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高考英语语法超级归纳


高考英语语法超级归纳 一、冠词 冠词分为不定冠词(a, an),定冠词(the),和零冠词。 I. 不定冠词的用法
1 2 3 4 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示“每一”相当于 every,one 表示“相同”相当于 the same A plane is a machine that can fly. A boy is wa

iting for you.有个男孩在等你。 We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age. — Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? 5 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质 —Sorry, wrong number. There isn't______ Mr. Smith here. 的人或事 A. 不填 B. a C. the D. one

That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋) 6 7 8 用于固定词组中 a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time

用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 This room is rather a big one. 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化) 成功的人或事

9

用于抽象名词具体化的名词前

a failure 失败的人或事 a pity 可惜或遗憾的事

a shame 带来耻辱的人或事 a must 必需必备的事

a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识

II. 定冠词的用法
In many places in China, ___ bicycle is still ___ popular 1 表示某一类人或物 means of transportation. A. a; the 2 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 3 表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的 人或事 B. /; a C. the; a D. the; the

the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded

4 用于演奏乐器 5 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人 6

表示“一家人”或“夫妇” (对比上文的不定 —Could you tell me the way to ____ Johnsons, please? 冠词用法 5) —Sorry, we don’t have ____ Johnson here in the village.

A. the; the 用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级 前

B. the; a

C. /; the

D. the; /

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He is the taller of the two children.

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用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群 the United States, the Communist Party of China, 岛的名词前 the French The compass was invented in China. in the 1990’s(二十世纪九十年代) I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.

9 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 10 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个 年代

11 用于表示度量单位的名词前 12 用于方位名词,身体部位名词

III. 不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法
1 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人 名地名等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三 餐前 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air

2

I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this?

3 4 5

March, Sunday, National Day, spring Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. We went right round to the west coast by ______ sea

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与 by 连用表示交通方式的名词前

instead of driving across ______ continent. A. the; the B.不填;the C. the; 不填 D. 不填;不填

7 8

以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用 时 表示泛指的复数名词前

husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night Horses are useful animals.

二、名词和主谓一致 I. 名词的种类
专有名词 国名地名人名, 团 体机构名称 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 普通名词 不可数名词 物质名词

特别注意名词类别的相互转换

个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换
例 句 意 义 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词

①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②—How about the Christmas evening party? —I should say it was a success.

成功的事

个体名词

物质名词与个体名词的相互转换
例 句 意 义 铁 熨斗 玻璃 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词

①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass. ②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken

抽象名词与个体名词的转换
①—I’d like______information about the management of your hotel,please. —Well, you could have____word with the manager. He might be helpful A.some,a B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a

②They sent us

word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词) C./ D.the

具有动作意义的抽象名词 A.a B.an 加用与某些动词 (如: have ③Could we have 等)连 A.a B.an 用, 表示某一次短暂的动作 类例:have a dream/a

word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词) C./ D.the

rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look

take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try

表示知识和时间的抽象名 ①Many people agree that___knowledge of English is a must in____international

词转换为普通名词时可以 trade today. 用来表示 其中的一部分 A.a, / B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the

a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should have______at school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time

C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. B.A time C.Time D.Times

A.The time

①Oh, John. _____you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise

抽象名词转换为普通名词 C.What a pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise 可用来表示“一次、一阵、 ②She looked up when I shouted. 一种”具体的行为、事件、 A.in a surprise B.in the surprise C.in surprise D.in some surprise 现象或结 果。 这时名词前往往有形容 其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise 词修饰 ③It is_____work of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an unusual

II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式: 名词的复数形式, 一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es (参看有关语法书) 。 英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表
规 则 例 词

1 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 2 单复数相同 3 只有复数形式 4 一些集体名词总是用作复数 5

man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents people, police, cattle, staff

部分集体名词既可以作单数 (整体) 也 audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, 可以作复数(成员) government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪),

6 复数形式表示特别含义

drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟)

加-s 单复数同形 7 表示“某国人” 以-man 或-woman 结 尾的改为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 8 合成名词 无主体名词时将最后一 部分变为复数 将两部分变为复数

Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese

Englishmen, Frenchwomen

sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants

III. 主谓一致
规则 情 况 举 例

His father is working on the farm. 语 以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语,动名词短语或从 句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数 时,谓语动词 法 用复数形式。 To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. What he said is very important for us all. 由 what 引导的主语从句, 后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数 形式, 但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的 并列结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。 what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. 一 Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come. Every student and every teach is in the classroom. 由连接词 and 或 both…and 连接起来的主语后面, 要用复数形式的谓语动词。但若所连接的两个词是指 致 同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式。由 and 连接的并 列单数主语前如果分别有 no, each, every 或 谓语动词要用单数形式。either, neither, each, 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。. Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it. Each of us has a new book. today? Everything Is everyone here

more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其 Somebody is speaking in class. 原 around us is matter

every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any no, every 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要 用单数。若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复 数都可以。 None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America.

则 在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主 Those who want to go please write their names on 语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 the blackboard.

He is one of my friends who are working hard. He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致 It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. It is we who are going to the cinema tonight. The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数 His family has moved to the south .(他的一家) 形式; 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数 His family are watching TV.(他的家人) 形式 Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四 班的学生) There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the majority of+名词构成的短语 以及由分数或百分数+名词构成的短语作主语时,其 谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。 50 percent of the students in our class are girls. 此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复 数) , 但 the number of +复数名词的数就得依 number 而 定(用单数)。 A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred. There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致 Such is the result. Such are the facts. Between the two hills stands a monument. 逻 Which is your bag? Which are your bags? 辑 Are any of you good at English? What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是 Has any of you got a pen? 意 单数,也可是复数, 主要靠意思来决定。 All can be done has been done. All is going well. 义 All have been taken out. All have gone to Beijing. 一 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时,谓 Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. 语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概 Twenty pounds is too dear.

致 念上是一个整体。

如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形式 Forty kilos of water are used every day.

原 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式,其 The United States is smaller than China. 谓语动词通常用单数形式。 则 表数量的短语“one and a half”后面接复数名词作 主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 一些学科名词是以-ics 结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等。都属于 形式上是复数的名词, 实际意义为单数名词, 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。 “The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book. One and a half apples is left on the table.

The paper works was built in 1990.这家造纸厂建于 1990 年。 I don’t think physics is easy to study.

trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪 My glasses are broken. 刀)等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前 The pair of shoes under the bed is his. 有 a(the) pair of 等量词修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数。 “定冠词 the+形容词或分词”,表示某一类人动词用 The old are taken good care of there. 复数;若表示某一类东西时,动词用单数。 The beautiful gives pleasure to all. Either the teacher or the students are our friends. 当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only 主语保持一致,即就近一致。 Neither he nor they are wholly right.

but also ,whether or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的 Neither they nor he is wholly right. Is neither he nor they wholly right?

there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. 近 语。如果其后是由 and 连接的两个主语,则应与靠 There is a desk and two chairs in the room. /远 近的那个主语保持一致,即就近一致。 一 致 Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China.



原 主语后面跟有 with, together with, except, but, A woman with a baby was on the bus. 则 like, as well as, no less than, rather than, Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. more than, besides, along with, including, in She, like you and Tom, is very tall. addition to 等引起的短语, 谓语动词要跟主语一 The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak 致,即就远一致。 Japanese. No one except my teachers knows anything about it.

三、代词 I. 代词可以分为以下八大类
主格 宾格 1 人称代词 形容词性物主代 词 I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them my, your, his, her, its, our, their

名词性物主代词 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs 2 3 4 5 反身代词 指示代词 疑问代词 关系代词/连接代词 myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves this, that, these, those, such, some who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever that, which, who, whom, whose, as one/ some/ any, each/ every, none/ no, many/ much, few/ 6 不定代词 little/ a few/ a little other/ another, all/ both, neither/ either 7 相互代词 each other,one another

II. 不定代词用法注意点
类 别 区 别 例 句 ①We’ve been looking at the houses but haven’t found ___ we like yet. one 可以泛指人或 者事(东西),其复 数为 ones A.one B.ones C.it D.them

②Cars do cause us some health problems — in fact far more serious _______ than mobile phones do. A.one B.ones C.it D.those

one,

some 可用于疑问

some, 句中, 表示盼望得到 或者表 any 和 it 肯定的答复, 示建议,请求等

—Your coffee smells great! —It’s from Mexico.Would you like ________? A.it B.some C.this D.1ittle

①I have read this article in some magazine. Please correct the some 和 any 修饰 mistakes, if any. 可数名词单数时, ②—Which of the three ways shall I take to the village? some 表示某个, —________way as you please. any 表示任何一个 A.Each B.Every C.Any D.Either

one 指同类中的一 个, it 指代同一种类 —There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and ? 的东西。此外 it 还 borrow 可以作形式主语、 形 —No, I’d rather buy 式宾语和用于强调 A.it;one 句型中。 in the bookstore. C.one;it D.it;it

B.one;one

①There’s ________cooking oil in the house. Would yo u go to the corner store and get ________. A.1ittle,some little,any some 多用于肯定 句, any 多用于疑问 句和否定句 ②We had three sets of garden tools and we seemed to have no use for ________. A.none B.either C.any D.each B.1ittle,any C.a little,some D.a

③He doesn’t have _________ furniture in his room --just an old desk. A. any each 强调个别,代 表的数可以是两个 ①Each student has a pocket dictionary. each 和 或两个以上,而 every Each (of us) has a dictionary. = We each have a dictionary. every 强调整体, 所 ②Every student has strong and weak points. / Every one of us 指的数必须是三个 has strong and weak points. 或三个以上 no 等于 not any, 作定语。none 作主 ①There is no water in the bottle. none 和 语或宾语, 代替不可 ②How much water is there in the bottle? None. 数名词,谓语用单 no 数,代替可数名词,③None of the students are (is) afraid of difficulties. 谓语单复数皆可以 other 泛指“另外 的,别的”常与其他 词连用,如:the other day, every other other 和 week, someother another reason, no other way, the other 特指两 者中的另外一个, 复 数为 the others another 指“又一 ①We had a picnic last term and it was a lot of fun,so let’s have ①Both sides have accused A. another B. the other of breaking the contract. C. neither D. each B. many C. some D. much

②Two students in our class failed, but all the others passed the exam.

