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宾语从句(经典)


英语句子概论
英语句子的种类
简单句 (simple sentence) 并列句 (compound sentence)
复合句 (complex sentence)

简单句的五种基本句型

The weather is very cold. 主语+谓语(连系动词)+表语 He laughed. 主语+谓

语(vi.) I like Chinese food. 主语+谓语(vt.)+宾语 She taught them physics. 主语+谓语(vt.)+间接宾语+直接宾语 We must keep the room warm. 主语+谓语(vt.) +宾语+宾语补足语

并列句 把两个或几个简单句用并列连词连接起来。
I turned on the TV. My sister and I watched it. ? I turned on the TV and my sister and I watched it. I bought my sister a present. She didn’t like it. ?I bought my sister a present,but she didn’t like it.
常用并列连词:



并列句

and, both…and, not only… but also, ? 平行并列连词: neither…nor ? 转折并列连词:but, however, while, yet, ? 因果并列连词: for, so

? 选择并列连词: or,either…or

复合句:主句+从句 名词性从句 定语从句 状语从句
定语从句 1.The boy who is standing over there is Tom

2.Because it is raining ,we have to stay 状语从句 at home 3.I know (that)he is from America
名词性从句--- (宾语从句)

Subject Clause (主语从句)

Noun Clauses (名词性从句)

Object Clause (宾语从句)

Predicative Clause (表语从句) Appositive Clause

名词性从句在功能上相当于名词, 在复合句

中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语等。

主语

{What he does is important

His job is important.

.

表语

{

This is his job.

This is what he does every day.

I don’t like his job.

宾语
I don’t like what he does every day.

同位语

I don’t know about the man, Mr. White. I don’t know about the fact that he is a teacher.

名词性从句的作用相当于名词,因此主语从 句、表语从句 、宾语从句和同位语从句分别作 主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。

Who will win the match is still unknown.
主语从句

I want to know what he has told you.
宾语从句

The fact is that we have lost the game.
表语从句

The news that we won the game is exciting.
同位语从句

宾语从句的定义
置于动词、介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫 宾语从句。 宾语从句的语序必须是陈述语序。谓语动词、介 词、动词不定式,v.-ing形式后面都能带宾语从 句。
有些形容词(afraid,sure,glad等)之后也可 以带宾语从句。

宾语从句中引导词的用法
在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:

连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if 代词:who, whose, what ,which 副词:when ,where, how, why 等。

1. I
主语

know him . (简单句)
谓语 宾语

2. I
主语 主

know who
谓语 句

he

is . (复合句)

连词 从句主语 从句谓语 宾语从句

宾语从句的概念:

宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语。
句子结构: 主句 +连词(引导词)+ 宾语从句

1)主句的谓语动词可以是及物动词: He wondered if he could pass the exam .

2)如果主句的谓语动词是一个带有介词的
词组,那么后接的从句做介词宾语从句。 注意:动词 +副词形成的谓语动词词组后也 They are talking about whether they can 可以带宾语从句。 pass the exam . 3)有些形容词后也可以带有宾语从句。

I’m afraid (that) he won’t pass the exam .

引导词种类
一、从属连词 1. 当宾语从句是陈述句时(包括肯定句和否定

句),连词由that引导,因为that在从句中不作
任何成分,也没有任何具体意思,因此在口语 或非正式文体中常省略
?Lin Tao knows (that) his own team is even better. ?She says (that) she won’t take part in the sports meeting

next Sunday.
?Jim thought (that) the train was like a big moving party. ?He said (that) he would like to see the headmaster.

引导词种类
2. 当宾语从句是一般疑问句时,由连词whether
或if引导(口语中常用 if),因为if/whether翻 译成:“是否”,具有一定的意义,所以不 能省略 Lily wanted to know if /whether her grandma liked the handbag . Let’s see if /whether we can find out some information

about that city .
It all depends on whether she likes the boss or not.

引导词种类
二、连接代词 which, what, whose, who, whom, whatever,

whoever, whomever, whichever ;连接代词在从句
中作主语、宾语、表语、定语。 I wonder who will teach us. Mr. Wang asked whose book that was.

You can take whatever you like.

引导词种类
三、连接副词 where, when, why, how等连接副词在句中作状语。

He didn’t tell me when we should meet again.
Could you please tell me how you use the new panel? None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

带how的词组也都可以引导宾语从句
?Could you tell us how much it costs to fly to Hainan ? ?Could you tell us how often you go abroad for a holiday ? ?Could you tell us how long the meeting will last ? ?I don’t know how far it is to the cinema . ?Please tell us how many students there are in your school ? ?Can you tell us how old his brother is ? ?Please tell us how soon you will be ready .

二、时态
1. 如果主句是现在的时态 (包括一般现在时 ,
现在进行时,现在完成时),从句的时态可根 据实际情况而定,(包括一般现在时,一般过

去时,一般将来时,现在完成时等)

?I know he lives here . ?I know he lived here ten years ago . ?I have heard that he will come tomorrow .

2.如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时,过 去进行时),那么从句的时态一定要用相对应

的过去的某种时态(包括一般过去时,过去进
行时,过去将来时, 过去完成时)

?I knew who lived here.
?I told me that she was talking with her mother at that time last week.

?He asked whether his father would come back
the next day.

?He said that he had seen it before.

3.当从句是客观真理,定义,公理,定理 时用一般现在时。 The teacher said that the sun travels around the earth . The teacher said that the world is made up of matter.

三、语序
宾语从句的语序用陈述语序:

连接词+主语+谓语+其他成分

1. When will he go to the library?

?His brother asks when he will go to the library .

?His brother asks when will he go to the library .
2. What does he want to buy ?

