to…太…..而不能…… Your brother is too young to go to school, is he ? 你弟 弟太小了,还不能上学,是吗? 但too 前有all, but, quite 等,或too后是ready, easy, eager, anxious, willing, 等,不定式不在含有否定的意 义。 He is all too pleased to go advice. 他太爱给人出谋划策。 (二)下列为形式否定,意义肯定的句子。 5. not ...until ... 直……才…… It was ____ he came back from Africa that year ____ he met the girl he would like to marry. (2009江西) A. when; then B. not; until C. not until; that D. only; when

6. Why not(…)? 为什么不……? 好的! --- How about putting some pictures into the report? ---________A picture is worth a thousand words. (2005江苏) A. No way. B. Why not? C. All right? D. No matter. 7. 比较级的否定表最高级 —Shall I give you a ride as you live so far away —Thank you. _________.(2005江西) A.It couldn’t be better B.Of course you can C.If you like D.It’s up to you

8. Hardly … when…. / No sooner …than … “一……就……”。 ---Did Linda see the traffic accident ? --- No, no sooner _____ than it happened . (2006天津) A. had she gone B. she had gone C. has she gone D. she has gone ______ got into the room ______ the telephone rang. ( 98上海) A. He hardly had; than B. Hardly had he; when C. He had not; than D. Not had he; when

(三) 其他情况 9. cannot / can never…too… 再……也不为过 ---I was riding along the street and all of a sudden, a car cut in and knocked me donw. --- You can never be _______careful in the street. (2003北京春招) A. much B. very C. so D. too ---- Must I turn off the gas after cooking ? --- Of course. You can never be _______ careful with that . (2005江西) A. enough B. too C. so D. very

10. can’t resist/ help doing情不自禁地...... She can’t help _______the house because she’s busy making a cake. (97上海) A. to clear B. cleaning C. cleaned D. being cleaned While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ______into buying something they don’t really need. (96上海) A. to persuade B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded

11. 对非谓语动词的否定 ________ the programme, they have to stay there for another two weeks. (2004广东) A. Not completing B. Not completed C. Not having completed D. Having not completed 四.英语中极易误解的否定句式 1. “no+比较级”的句式否定两者。 He is no taller than I . 我和他都不高。 2. not...because 句式意为“并不因为……才”或 “没有……因为……”。 She didn’t do it because it was easy. 他并不是因为 这件事容易才做的。或:她没有做这件事,因为太容 易了。

You should not despise a man because he is poor.你不应该因为一个人穷就看不起他。 3. as welll as与否定词连用时否定词只否定as well as 之前的部分。 I shall not go as well as you. 你去,但我不去。 4. “not… and”结构表示对两者之一的否定,并 非对两者的全部否定。 The careless student couldn’t do his homework fast and correctly. 那位粗心的学生不能把作业 做得又快又对。 5. I wouldn’t be surprised if they didn’t move soon.

6. “There be +no/not any +v-ing” 结构表示 “禁止做或做某事是不可能性”。 There is no smoking in the waiting room at the railway station. 火车站的候车室里不准吸烟。 7. more A than B 结构表示“如其说是B不如说 是A”。 He was more foolish than clever. 如其说他聪明 不如说他蠢。


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