个, 另一个”无所指, ______ one this month. 复数形式是 A.the other B.some C.another D.other

others,泛指“别的 ②The trousers are too long, please give me another pair / some 人或 others. 事” ③Some like football, while others like basketball. ①—Do you want tea or coffee? 前者意思为: 两者都 either 和 (两者中任何一方 A. none B. neither — ______, I really don't mind. C. either D. all

②It was hard for him to learn English in a family, in which _____ neither 都);后者意思为: of the parents spoke the language. 两者都 A. none B. neither C. both D. each

四、形容词和副词 I. 形容词 1.形容词的位置:形容词作定语通常前置,但在下列情况下后置
1 修饰 some, any, every, no 和 body, thing, one 等构成的复合不定代词时 以-able, -ible 结尾的形容词可置于有最高级或 only 修饰的名词之后 alive, alike, awake, aware, asleep 等作定语时 后置 nobody absent, everything possible the best book available, the only solution possible the only person awake a bridge 50 meters long a huge room simple and beautiful a man difficult to get on with ______to take his adventure course will certainly learn a enough 修饰名词时可以前置也可以后置,但修饰 形容词或副词时要后置 lot of useful skills.(NMET2000) A.Brave enough students breave students C.Students brave enough enough brave D.Students B.Enough

2

3

4 和空间、时间、单位连用时 5 成对的形容词可以后置 6 形容词短语一般后置

7

注意:多个形容词修饰同一个名词的顺序 熟记口诀就可以顺利解题:限定描绘大长高,形状年龄和新老,颜色国籍跟材料,作用类别 往后靠。

规则:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(小)+ shape(形状)+ age(年龄、 时间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ purpose(目的)+ 名词。 ▲This ________ girl is Linda’s cousin. (05 北京卷) A. pretty little Spanish B. Spanish little pretty C. Spanish pretty little pretty Spanish 2.复合形容词的构成
1 形容词+名词 +ed 2 形容词+形容词 3 形容词+现在分 词 4 副词+现在分词 5 副词+过去分词 hard-working newly-built dark-blue ordinary-looking kind-hearted 6 名词+形容词 world-famous

D. little

7 名词+现在分词 8 名词+过去分词

peace-loving snow-covered

9 数词+名词+ed 10 数词+名词

three-egged twenty-year

3.形容词(短语)作伴随状语 As he looked at the goat, it rolled over, dead. 当他看着山羊的时候,山羊翻了个身,死 了。 Afraid of difficulties, they prefer to take the easy road.由于害怕困难,他们宁愿走好 走的路。 II.副词的分类:
1 时间副词 soon, now, early, finally, once, recently here, nearby, outside, upwards, above hard, well, fast, slowly, excitedly, really 5 频度副词 always, often, frequently, seldom, never how, where, when, why how, when, where, why, whether, however, meanwhile

2 地点副词

6

疑问副词

3 方式副词

7

连接副词

4 程度副词

almost, nearly, very, fairly, quite, rather

8

关系副词

when, where, why

III. 形容词和副词的比较等级 形容词和副词的比较等级分为原级, 比较级和最高级。 比较级和最高级的构成一般是在形容 词和副词后加-er 和-est,多音节和一些双音节词前加 more 和 most。
项 目 例 句 She is as tall as her mother. I am not as/ so good a player as you are.

同级比较时常常用 as…as…以及 not so(as)…as…

双方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较 This picture is more beautiful than that one. 级 (+ than)” I have never seen such a more interesting film (than

的结构表示。要注意题干中将比较的另一方阴 this one). 藏起来的情况。 表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示 表示一方随另一方变化时用“the more…the The harder you work, the more progress you will more…”句型 make I have never spent a more worrying day. 用比较级来表达最高级的意思 我从来没有度过这样令人烦恼的一天。 (意为:我度过了最为令人烦恼的一天。) 表达法一:A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B. The new building is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大(高)/这座新楼比那座旧楼 大(高)三倍。 表达法二:A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. 倍数的表达 Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲是欧洲的四倍大/亚洲比欧洲大三倍。 表达法三:A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学校比我们的学校大三倍。 用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. This room is less beautiful than that one.

注意: 1. 可以修饰比较级的词有: much, many, a lot, even, far, a bit, a little, still, yet, by far, any, a great deal; 2. 表示“最高程度“的形容词没有最高级和比较级。如:favourite, excellent, extreme, perfect,superior,junior 等。

五、动词和短语动词
知识网络 动词的分类 行为动词(实义动词) ①及物动词(带宾语):study, develop; ②不及物动词(不带宾语)work, swim, go, come ③状态动词(相对静止)contain, exist, own, prefer, belong ④动作动词:延续性(work, stay);非延续性(marry, go, come) 连系动词(汉语中没有这种词类) 助动词(与动词原形或分词构成复合谓语) be(am,is,are),do(does,did);have(has);will,would,shall 情态动词 can(could),may(might),must,shall(should) 短语动词常见的构成 方式及其注意点 动词+副词所构成的短语动词分及物的和不及物的两类 Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏灯都关掉。(及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们都已离去,哈里出现了。(不及物) 注意: ①如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开 She turned off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉了所有还在亮着的灯。 ②如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间 She gave them away.她送掉了它们。 ③同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异 ring back 回电话 put away 放好 ring off 挂断电话 put on 穿,上演 ring up 打电话 put up 挂起,举起。

④不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上有很大的差异 break out 发生,爆炸 carry out 进行,开展 go out 熄灭

hand out 分发 sell out 卖完 work out 算出 动词+介词(及物)

let out 放出 set out 出发,

look out 当心 take out 取出

I'm looking for my glasses. 我在找我的眼镜。 注意:①当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。 ②同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。 look after 照料,look at 看,look for 寻找 动词+副词+介词 I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。

注:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三种搭配都是及物的,如变成被动语态

this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉 after) 这样一来,粮食 考点聚焦及解题点拨 (单个动词) 同义词近义词辨析 系动词的用法 从三个方面考虑:词的恰切含义、搭配(与介词、名词或非谓语动词的搭配)和用法 (是及物动词还是不及物动词) 状态系动词 be 持续系动词 keep,remain,stay,continue,lie,stand,rest 表象系动词 seem,appear 感官/感觉系动词 look,smell,taste,sound,feel 变化系动词 become,grow,get,turn,fall,go,come 终止系动词 prove,turn out 解答这类试题的关键首先是弄清题意,然后是分析句子结构,由此可判断出该动词是否用作系动词, 最后确定所要填入的答案。特别关注:go hungry,come true,turn writer 接双宾语的动词 give sb. sth=give sth.to sb 但是我们只能说:suggest sth. to sb. 短语动词的辨析 容易被我们忽视的知 识点 熟记常考的短语动词的意义 sell, write, wash, wear 等词的主动形式后跟副词表示被动意义 happen, occur,take place, break out, come out, belong to 等无被动形式 buy sb. sth.=buy sth. for sb explain sth.to sb. read sth. to sb.

六、动词的时态和语态 1. 常用常考的动词时态和用法:(以 do 为例)
名称 构成 用法 1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、科学事实、格言, 目前的特征、状态、能力等。 2.主句是一般将来时,时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。 I’ll go there after I finish my work. 一般现在时 do/does,( 连系动词 If it rains tomorrow,I won’t go there. is/am/are ) 3.在以 here,there 开头的句子里,go,come 等少数动词的一般在时表 示正在发生的动作。 There goes the bell.铃响了。 There comes the bus.汽车来了。 Here she comes.她来了。 一般过去时 did,( 连系动词 was/were) 表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况, 或过去某一时间内经常 发生或反复发生的动作或行为。 1.表示正在进行的动作。 2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。 She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。 He is working as a teacher tomorrow. 从明天起他要做老师。 现在进行时 is/am/are doing My father is coming to see me this Saturday. 这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。 3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。 The Changjiang River is flowing into the east. 长江江水滚滚向东流。 The sun is rising in the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。 1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作 (这一过去时间须用 时间状语表示) He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday. 过去进行时 2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行 was/were doing They were still working when I left. 3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生 I was writing while he was watching TV. 4.表示过去将来动作

He said she was arriving the next day. 1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果,说话时已 完成的动作。 I have finished the report./ She has cleand the room. 2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往 和“for...”, “since...”表述的一段时间状语连用。 He has learned English for six years. They have worked here since they left college. 3.表示“曾经到过某地(人已回来)”用“have/has been to”,表示“到某 地去了(还未回来)”用“have/has gone to”。 —Where is Li Hua? -He has gone to the reading-room. —She knows a lot about Shanghai. 现在完成时 has/have done -She has been there. 4.短暂动词(即瞬间动词), join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry, finish,complete,begin,start,break out 等,在完成时态 中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。不能说:He has joined the army for three years. 要翻译“他已参军已经三年了。”可采用 ①“ago 法” He joined the army three years ago. ②“延续法” He has been in the army for three years. ③“since 法” It is/has been three years since he joined the army. 1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。 He had shut the door before the dog came up. Everything had been all right up till this morning. 2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到 过去完成时 had done 另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。 At the age of ten,he had learned 500 English words. He had been ill for a week when we learned about it. 3.常用 hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose 等动词的 过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。 We had expected that you would be able to win the match.