? I don’t know what he wants to buy . ? I don’t know what does he want to buy .
3. Who are we going to meet ?

? Can you tell me who we are going to meet ? ? Can you tell me who are we going to meet ?

4. Does he know French ?

? We want to know if/whether he knows French . ? We want to know if/whether does he know French.
5. Will they go to Canada in summer ?

? They’ re not sure if /whether they will go to
Canada in summer .

? They’ re not sure if /whether will they go to
Canada in summer .

注意事项
1.could / would是委婉语气,而不是过去式, 因此宾语从句的时态根据实际情况用不同 时态。
?Could you please tell me where we show our tickets ?

?Could you tell us which gate we have to go to ?
?Would you like to know when he will come back ?

2. 如果主句的谓语动词是ask时,连词不可能 是 that;如果主句的谓语动词是 say时,连 词用that ?She says (that) she will leave a message on his desk . ?He said (that) he was going to take care of the child . ?He asks if I like playing the piano . ?You may ask the man over there how you can get to the bus station .

3. 当 doubt, doubtful用于肯定句时,后面的 名 词 性 从 句 连 接 词 常 用 whether 或 if; 当 doubt, doubtful 用于否定句时,后面的名 词性从句的连接词用that。

I doubt if/ whether he is at home.

We don’t doubt that they can complete the task ahead of time.

4. 当be sure引导主句是肯定句时,后面的名 词性从句的连接词常用that; 当be sure引导 的主句是否定句时,后面的名词性从句的 连接词常用whether或if。

We are sure that he will be successful soon. The old man didn’t seem to be sure whether / if he had met me.

5. 介词后宾语从句的注意事项:
①一般情况下介词后只能用wh-类连接词引导的 宾语从句。 I am surprised at what he said. ②介词后如果接that从句,要先加上it, 再加 that从句,即“介词+it+that…”结构。 You may depend on it that they will support you. (that不能省略)

③介词except, but, besides及in后可接that 从句。I know nothing about him except that he lives here. (that不能省略)

7. 只能使用whether而不能使用if的几种情况:
① 介词后宾语从句用whether,不用if. ② whether 引导表语从句和同位语从句,而if 则不能。 ③ whether后可以加or not,但是if不可以. ④ 在不定式前只能用whether.(如:I can’t decide whether to stay. 我不能决定是否留下。) ⑤ discuss后宾语从句用whether不用if。

6. 在suggest, demand, order, insist等动词之后 的宾语从句中用虚拟语气,即 “(should+) 动词原形”。
He suggested that we (should) set about doing the work at once.
I insist that she (should) do her work alone. The leader ordered that the army (should) set off at once.

7. 连词 if 和 when 在不同从句中的区别:
Do you know if ______back next week ? If he ______ back , please let me know . A. he comes , will come B. will he come , comes C. he will come , comes D. he will come , will come
主句 一般将来时态 祈使句 含有情态动词 一般现在时态 从句

I don’t know when he _________ will come (come) . I can’t comes (come) , wait here any more . When he _______ would you please ask him to call me ?

8. 连词+宾语从句

连词+to do

?I don’t know what I shall do next .
I don’t know what to do next .

?She didn’t decide which one she would choose .
She didn’t decide which one to choose .

?Please tell me whom you’ll give the letter to .
Please tell me whom to give the letter to .

9.有些动词带宾语从句时需要在宾语从句前加it 这类动词主要有:like, hate, take , owe, have, see to. I hate it when they with their mouths full of food. 我讨厌他们满嘴食物时说话. He will have it that our plan is really practical. 他会认为我们的计划确实可行. We take it that you will agree with us. 我们认为你会同意我们的. When you start the engine, you must see to it that car is in neutral. 开启发动机时, 一定要使汽车的离合器处于空挡位置.

10.宾语从句的否定转移 主句的谓语动词是think, believe, imagine, suppose, consider, expect, fancy, guess等,并且主句的主语是第一人称而且为一 般现在时,从句的否定词一般要转移到主句上来, 其反义疑问句一般与宾语从句一致. I don’t think he will come to my party. I don’t believe that man is killed by Jim, is he?

11.宾语从句不可以省略引导词that的情况 ①当一个动词带有两个或两个以上宾语从句时,此时 第一个that可以省略,第二个that不可以省略。 ②except(介词)后面宾语从句中that不可以省略。 ③宾语从句紧接在间接宾语后时,从句中的that不 可以省略。 ④it作形式宾语,宾补后宾语从句中的that不省略。 I believe (that) you’ve done your best and that things will improve. The teacher advised us that we should pay more attention to reading and writing. We all believed it true that Mr. Smith wasn’t a thief.

宾语从句专项练习题 1. The shocking news made me realize ____ terrible problems we would face. A. what B. how C. that D. why

2. Our teachers always tell us to believe in _____ we do and who we are if we want to succeed. A. why B. how C. what D. which

宾语从句专项练习题 3. We’ve offered her the job, but I don’t know _____ she’ll accept it. A. where B. what C. whether D. which

4. Before the sales start, I make a list of _______ my kids will need for the coming season. A. why B. what C. how D. which

宾语从句专项练习题 5. --- I wonder ____ you’ll water this kind of flower. --- Every other day. A. how often B. how long

C. how soon D. how much 6. Men usually go straight to ______ they want and leave quickly when shopping. A. what B. which C. where D. that

宾语从句专项练习题 7. We haven’t discussed yet _____ we are going to place our new furniture. A. that B. which C. what D. where

8. I want to be liked and loved for ____ I am inside. A. who B. where C. what D. how

宾语从句专项练习题 9. Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew _____ she was so angry. A. where B. whether C. that D. why

10. How much one enjoys himself travelling depends largely on _____ he goes with, whether his friends or relatives. A. what B. who C. how D. why


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