用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和 by 短 将来完成时 will/shall have done 语,when,before 引起的时间状语连用。 We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term. 现在完成进行时 has/have been doing had been doing will/shall do is/am/are going to 一般将来时 do is/am/are (about) to do 1.相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发生的动作或存在的状态 would/should do He told me he would go to Beijing.他告诉我他将去北京。 一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况 (详见下面 2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较) 用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在(还要继续下 去)的动作。He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00. 表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一个过去时刻才完成, 还将继续下去。

过去完成进行时

was/were going to I was told that he was going to return home. 过去将来时 do 有人告诉我他准备回家。

was/were(about)to 2. would do(表示过去的习惯)总是,总会,常常 do He would sit silent for hours. 他常常接连好几个小时默默地坐着。

2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较
将来时 1 用 法 例 句

be + doing 进行时 go, come, start, move, leave, arrive 等词 表将来 可用进行时表示按计划即将发生的动作

He is moving to the south. Are they leaving for Europe? I was about to leave when the bell rang. The meeting is about to close. We’re to meet at the school gate at noon. The meeting starts at five o’clock. The plane leaves at ten this evening.

2 3 4

be about to + 动词 表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作,后 原形 面一般不跟时间状语

be to + 动词原形 表示按计划进行或征求对方意见 一般现在时表将来 时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情,可用 一般现在时表示将来

3.容易混淆的时态比较
项 目 区 别 例 句

We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. What do you 一般过去时与现在完 成时的比较 现在完成时强调过去动作 对现在产生的影响或造成 的结果 suppose _______ to her? A. was happening B. happens C. has happened D. happened

说明:说话者强调 Jane 目前的状况.

Mr. Lee, who ________ as a carpenter for over 10 years, is now a very famous statesman in this country. A. has worked B. had worked C. worked D. works

(只说明他过去当过木匠不涉及到现在) Hello, I ____ you were in London. How long _________ here? 一般过去时只表达过去的 动作或状态 A. don’t know; were you C. haven’t known; are B. hadn’t known; are you D. didn’t know; have you been

说明:didn’t know 强调见面前不知道 I read the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住)

着重表示动作的结果时, 用 现在完成时 现在完成时与现在完 成进行时的比较

I have read that book.我读过那本书了。(知道那本书的内容) —Hi, Tracy, you look tired.

着重表示动作一直在进行,—I am tired. I _______ the living room all day. 即动作的延续性时, 则用现 A. painted 在完成进行时 B. had painted D. have painted

C. have been painting

说明:强调动作从过去到现在的延续 I don’t really work here. I ____ until the new secretary _______. 现在进行时表示现在某个 A. just help out; comes 时候或某段时间正在进行 C. am just helping out; comes 的动作 现在进行时与过去进 行时的比较 B. have just helped out; will come D. will just help out; has come

说明:指目前一段时间正在发生的动作, until 引导的是时间状语从句,动词 需用一般现在时。 — Hey, look where you are going!

过去进行时表示某个时候 — Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _______. 或某段时间正在进行的动 作 A. I’m not noticing. C. I haven’t noticed. B. I wasn’t noticing. D. I don’t notice.

说明:对话的后者显然是在解释刚才不小心冒犯对方时正在做的事情. Tom________ into the house when no one ___________. A. slipped; was noticing B. had slipped; noticed 一般过去时只表达过去的 C. slipped; had noticed 动作或状态 一般过去时与过去进 行时的比较 D. was slipping; noticed

说明:slip 和 notice 为同时发生的动作,因此 B、C 为错误选项,slipped 指 过去有结果的动作(他溜进去了),when no one was noticing 指他溜进去 的一刹那发生的情况(没有人注意)。

过去进行时表示某个时候 .He ______ a book about China last year, but I don’t know if he ______ it. 或某段时间正在进行的动 A.wrote; has finished 作 C. was writing; had finished B. was writing; has finished D. wrote; will finish

说明:正确选项为 B. 从 I don’t know if he has finished it.推断, 他去年一直在写。

II. 动词的被动语态
常用被 动语态 1 一般现 在时 2 一般过 去时 3 一般将 来时 4 过去将 来时 5 现在进 行时 构 成 常用被动语态 构 成

am/is/are done

6

过去进行时

was/were being done

was/were done

7

现在完成时

have/has been done

shall/will be done

8

过去完成时

had been done

should/would be done

9

将来完成时 含有情态动词 的

will/would have been done

am/is/are being done

10

can/must/may be done

被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加 not, 短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。 固定结构 be going to, used to,have to, had better 变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。 Trees should not be planted in summer. classmates. Newspapers used to be sent here by the little girl. 汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示: 注 It is believed that… that… 意 It is well known that… that… It is reported that… that… 被动语态的句型 项 1.常见句式是: 主语 (受动者) +be+过去分词+ (by+施动者) : He was scolded by the English teacher. 2.主语+get+过去分词+其它成分:The boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because of her faults. 使用这种结构不能带有“by+施动者” 3.带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也可以是间接 宾语。 She lent me a bike.?被动:①I was lent a bike(by her). ②A bike was lent to me(by her). It must be admitted that… It is hoped It must be pointed out that… It is supposed It is generally considered that… It is said The boy was made fun of by his



4.情态动词+be+过去分词:This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 5.双重被动式:主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式+其它成分 These magazines are not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room. The murderer was ordered to be shot. 下面主动形式常表示被动意义 1.不及物动词与状语连用,用以表示主语的品质和状态。常见动词是: cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash 等。 This knife cuts well.这把刀好切。 These books sell well.这些书好卖。

The pen writes smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。 Meat won’t keep long in such hot weather. 肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。 The cloth washes well.这种布好洗。 2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。常见动 look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn out 等。 The apples taste good. The news proved/turned out true. 不可变为被动语态的几种情况 1.I teach myself French.不可变为 Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。 2.We help each other/one another.不可变为 Each other/One another is helped by us. 因为相互代词不可作主语。 3.He lost heart.不可变为 Heart was lost by him. 因为象 lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought 这类动宾结构的固定短语只能 用于主动式,不能用被动式。 4.She took part in the sports meet.不能变为 The sports meet was taken part in by her. 因为象 take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain 等表状态动词没有被动语态。 含有短语动词在被动语态中介词不能丢 Much attention must be paid to your handwriting. 特别注意以下句子的结构:Every minute must be made full use of to study Englsih. 下面词或短语没有被动态: leave, enter, reach, become, benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur, belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with, consist of, have on, lose heart 等等 The flower smells wonderful. Cotton feels soft.

七、非谓语动词 非谓语动词的语法功能
所能充当的成分 主语 表语 宾语 宾语补足语 定语 状语

V-ing 形式

现在分词 动名词 △ △

△ △ △ △ △ △



△ △



不定式(to do) 过去分词(done)

△ △

△ △

△ △

注:现在分词、不定式、过去分词都可以作独立成分 generally speaking 一般说来;frankly speaking 坦白地说;judging from/by...根 据……来判断;considering.../taking...into consideration 考虑到……; to tell you the truth 说实话; seeing...考虑到……; supposing 假设, 如果; providing 如果;given 考虑到,鉴于;provided that 如果 非谓语动词的形式变化
构成 时态 一般式 进行式 不定式 完成式 完成 进行式 一般式 语态 主动 to do to have done to be doing to have been doing doing 被动 to be done to have been done / / being done 在前加 not sb.或 sb’s doing 特别注意复合结构的否定 动名词 完成式 having done having been done 作主语要用 sb’s doing 式: sb’s not doing sb’s not having done 现在分词 与动名词变化形式相同 在前加 not for sb. to do sth. 或 of sb. to do sth. 复合结构 否定式

非谓语 形式

在“to”前加 not 或 never

在解非谓语习题时同学们遇到最大的困难有两个: 一是如何判别是谓语动词还是非谓语动词; 二是如何选用哪一种非谓语动词及其恰当的形式。 一、谓语与非谓语的比较

非谓语动词是汉语中没有的语言现象。 汉语中几个谓语动词连用而动词不用作任何形式的变 化。如:他明天来拜访你。翻译成英语不是 He will come visit you,而是 He will come to visit you.这里就用了不定式 to visit。因此同学们要特别注意弄清句子的结构。 例:Tom sat under a tree and seeing his friend, A. to stand B. standing C. stood up in no time. D. would stand

分析:stood 是与 sat 并列的谓语。 非谓语语法功能的比 较

做宾语的非谓语动词比较
情况 只接不定式 常用动词 hope, want, offer, long, fail, expect, wish, ask, decide, pretend, manage,

做宾语的动词 agree, afford, determine, promise, happen mind, miss, enjoy, imagine, practise, suggest, finish, escape, excuse, 只接动名词 appreciate, admit, prevent, keep, dislike, avoid, risk, resist

做宾语的动词 feel like, succeed in, be fond of, object to, get down to, be engaged in, insist 或短语 on, think of, be proud of, take pride in, set about, be afraid of, be tired of, look forward to, devote oneself to, be worth, be busy, pay attention to, stick to begin, start, like, love, hate, prefer, continue(接不定式多指具体的动作,接动名 意义基本 词多指一般或习惯行为) 相同 两 者 都 可 以 意义不同 need, want, require(主语与动名词之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,接动名词主动形式表 示被动意义,若接不定式则应用被动形式) 意义相反 stop to do 停止手中所做的事,去做另一件事 stop doing 停止正在做的事

remember/forget/regret to do(指动作 go on to do(接着做另外一件事) 尚未发生) remember/forget/regret doing(指动作 已经发生) try to do(设法,努力去做,尽力) try doing(试试去做,看有何结果) mean to do(打算做,企图做) mean doing (意思是,意味着) go on doing(接着做同一件事)

can’t help (to) do(不能帮忙做) can’t help doing(忍不住要做)

be considered to have done 被认为已经做 了 consider…to be 认为是 consider doing 考虑做某事

非谓语动词做宾语补足语的区别
分 类 常见动词 ask, beg, expect, get, order, tell, want, wish, 不定式 encourage have, notice, see, watch, hear, feel, let, make 现在分词 notice, see, watch, hear, find, keep, have, feel 过去分词 主谓关系,强调动作正在进行, I found her listening to the 尚未完成 radio. 经完成 I asked to be sent to the 主谓关系,强调动作将发生或已 countryside. I heard him call me several times. 与宾语的逻辑关系及时间概念 例 句

动宾关系,动作已经完成,多强 We found the village greatly 调状态 changed.

IV. 非谓语动词做定语的区别
分 类 区 别 例 句

与被修饰词往往有动宾关系, 一般式表示将来, I have a lot of papers to type. 不定式 进行式表示与谓语动作同时发生,完成式表示 I have a lot of papers to be typed. 在谓语动词之前发生 I haven’t decided which hotel to stay at.(介词 at 不能丢) 动名词 现在分词 通常指被修饰词的用途,无逻辑上的主谓关系 Shall we go to the swimming pool? 与被修饰词之间是主谓关系,表示动作与谓语 the boiling water / the boiled water 动作同时发生 the developing country/the developed

过去分词

与被修饰词之间是被动关系,表示动作发生在 country 谓语动作之前,现已经完成或只表示状态 the falling leaves/the fallen leaves

注意:the bridge to be built 将建造的桥, the bridge being built 正在建造的桥,the bridge built 已经建好的桥 八、情态动词和虚拟语气 情态动词

I.情态动词基本用法
情态动 词 can 用 法 否定式 疑问式 简答式

能力 (体力, 智力, can not / cannot 技能) 允许或许可 (口语 中常用) Can…do…? /can’t do Yes,…can. No,…can’t.

could 可能性(表猜测,couldn’t do 用于否定句或疑 问句中) may 可以 (问句中表示 请求) 可能,或许(表推 测) might 祝愿 (用于倒装句 中) 必须,应该(表主 must 观要求) 肯定,想必(肯定 句中表推测) 只好,不得不(客 有时态 don’t have to do have to 观的必须, 和人称的变化) ought to 应当 (表示义务责 任,口语中多用 should) 用于一三人称征 求对方意见 shall 用于二三人称表 shall not/shan’t do 示许诺、命令、警 告、威胁等 应当,应该(表义 should 务责任) should not/shouldn’t 本该 (含有责备意 do 味) will would 意愿,决心 will not/won’t do Should…do…? Shall…do…? ought not to/oughtn’t to do Do…have to do…? must not/mustn’t do Must…do…? to. might not do Might…do…? may not do May…do…?

Yes,…may. No,…mustn’t/can’t.

Yes,…might No,…might not.

Yes,…must. No,…needn’t/don’t have

Yes,…do. No,…don’t. Yes,…ought. No,…oughtn’t.

Ought…to do…?

Yes,…shall. No,…shan’t.

请求,建议,用在 would not/wouldn’t Will/Would…do…? 问句中 would 比 do

Yes,…will. No,…won’t.

较委婉 dare 敢 (常用于否定句 和疑问句中) 需要,必须(常用 need 于否定句和疑问 need not/needn’t do Need…do…? 句中) used used to 过去常常 (现在已 not/usedn’t/usen’t 不再) to do didn’t use to do Used…to do…? Did…use to do…? dare not/daren’t do Dare…do…? Yes,…dare. No,…daren’t. Yes,…must. No,…needn’t. Yes,…used. No,…use(d)n’t. Yes,…did. No,…didn’t.

II.情态动词的重点知识
A computer_____think for itself; it must be told 表示能力的情态动词用 can/could what to do. A.can’t not 表示许可时用 may/might ,can/could 都可以, 表示“能力、 但在问句中用 could…?或 和 may ①—Could I call you by your first name? you______ A.will B.could C.may D.might —Yes, B.mustn’t C.may not D.might

许可”的 can might…?以使口气委婉客气,其回 ②Johnny, you_____play with the knife, 答一定要用 can 或 may,以使回答 you_____hurt yourself. 口气明确(must 表示一定,必须, A.won’t/can’t mustn’t 表示禁止,不许可)。 C.shouldn’t/must B.mustn’t/may D.can’t/shouldn’t

在肯定句中 could 不可以用来表示 过去某一特定场合的能力,而要用 was/were able to。

The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone_____get out. A.had to able to Peter______come with us tonight, but he isn’t B.would C.could D.was

在肯定句中都可以用来表示可能。 在 的是事实上的可能性。

very sure yet. B.may C.can D.will

含义上 must 语气最肯定,may 表示 A.must 表示“推断、 判断”的 can

而 can 表示的是逻辑上的可能性: Mary is in poor health. She can be ill at any times.

may,must 在否定句中只能用 can 和 may。所 Michael______be a policeman, for he’s much too 以 can’t 时用以代替 mustn’t, 语气 short. 比 may 更肯定。中文可以翻译为不 A.needn’t B.can’t C.should D.may 可能。 在疑问句只能用 can,不能用 may He may be very busy now. Can he be very

和 must。

busy now? He must be very busy now. busy now? Can he be very

need

need 作为情态动词只有一种形式, 只用于否定句和疑问句。 If he dare come,I will kick him out. I don’t know dare 作为情态动词用时有两种形 whether he

dare

式:dare 和 dared 两个词形,除了 dare say. 可以用于否定句和疑问句外, 还可以 注意:He doesn’t dare(to)answer the question.(否 用于条件从句或表示怀疑的句子中。定句) Does she dare(to)enter the dark room?(疑问句) 用于第一人称:征求对方的意见。 What shall we do this evening?

shall

用于第二、三人称:警告、命令、允 诺、威胁等。

You shall fail if you don’t work harder. 警告 He shall have the book when I finish reading.允诺 He shall be punished.威胁 You should(ought to) go to class right away. I should(ought to) help him because he is in trouble. Would you pass me the book? I will never do that again. They asked us if we would do that again

should

劝告、建议、命令、应该做、道义上 的责任。 请求、建议,would 比 will 委婉客 气。 表示意志、愿望和决心。

will/would

would 可表示过去反复发生的动作 During the vacation he would visit me every week 或某种倾向。 would 表示估计或猜想。 The wound would not heal.(伤口老是不能愈合) It would be about ten when he left home. What would she be doing there?

could+have done:本可以做而实 You could have done better, but you didn’t try 际上未能做。 cannot+ have done:表示对现在 情态动词 +have 法 或过去行为的否定推测。 can+主语+ have done:表示对 句中)。 might(may)+ have done:对过 去发生的行为不太肯定的推测。 He may not have finished the work. If we had taken the other road, we might have arrived earlier. your best. He cannot have been to that town.

done 的用 过去行为的怀疑或不肯定 (用在疑问 Can he have got the book?

must+ have done:对过去发生的 行为肯定的推测。

You must have seen the film.

You cannot have seen the film. 其否定式为:cannot have done。 You needn’t have watered the flowers,for it is going to rain. needn’t+ have done: 本来不必要 注意:didn’t need to(have to)do: 做的而实际上又做了。 没有必要做而实际上也没有做 I didn’t need to clean the windows.My sister did it 2 hours ago. You should have started earlier, but you didn’t. should(ought to)+ have done:She shouldn’t have taken away my measuring 本来应该做而实际上又没有做。 其否 tape, 定形式表示某中行为不该发生却发 for I worked to use it. 生了。 注意:He should have finished the work by now. (表推测)

虚拟语气
类 别 用 法





从句动词:过去式(be 用 were) 与现在事实 主句动词: 相反 should/would/could/might+ do 从句动词:had+done If 引导的 条件从句 与过去事实 主句动词: 相反 should/would/could/might+ have+done 从句动词:过去式/should+动词 与将来事实 相反 原形/were+to do 主句动词: should/would/could/might+ 动词原形 ①Should he come ,tell him to ring me up. 省略 if 的虚拟 将虚拟条件从句中的 were,had,should 放 条件句 混合虚拟条件 句 到主语之前,构成主谓倒装 ②Were I you,I would not do it. ③Had I been free,I would have visited you. 不同时间的虚拟:各遵守各的规则 ① If he had listened to me, he would not be in trouble now. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go camping. If I had been free,I would have visited you. If he were here, he would help us.



If he had told me yesterday,I should know what to do now.



If I were you, I would have gone to her birthday party.

① 虚拟与陈述的混合:各遵守各的规则

He could have passed the exam,but he wasn’t careful enough.



You should have come earlier. The bus left a moment ago.

---But for your timely warning,we ______ into great trouble. but for+名词表示虚拟条件 ---You know we’re friends. A. would get C. would have got without+名词表示虚拟条件 B. must have got D. can’t have got

Without the air to hold some of the sun's heat, the 句子或主句中 earth at night would be freezing cold. 的谓语动词的 形式视具体情 况而定。这是 考查考生应变 题。 It would be only partly right to follow in this way. 如果用这种方式,仅仅对了一半。 Having known in time ,we might have prevented the

含蓄虚拟 条件句

动词不定式表示虚拟条件

现在分词表示虚拟条件

能力的最佳试 accident.要是及时得知的话,我们也许能阻止这场事故。 Given more attention, the tree could have grown better. 如果多留心的话,这树本来可以长的更好。 I was too busy at that time.Otherwise,I would have called you.我当时太忙,否则我就给你打电话了。 He _____fatter but he eats too little . A. would become C. must become B. would have become D. must have become

过去分词表示虚拟条件

副词 otherwise 表示虚拟条件

连词 but 连接的句子表示虚拟 条件 as if/as though 引导的状语从句中动词用 did 或 had+done 或 would/could/might +do。 注意:as if/as though 引导的状语从句中 其它 状语从句 也可以用陈述语气: 当说话者认为所述的是真实的或极有可能发 生或存在的事实时:

①与现在事实相反 He talks as if he knew where she was. ②与过去事实相反 He talks about Rome as if he had been there before. ③与将来事实相反

It sounds as if it is raining.听起来像 He opened his mouth as if he would say something. 是在下雨。 He talks as if he is drunk.从他谈话的

样子来看他是醉了。 in order that/so that 引导的状语从句中动 词用 can/could/may/ might/ would 等 +do demand, suggest, order, insist 后接的从 句中动词为 should+do 宾语从句 wish 后的从句中分别用过去式,过去完成式 和 should/would+do 表示与现在, 过去和将 来情况相反 在 It is necessary / important / strange that… 主语从句 It is suggested / demanded/ ordered / It is strange that such a person should be our friends. requested that…等从句中, 谓语动词用 should+do It is time that…句型中动词用过去式或 should+do 其它 句型中 would rather 所接的从句中动词用过去式或 者过去完成式 If only 句型中动词常用过去式或者过去完成 式,表示强烈的愿望 It’s high time that we left/should leave. He suggested that we not change our mind. Turn on the light so that we can see it clearly.

I wish I could be a pop singer. I wish I would have gone to Shanghai last month.

I would rather you stayed at home now.

If only our dream had come true!

九、句子的种类 按用途分
种 类 肯定句 陈述句 否定句 类 型 例 句

We love our motherland. 我们热爱祖国。 They don’t go to work on Sundays. 他们星期日不上 班。 Are you a worker? 你是个工人吗? Haven’t you seen the film? 你没看过这部电影吗? Who is the man? 这人是谁? 特殊疑问句 When do you watch TV? 你什么时间看电视? What are they doing now? 他们现在正在干什么? Do you want tea or coffee? Either will do. 你要茶水 选择疑问句 还是要咖啡?哪种都行。 Does he learn Japanese or French? He learns French. 他学日语还是学法语?他学法语。

一般疑问句

疑问句

They are going to the airport, aren’t they? 他们要去 反意疑问句 机场,是吗? You haven’t finished your homework, have you? 你 没做完作业,是吗? 祈使句 肯定句 否定句 Be sure to get there at eight. 务必八点钟到那儿。 Don’t worry. I’ll help you out. 别担心,我会帮助你的。 What great changes we have had these years! 这几 what + 名词 年我们有了多么大的变化啊! What a fine day it is! 多好的天气呀! 感叹句 how + 形容词或副词 how +句子 How brave he is! 他多么勇敢呀! How hard they are working! 他们工作多努力呀! How time flies! 时间过得多么快呀!

How + adj. + a (an) + n.=What How nice a boy (he is) !=What a nice boy (he is)! 多 a(an)+adj.+n 好的孩子啊!

按结构分
种 类 主+谓 主+谓+宾 类型 They disappeared. 他们消失了。 He likes swimming.他喜欢游泳。 We help each other. 我们互相帮助。 I told my friend the good news. 我把好消息告诉了我的朋友。 They sent us a telegram. 他们给我们拍了电报。 They named the boy Jack. 他们给孩子起名叫杰克。 主+谓+宾+宾补 I want everything ready by eight o’clock. 我要求一切都要在八点前准备 好。 主+系+表 She is a university student. 她是一名大学生。 He has become a pilot. 他已成为一名飞行员。 Either you do it, or I ask for somebody else to do it. 要么你来做,要 并列关系 and, not 并 列 句 only…but also, neither …nor, 么我请其他人来做。 Neither Tom nor Jack has finished the homework. 汤姆和杰克都没有 完成作业。 例句

简 主+谓+间宾+直接宾 单 句

both…and, not…but, Not couldn’t they complete the task, but the task was too tough. 不是他们完不成任务,而是任务太重了。 转折关系 but,while (而,尽管) John likes playing basketball, but he didn’t play it yesterday. 约翰喜 欢打篮球,但他昨天没打。

nevertheless(然而; 不过) 选择关系 or, otherwise or else, either…or We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点,否则会赶不上火 车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿来,或 者我到你那去。 We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家里,因 为天正在下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力,因此这次考试不及格。 由一个主句和一个或一 复 合 句 个以上的从句构成的句 从句有:名词性从句(主语从句,表语从句,宾语从句和同位语从句)

因果关系 for, so, thus, therefore, and so

子叫复合句。在复合句 状语从句 中主句是全句的主体, 定语从句 从句是全句的一个成 分,不能独立。 (详细请看以下各节罗列的内容)

十、名词性从句
种类 关联词 that 连 词 主 连 接 代 从 词 who what which whatever whether 例 句 说 明

That he will come and help you is certain. that 在引导主语从句时不可省去 他来帮助你是确实无疑的。 Whether there is life on the moon is an 主语从句中只能用 whether 不可 interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。 What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。 主语从句放在句首, 句子常显得笨 用 if。



Who will win the match is still unknown. 重,因此一般 谁能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 It is known to us how he became a 把它移到句子后面, 前面用引导词 “it”来作形式主语。



连 接 副 词

when where why how

writer. 我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将 在哪里举行,还没有宣布。

宾 陈 语 述 that

I believe(that) he is honest. 我相信他是忠 that 在句中不担任任何成分,在 诚的。 口语或非正式的文体中常被省去,

从 意 句 义

We must never think(that) we are good 但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句 in everything while others are good in nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么都好,别人什么都不 好。 I wonder whether he will come or not. 我想知道他来还是不来。 whether 常与 or not 连用,不能 用 if 代替。 前的 that 不可省。

疑 问 意 义 if whether

Everything depends on whether we have 作介词宾语要用 whether 不能用 if。 enough money. 一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。 I don’t know if(whether) it is interesting. 我不知道它是否有意思。 He doesn’t care if it isn’t a fine day.他不 在乎天气是否好。 从句是否定句时一般用 if 引导。

特 殊 疑 问 意 义

who, whom, Please tell me what you want.请告诉我你 需要什么? which,whose, She always thinks of how she can work what, when, well. 宾语从句作及物动词宾语也可做 where, why, 她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。 介词的宾语。 how,whoever, She will give whoever needs help a warm whatever, support. whichever 凡需要帮助的人,她都会给予热情的支持。 We must make it clear that 注1 如果宾语从句后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形 anyone who breaks the law will be punished. 式宾语,将从句后置。 我们必须认清无论谁违反了法律 都要受到惩罚。 think,believe,imagine,suppose 等动词引 We don’t think you are right. 注2 出的宾语从句,要将从句中的否定形式,移到 我们认为你不对。 主句中。 I don’t believe he will do so. 我相信他不会这样做的。 The problem is(that) they can’t get here 在非正式的文体中 that 可以省去

表 连 语 词 从 句 连 接

that whether as if

early enough. 问题是他们不能很早到达这里。 It looks as if it’s going to rain.看起来天要 下雨。

who what

That’s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。 The question is who(which of you) will be

代 词

which

the next speaker. 问题是谁(你们哪一位)接着发言。

表语从句位于主句系动词之后

连 接 副 词

when where why how

This is where our problem lies. 这就是我们的问题所在。 That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 The news that he had landed on the 球上登陆这个消息传遍世界。 同位语从句说明其前面的名词的 news, idea, hope,

moon spread all over the world.他曾在月 具体内容,常用的名词如:fact, I have no idea when he will come back thought,question, order, fear, doubt, word, proof, home.



位 由连词 that 引导, belief, story 等。 不担任成分,也可有 我不知道他什么时候回来。 语 when, how, The thought came to him that Mary had 从 where 等引导。 probably fallen ill. 句 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问题。

特别注意 what 的双重功能: ①What was once regarded as impossible has now become a reality. (what 为“所……的事”,相当于“the thing that…;all that…;everything that…”) ②After ________ seemed a very long time,I opened my eye and found myself in bed.(M ET'93) A.what B.when C.that D.which

(what 相当于“the time that”,表示“……时间”) ③He is not what he was a few years ago. Who is it that has made Fred what he is now? (what 表示“……的人”,相当于“the person that…”)

④What is now the North Sahara Desert was once a civilized world. (what 表示“……的地方”,相当于“the place that…”) ⑤Our income is now double what it was ten years ago (what 表示“……的数目”,相当于“the amount /number that…”)

十一、状语从句
种 类 When I came into the room, he was when 指的是“某一具体的时间” When whenever writing a letter.当我进屋时, 他正在写信。 whenever 指的是“在任何时间” We shall go there whenever we are free.我们什么时间有空,我们就去那里。 I was walking along the street when when 意为“这时”或“在那个时 when suddenly someone patted me on the 候”,可以看作是并列句,这种用 shoulder from behind.我正在街上走着,法的 when 分句一般位于句末。 这时忽然有人从后面拍我的肩膀。 While it was raining, they went out.天 while 指“在某一段时间里”, 时 间 状 从 as while 下雨的时候,他们出去了。 “在…期间”,while 引导的动作 I stayed while he was away.他不在的时 必须是持续性的 候我在。 强调主句和 He hurried home, looking behind as as 引导持续性动作, he went. 他赶快回家,不时地一边走一边向后看。 before Be a pupil before you become a teacher.先做学生,再做先生。 He arrived after the game started.比 赛开始后,他到了。 We waited till (until)he came back .我 如主句动词是持续性动作,常用 们一直等到他回来。 肯定式,表示“直到…为止” 从句的动作同时发生 从属连词 例 句 说 明

after

till

until

She didn’t stop working until eleven 如主句动词是瞬间动词,常用否 o’clock .她到 11 点钟才停止工作。 定式,表示“直…才”“在…以前

Until he had passed out of sight, she 不”,从句放在句首表示强调,一 stood there. 她站在那里看着,直到看不见他的身影。 Great changes have taken place in since China since 1978. 状语从句在主句之前时一般用逗 号与主句分开,如从句在主句之 般用 until

后则不必用标点符号。 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变化。 as soon as As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I’ll write to you.我一到上海就给你写信。 I had hardly got home when it began hardly…when 和 no to rain. sooner…than 的意义相当于 as 我刚一到家,就下雨了。=Hardly had I soon as,但只表示过去发生的 事情,主句为过去完成时,从句 got home when it began to rain. No sooner had we got to the station no sooner…than than the train left. 我们刚到车站,火车就走了。 Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop.我们刚开始就被叫停。 Every time I travelled by boat, I got 在时间状语从句中,不能用将来 seasick.我每次乘船都晕船。 every time, by the time, the moment 等 时或过去将来时,而要用现在时 The moment I heard the song, I felt 或过去时代替将来时 cheerful. 我一听到这首歌,就感到很愉快。 Next time you come ,you’ll see him. 下次你来的时候,就会见到他。 Where there is a will, there is a way. where 与 wherever 意义基本 有志者,事竟成。 地 点 状 从 where 相同,但后者语气较强,多用于 Where there is water there is life.哪里 书面语 有水,哪里就有生命。 You are free to go wherever you like. 你可以随意到你喜欢的任何地方去。 Wherever you go, you must obey the law.无论你去哪都要遵守法律。 I came back late yesterday because I because 用来回答 why 的问 原 因 状 从 since because was on duty.昨天我回来晚了,因为我值 题,语气最强 班。 Since everyone is here, let’s begin 开会。 since 表示既然或全已知的理 放句首 为过去时,如 hardly 或 no sooner 位于句首时语气强,而 且主句的谓语要用部分倒装

hardly…when

wherever

our meeting.既然大家都到了,我们开始 由,稍加分析即可表明的原因,多

As he didn’t know much English, he 从句常放在句首,说明原因,主 as looked up the word in the dictionary . 句说明结果,常用于口语中。 由于他英语懂得不多, 他在字典中查阅这个 单词。 Now (that) the weather has cleared seeing (that), now that 和 up, we can start our journey. now that, seeing that 鉴于天气已经晴朗,我们可以启程了。 Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for the doctor. 鉴于他病情严重,我们派人去请医生去了。 I shall write down your telephone number that I may not forget. 目的状语从句中常用情态动词 may (might) can since, as 意义相似,他们都有 “鉴于某个事实”的意思,that 可 以省去

that 目 的 状 从 in order that so that

我要把你的电话号码记下来,以免忘记。 (could) ,should 等放在动词之 前,从句往往放在主句之后,主 We’ll tell you the truth so that you can 从句之间不用任何标点符号 judge for yourself. 我把真实情况告诉你,使你能自己作出判 断。 They worked harder than usual in order that they could finish the work ahead of time .他们比往常更加努力工

lest = for fear that 作,为了能提前完成工作。 Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) you should catch cold. 多穿点衣服,以免感冒。 We turned up the radio, so that everyone heard the news. so that so that 前有逗号为结果状语从 句

我们把收音机的音量放大,大家都听到了新 so…that 的 so 后面跟形容词或 闻。 副词

so…that 结 果 状 从

He was so excited that he couldn’t say a word. 他十分激动,以致一句话都说不出来。 He gave such important reasons that such…that 的 such 后面跟名 he was excused. 词, 如果名词是单数就要用 such 他说出了这么重要的理由,得到大家的谅 a /an…that 还可以转换用 so…that,语气较强 解。 It is such an interesting novel that all of us want to read it. It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it.

such…that

这是一本十分有趣的书,大家都想看。 Difficulties are nothing if we are not unless 从句的谓语只能用肯定 afraid of them. 式。unless 和 if…not 同义, 如果我们不怕困难,困难就算不了什么了。unless 是书面语,if…not 是口 语,通常二者可以换用 We shall go there tomorrow unless it 条件状语从句中的谓语动词的时 rains.除非下雨,我们明天就去那里。 = We shall go there tomorrow if it unless doesn’t rain. So/As long as you work hard, you will as/so long as in case so far as succeed. 只要你努力工作,你就一定能成功。 In case I forget, please remind me about it .万一我忘了,请提醒我一下。 So far as I know, the book will be published next month. 据我所知,那本书下月出版。 as Draw a cat as I taught you .按照我教你 此处 as 译为:按照或正如 的画一只猫。 as if… 方 式 状 从 as though as if 或 as though 的意义和用 时表示可能符合事实,也可以用 态一般要用现在时或过去时代替 一般将来时或过去将来时

if 条 件 状 从

Do as you are told.按照人家告诉你做的 法基本一样。从句中可以用现在 去做。 She looks as if she is ill.看上去她好象是 虚拟语气 生病了。 He acted as if (though) nothing had happened.他的行动就好象什么也没有发 生。 They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。 Although (Though) he was over sixty, 在句子中一般用了“虽然”就不能 (yet) he began to learn French. 再用“但是” (but) 但可以与 yet 虽然他六十多岁了,但仍开始学习法语 。 或 still 连用。though / although 意义相同,用法基本 We were not tired though (although) 一样,前者通俗,口语化,后者 we had worked all day. 正式多放主句的前面 虽然我们干了一天活,但并不累。 I’ll go even if (though) it rains even if 和 even though 的意 思为“即使”“纵使”有退一步设想 的意味,多用于书面语中

让 步 状 从

although though

even if,even though tomorrow.即使明天下雨,我也要去。

as

Child as he is , he knows a lot .虽然他 as 引出的状语从句多用于书面

是一个孩子,但他懂得很多。

语,它比用

Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the though 或 although 引导的从 children play outdoors. 虽然天气冷,但孩子们仍在户外玩。 句,语气强,更有表现力,从句 常放在句首,语序部分倒装。

Do it no matter what others say.不管 no matter……与 who-ever 引 别人怎么说,尽管干。 No matter how busy he was, he no matter (who, what when, where which, how…) studied English every day. 不管他多忙,他都每天坚持学习英语。 No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事,我都将非常感激。 Whatever happens / may happen , we wh+ever (whatever shall not lose heart. whoever ,whenever 无论发生什么,我们都不要失去信心。 whichever ,however) Whoever comes, he will be welcome. 无论谁来,都会受到欢迎。 Mary is as old as my sister.玛利和我姐 连词表示同程度级的比较,肯定 姐一样大。 as…as , not so/as…as the same…as such…as He doesn’t run so (as) fast as Jack (does).他不如杰克跑得那样快。 His book is the same as mine.他的书和 我的一样。 Henry is not such a good worker as Peter .享利这个工人不如彼得那样好。 比 较 状 从 …than… She has made greater progress this year than she did last year. 她今年比去年进步更大。 He bought fewer books than I (did). 他买的书比我买的少。 The more you read, the better you 多。 the more …the more… The more tickets you sell, the more money you will get. 你卖的票越多,你的收入也越多。 The harder you work, the greater progress you will make. the more…the more 意思为 前主句在后,这两个 the 都是表 示程度的副词,用在比较级的形 容词或副词前面 句用 as…as 否定句可用 not as…as 或 not so…as 导的让步状语从句意义基本一 样,no matter……引导的从句 可是以位于主句前或主句后

understand.你看的书越多, 你懂得的就越 越…越…,通常的语序为从句在

你工作越努力,你取得的进步就越大。 The sooner, the better.越快越好。The warmer, the better.越暖和越好。

十二、定语从句 I. 定语从句起了形容词的作用,在句中修饰一个名词或代词。被修饰的词叫做先行词,引导 定语从句的词叫关系词, 他的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起了连接作用, 二是在从 句中担当一个成分,并与先行词保持数的一致。
关系词 who 先行词 从句成分 例 人 主语 句 备 注

Do you know the man who is talking with your mother? Mr. Smith is the person with whom I

whom



宾语

am working The boy (whom) she loved died in the war.. I like those books whose topics are whom, which 和 that 在 从句中做宾语时, 常可以省 代词不能省略, 也不可以用 that

whose 人或物 关系 代 词 that

定语

about history.

但介词提前时后面关系 The boy whose father works abroad is 略, my deskmate. A plane is a machine that can fly.

人或物 主语, 宾语 She is the pop star (that) I want to see very much. The book (which) I gave you was

which



主语, 宾语

worth $10. The picture which was about the accident was terrible. He is such a person as is respected by

as

人或物 主语, 宾语

all of us. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday.

as 做宾语一般不省略

关系 副

when

时间

时间状语

I will never forget the day when we met there.

可用 on which



where why

地点 原因

地点状语 This is the house where I was born. 可用 in which 原因状语 I can’t imagine the reason why he turned down my offer. 可用 for which

II. that 与 which, who, whom 的用法区别
情 况 用法说明 1.先行词为 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much,等 不定代词时 2.先行词被 all, any, every, each, much, little, no, some, few 等修饰时 只用 that 的情 况 3.先行词有形容词最高级和序数词修饰 时 4.先行词既指人又指物时 5.先行词被 the only, the very 修饰时 6.句中已经有 who 或 which 时,为了 避免重复时 1.在非限制性定语从句中,只能用 which 指代物,用 who/whom 指人 1.He has a son, who has gone abroad for 3.This is the best film that I have ever read. 4.We talked about the persons and things that we remembered. 5.He is the only man that I want to see. 6.Who is the man that is making a speech? 2.All the books that you offered has been given out. 例 句

1.He told me everything that he knows.

2.在由“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从 further study. 只用 which, 情况 句中, 只能用 which 指物, whom 指人。 2.I like the person to whom the teacher is which, 先行词为 those, one, he 时多 talking. 用 who。 3.Those who respect others are usually respected by others.

who, whom 的 3.先行词本身是 that 时,关系词用

III. as、which 和 that 的区别
从句 限制性 定语从句中 区 别 例 句

名词前有 such 和 the same 修饰 时,关系代词用 as,不能用 which

He is not such a fool as he looks. Don’t read such books as you can’t understand.

as 和 which 都可以指代前面整个主 They won the game, as we had expected. 非限制性 定语从句中 句。如果有“正如,象”的含义,并可 They won the game, which we hadn’t 以放在主句前,也可以放在后面,那 expected. 么用 as;而 which 引导的从句只能 As is well known, he is a famous film star in 放主句后,并无“正如”的意思。 the 1980s.

That’s the same tool as I used last week.(同 the same... as 和 the same... as 指同类事物 the same ...that the same ...that 指原物 类工具,不是同一把) That’s the same tool that I used last week. 那就是我上周用过的工具。

注意:the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由 that, in which 引导或不用引导词。 IV.定语从句与其它从句(句型)的区别
类 别 区 别 例 句

①Mr Li has three daughters,none of _____ is an 定语从句与并列句的主要区别在 定语从句 与 并列句 于:并列句有像 and,but,so 等 并列连词或两个句子用分号连接, 这时就不能再用引导定语从句的关 系词了。 engineer. ②Mr Li has three daughters,but none of _____ is a dancer. 从结构上看,①小题是定语从句,故填 whom; ②小题有并列连词 but,是并列句,故填代词 them。 This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. 定语从句的前面有名词作先行词, 这是几年前我们居住的地方。(定语从句,先行词为 the 而状语从句没有先行词。 place) Let’s go where we can find a better job. 我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。(地点状语从句) Do you know the time when the class is over? 你 知道下课的时间吗?(定语从句) 定语从句修饰、限制、说明名词, 只能放在先行词的后面,而状语从 定语从句 与 状语从句 句说明动作发生的情况,并且可以 放在主句的前面。 It was already five o’clock when the class was over. =When the class was over, it was already five o’clock. 当下课时己经是 5 点了。(时间状语从句) This is the factory in which (where) his father once When, where 和 why 在引导定语 worked. 从句时可以用“介词+which”的结 行。 构来替换,在引导状语从句时却不 这就是他的父亲曾经工作过的那个工厂。(定语从句) Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。(状 语从句) It is such an interesting book as we all like. 它是我 们大家都喜欢的如此有趣的书。

定语从句中的关系词在从句中充当 某种句子成分,因此去掉它则从句

成分不完整;而结果状语从句中的 (as 用作动词 like 的宾语,它引导的是定语从句) 连接词在从句中不作任何成分,去 It is such an interesting book that we all like it. 掉后从句的成分仍然完整。 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都喜欢它。

(that 不充当句子成分,故它引导的是结果状语从句) The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy. 定语从句在复合句中相当于形容 定语从句 与 她考试及格的消息使她父母亲很高兴。(同位语从句)

词,对先行词起修饰、描述或限制 此句中的同位语从句 The news that she had passed the exam 的作用, 与先行词之间有从属关系。 同位语的作用相当于名词,对前面 可以改写成表语从句:The news is that he passed the

同位语从句 的名词给予补充说明或进一步解 exam. 释, 是前面名词的具体内容,与先行 The news that he told us interested all of us. 词之间是同位关系。 他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。(定语从句) The news that he told us 是定语从句,此句不能改写 为:The news is that he told us. 强调句的结构为“It is/was+被 ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met 强调部分+that+从句”。 被强调部 Liang Wei at the airport. 定语从句 与 强调句 分可以是除谓语以外的任何成分, ②It is the factory _____ Mr Wang works. 当被强调部分是人时, 还可用 who 从结构上看: 代替 that。这一句型中,一定不能 因为被强调部分是表时间或地点的 ①小题是强调句,故填 that。 词就用 when 或 where 代替 that。 ②小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in,故填 where。

十三、强调句
强调的类别 说 明 例 句

原始句:Last night I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 为了强调句子的某一成分 强调主语:It was I that (or: who) saw a film in (通常是主语、宾语或状 the Youth Palace last night. 语),常用强调结构: 强调宾语:It was a fiml that I saw in the Youth It is (was) +被强调部 It is (was) +被强调部分 Palace last night. 分+that(who)… +that(who)… 强调地点状语:It was in the Youth Palace that I 表示强调的 it 在这种结构 saw a film last night. 的 句子中作主句的主语。 强调时间状语:It was last night that I saw a film in the Youth Palace. 一般讲,原句的谓语动词如果是现在或将来各种时态, 用 It is…that (who)…;如果原句谓语动词是过去各

种时态,则用 It was… that(who)…。 ①在强调主语时,that 后的谓语动词要与被强调者保 持人称和数的 It is I who am a teacher. ②即使被强调的主语是复数, 主句中的谓语动词也用单 数 It is they who often help me with my lessons. ③在强调时间、地点、原因、或方式状语时,不要用 when,where,why 或 how ,而用 that It was because her mother was ill that she didn't go with us. ④在强调 not … until 结构中由 until 短语(或从句) 表示的时间状语时, 要用固定的强调句型 It is(was) not until ...that...。that 从句中的谓语 动词用肯定式。 My father didn't come home until 12 o'clock last night. 注意点 It was not until 12 o'clock last night that my father came home. ⑤在强调一般疑问句中的某一成分时, 主句要用一般疑 问句的语序: 把 is/ was 提到 it 前面。 Did this happen in Beijing? Was it in Beijing that this happened? ⑥特殊疑问句中只有疑问词可以强调,其强调结构是 “被强调部分(通 常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/was + it + that/ who + 其它部分?" Where were you born? Where was it that you were born? ⑦not …until…句型的强调句[来源:学|科|网 Z|X|X|K] 句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 原始句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back.

强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed. 此句型只用 until,不用 till。但如果不是强调句型, till, until 可通 用; 因为句型中 It is/ was not … 已经是否定句了, that 后面的从句 要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。 Do sit down. 务必请坐。 He did write to you last week.上周他确实给你写 It is/ was … that …结构 了信。 调谓语时,用助动词 do/ does 或 did。 Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! 此种强调只用 do/does 和 did ,没有别的形式;过 去时用 did,后面的谓语动词用原形。

谓语动词的强调

不能强调谓语, 如果需要强

十四、省略句
类别 词 具体内容 名词所有格后修饰的名词在以下情况可以 省略 ①如果名词所有格修饰的名词在前文已出 现,则可以省略。 ②名词所有格后修饰的名词如果是指商 例句 These are John's books and those are Mary's (books). 这些是约翰的书,那些是玛丽的书。 at the doctor's 在诊所 林先生家 at the barber's 在 at Mr. Green's 在格

to my uncle's 到我叔叔家 店、住宅等地点时,这些名词也常常省略。 理发店

①The lightning flashed and thunder crashed. 法 冠词的省略 ①为了避免重复 电闪雷鸣。 (thunder 前省略了定冠词 the)

②She sings best in the class.她在班上唱歌唱得 ②在副词的最高级前面的定冠词常可以省 最好。 略。 ③Our teacher came in, book in hand. ③在某些独立主格结构中。 (=Our teacher came in, with a book in his ④在 as 引导的让步状语从句中, 当作表语 hand.) 的单数名词提前时,不定冠词要省略。 上 我们的老师手里拿着一本书进来了。 ④Child as he is, he knows a lot.

虽然他还是一个孩子,却懂得很多 ①Both (of) the films were interesting. 这两部 电影都很有趣。 介词的省略 She invited both of us to her birthday party.

①both 后常跟 of 短语,其后可以接名词 她邀请我们俩去参加她的生日派对。 的 复数形式,也可以接代词宾格复数形式。 ②These shoes are worn out. They have 接复数名词时,介词 of 可以省略,但接代 lasted (for) a long time. 词宾格时,of 不能省略。 ②在现在完成时表持续和重复的句型中, 一段时间前的介词 for 可以省略。 ③和一些动词搭配构成的短语中的介词, consider... (as)..., prevent / stop... 省 (from)doing..., have trouble / difficulty... (in) 中的介词可以省略。 这双鞋穿破了,已经穿了很长一段时间了。 ③Trees can prevent the earth (from) being washed away. 树能阻止泥土被冲走。 Can you stop him (from) going swimming in the river?

doing...,spend... (in / on) doing... 等 你能阻止他下河洗澡吗? I have some difficulty (in) answering the question. 回答这个问题我有点困难。 ①有些动词,believe, find, think, feel, ①I consider him (to be) lazy.我认为他懒。 consider, imagine, prove 等后作宾补 His mother found him (to be) a clever boy. 的结构。 他母亲发觉他是一个很聪明的孩子。 to be + n. / adj.中的 to be 可以省略。 ②They made the boy go to bed early.他们强 ②感官动词 see, hear, feel, watch, 迫这个男孩早睡。 notice 等以及使役动词 let, make, The boy was made to go to bed early. 这个男 have 后作宾补的动词不定式, 孩被迫早睡。 其中的不定式符号 to 要省略, 但变为被动 注:help 后作宾补的动词不定式中的 to 可以省略 结构时,to 必须保留。 也可保留。 ③在 can not but, can not choose but, can not help but 之后的动词不定式一般 不带 to;but 之前有实 义动词 do 的某个形式 do, does, did, done 时,也不带 to, 否则要带 to。 ③We have nothing to do now but wait. 我们现在除了等没有别的事可做。 I can not but admire his courage. 我不能不钦 佩他的勇敢。 ④在并列结构中为了避免重复。 He has no choice but to accept the fact. 除了接受这个事实他别无选择。 ④I'm really puzzled what to think or say. 我真不知道该怎么想,怎么说才好。 但两个不定式有对照或对比的意义时,则后一个 to ⑤在 why, why not 引导的特殊问句中 不能省。



后跟省略 to 的动词不定式。

I came not to scold but to praise you.

⑥动词不定式中动词原形部分是否省略, 我来不是责备你,而是赞美你。 主要看句子前面是否已出现过同样的动 ⑤Why talk so much about it?为什么大谈这个事 词。如果句子前面出现过同样的动词,为 呢? 了避免重复,句子后面的不定式常省略动 Why not try it again? 为什么不再试一试呢? 词原形,而保留不定式符号 to。 ⑥They may go if they wish to(go). 如果他们想去,他们就可以去。 Don't go till I tell you to.直到我告诉你去,你才 可以去。 在一些动词 afford, agree, expect, forget, mean, pretend, remember, want, refuse, hope, wish, would like (love), try 等后跟动词 不定式作宾语,不定式中的 to 可以承前(后)省略。 —Will you go to the cinema with me? 你愿和我一起去看电影吗? —Well, I'd like to (go with you). 我愿意。 I would do it for you, but I don't know how to (do it for you). 我想为你做这事,但我又不知如何做。 在某些形容词,afraid, glad, willing, happy, eager 等后承前省 略动词原形,只保留不定式符号 to。 —Will you join us in the game? 你愿和我们一起做这个游戏吗? —Sure, I'll be glad to(join you in the game). 当然,我愿意。 有些动词,tell, ask, allow, expect, force, invite, permit, persuade, order, warn, wish, would like,forbid 等后跟动词不定式作宾语补足 语、主语补足语时,不定式承前省略动词原形, 保 留动词不定式符号 to。 He didn't come, though we had invited him to (come). 尽管我们邀请他来,他却没来。 注:承前省略的动词不定式如果有助动词 have 或 be,则要保留 be 或 have。 —Are you a teacher? 你是老师吗? —No, but I used to be (a teacher).不,我以前

是。 句 简单句中的省略 ①感叹句中常省略主语和谓语。 ②在一些口语中可以省略某些句子成分。 ①What a hot day (it is)!多热的天啊! How wonderful!多妙啊! ②—(Will you)Have a smoke?你抽烟吗? —No.Thanks.不,谢谢了。 (Is there)Anything else to say?还有别的要说 吗? ①John must have been playing football and 法 并列句中的省略 ①如果主语不同,而谓语动词中的一部分 Mary (must have been) doing her homework. 约翰一定在踢球,而玛丽一定在做作业。

相同,则省略谓语动词中相同的那部分。 ②His suggestions made John happy, but (his ②主语相同,谓语动词也相同,则二者都 可以省略。 suggestions made) Mary angry. 他的建议使约翰高兴,却使玛丽很生气。

③主语相同,而谓语不同,则可以省略主 ③Old McDonald gave up smoking for a while, 语。 but (he) soon returned to his old ways. ④在并列复合句中, 如果 that 从句从属于 老麦克唐纳戒了一阵子烟,可很快又抽上了。 上 第二个并列句且它的谓语动词和宾语等其 ④Jack will sing at the party, but I know John 它一些成分与第一个并列句相同时,这个 won't (sing at the party). that 从句通常可以省略这些相同的部分。 杰克将在晚会上唱歌,但我知道约翰不会在晚会上 唱歌。 复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略 复合句中的省略 ▲名词性从句中的省略

①作宾语的 what 从句中的谓语动词与主 ①Someone has used my bike, but I don't 的 句的相同,则 what 从句可以省略谓语, know who (has used it). 甚至主语 有人用了我的自行车,但我不知道是谁。 He has gone, but no one knows where (he has gone). ②有时候也可以根据说话的情景来省略主 他走了,但没人知道他去哪儿了。 句中的一些成分。 ②(I'm)Sorry I've kept you waiting so long.



③在某些表虚拟语气的主语从句、宾语从 对不起,让你久等了。 句、表语从句和同位语从句中,从句谓语 ③It's important that we (should) speak to 动词中的助动词 should 可以省略。 the old politely. ▲定语从句中的省略 我们对老人说话要有礼貌,这很重要。 ①在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代 词 that, which, who (whom)常可以省 略。 ▲定语从句中的省略 ①The man(who/whom)I saw is called Smith. 我见到的那个人名叫史密斯。

②关系副词 when, where, why 以及 略 that 在 the time(day, morning, afternoon, evening, night, week, month, year 等) when, the place(desk, table, room, spot, house, town, country, school 等)where, the reason why, the way

Where is the book (which) I bought this morning? 今天上午我买的那本书在哪儿? ②I shall never forget the day (when) we first met. 我永远也不会忘记我们第一次见面的那一天。

that 结构中引导限制性定语从句时,在非 The reason (why) he came so early is his own 正式场合下,可以省略关系副词 when, affair. where, why, that。 ▲状语从句中的省略 他来这么早是他自己的事。 The way (that) you answered the questions

当状语从句中的主语和主句的主语一致, was admirable. 或状语从句中的主语是 it,并且又含有 be 你回答这些问题的方式令人钦佩。 动词时,常可以省略从句中的主语和 be 动词。 ①在 as, before, till, once, when, while 等引导的时间状语从句中。 ②在 though, although,等引导的让步状 语从句中。 ③在 if, unless(=if... not)等引导的条件 状语从句中。 ①While(I was)waiting, I was reading some magazines. 我一边看杂志,一边等。 ④在 as, as if, as though 引导的让步状 语从句中。 ②Though (they were) tired, they went on working. 虽然他们累了,但他们仍继续工作。 ③You shouldn't come to his party unless ⑤在 as(so)... as..., than 引导的比较状 语从句中。 (you were) invited. 除非你被邀请,否则你不应该来参加他的宴会。 ④He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告知 的那样去做了。 He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 ⑤He did as (he had been) told. 他按照被告知 的那样去做了。 He paused as if (he was) expecting her to speak. 他停下来,好像是在期待她说话。 I know you can do better than he (can do). 我知道你能比他做得更好。 ▲状语从句中的省略

This car doesn't run as fast as that one (does). 这辆小车不及那辆跑得快。

十五、倒装句
类 型 情 况 例 句

Not a word did I say to him. Never have I found him so happy. 句首状语为否定词或半否定词的句子。 这类词或短语主要有 never, neither, nor, little,seldom,rarely,hardly,scarcely,no sooner, not only,in no way,at no time,few, not,no 等 Little does he care about what I said. I can’t swim. Neither can he. No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep. Hardly/Scarcely had he gone to bed when he fell asleep. 部分倒装 (部分倒装 是把 be 动 词、情态动 词、 助动词放 only+状语放在句首,要部分倒装 到主语之前。 如果句子中 没有这些词, 要在主语之 前加助动词 do/does /did 等,而把 动词变成原 形放在主语 之后。) “Not only+分句,but also+分句”句型中的前 一分句要部分倒装“Not only + 分句,but also + 分句”句型中的前一分句要部分倒装 原来的谓语 so 或 so 引导的短语放在句首,要部分倒装 Only by this means is it possible to explain it. (介词短语) Only then did I realize the importance of math. (副词) Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work. (从句) 注意:如果 only 后面不是状语,则不用倒装。 OnlyWang Ling knows this. I saw the film, so did she. So loudly did he speak that even people in the next room could hear him. Not only does John love Chinese, he is also good at speaking it. 但 not only...but also...连接主语时,不倒 装。 Not only the mother but also the children are sick. Not until last week did they find the lost Not until 放在句首,从句不倒装,主句倒装 bike. (简单句) Not until my son had entered the university did he realize the importance

of time. (复合句) Proud as these nobles are, he’s afraid to see me. Tired as he was, he kept on running. Tired though he was, he kept on as/though 引导的让步状语从句 running. =Though he was tired,he kept on running Child as he is,he knows a lot.(注意: child 前没有冠词 a) 在以 often, well, many a time, now and again 等方式或频度副词(短语)开头的句子中,要用部 分倒装结构 Many a time has John given me good advice. Often have we made that test. Had I time (= If I had time), I would go 在虚拟结构中,条件从句的谓语含有 were, had 和 should 这三个词是,可省去 if,将 这些词移至主语之前。 and help you. Were I you (= If I were you), I would go abroad. Should he come (=If he should come), tell him to ring me up. 用于某些表示祝愿的句子里 May you succeed!

There be 结构。另外,在此结构中可以用来代 There stood a dog before him. 替 be 动词的动词有:exist, seem, happen, There exist different opinions on this appear,live, rise, stand 等 question. Here comes the old lady! Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. “Here,There, Now, Then + come (或 be 等) + 主语” 结构 完全倒装 说明:本句型中 there 是副词,应重读,强调地 点。而前一句型中的 there 是引导词,本身没意 义 There comes the bus. Now comes your turn. 除了 then 引导的句子用过去式以外,其余的 均用一般现在时,表示一种生动的描述。其次, 如果主语是人称代词,就不用倒装。 Here you are. There she comes. 表示方向的副词 out, in, up, down 等置于句 首,要用全部倒装。 In came Mr White. Up went the arrow into the air. Away went the boy.

表示地点的介词短语 (如 on the wall, under the tree, in front of the house,in the middle of the room 等)放在句首时,要全部倒 装

On the top of the hill stands a pine tree. In front of the classroom is a playground. They arrived at a house, in front of which sat an old man. Present at the meeting was Mr. Green, a headmaster.(形容词短语) Such was the story he told me.(代词) East of the city lies a new railway. (副词 短语)

其它形式的完全倒装

First to be completed was the seven-storey teaching building. (不定式 短语) Gone are the days when my heart was young and gay. (过去分词) Lying on the floor was a boy aged 15. (现在分词短语)

用于某些表示祝愿的句子里

Long live the People’s Republic of China!

作者:葛平


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