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高考英语写作资料模板整理全面经典啊(30个最经典的替换词)


以下是 30 个最经典的替换词,各位同学可以参考一下。 1.individuals,characters, folks 代替(people ,persons) 2 : positive, favorable, rosy( 美 好 的 ) , promising ( 有 希 望 的 ) , perfect, pleasurable , excellent, outstanding 代替 good 3:dreadful, unfavorable, poor, adverse(有害的)代替 bad 如果 bad 做表语,可 以有 be less impressive 代替 eg.An army of college students indulge themselves in playing games, enjoying romance with girls/boys or killing time passively in their dorms. When it approaches to graduation ,as a result, they find their academic records are less impressive. 4.(an army of, an ocean of, a sea of, a multitude of ,many,if not most)代替 many. 注:用 many, if not most 一定要小心,many 后一定要有词。 Eg. Many individuals, if not most, harbor the idea that….同理 用 most, if not all ,代替 most. 5: a slice of, quiet a few , several 代替 some

6:harbor the idea that, take the attitude that, hold the view that, it is widely shared that, it is universally acknowledged that)替 think (因为是书面语,所以 要加 that) 7:affair ,business ,matter 代替 thing 8: shared 代 common 9.reap huge fruits 代替 get much benefit )

10:for my part ,from my own perspective 代替 in my opinion 11:Increasing(ly),growing 代替 more and more ( 注意没有 growingly 这种形式。所以当修饰名词时用 increasing/growing. 修 饰形容词,副词用 increasingly. Eg.sth has gained growing popularity. Sth is increasingly popular with the advancement of sth.

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12.little if anything, 或 little or nothing 代替 hardly 13..beneficial rewarding 代替 helpful be beneficial of 14.shopper,client,consumer,purchaser, 代替 customer 15.exceedingly,extremely 代替 very 16.hardly unnecessary, hardly inevitable ... 代替 necessary, inevitable 17.sth appeals to sb, sth exerts a tremendous fascination on sb 代替 sb take interest in 18.capture one's attention 代替 attract one's attention. 19.facet,demension,sphere 代 aspect 20.be indicative of ,be suggestive of ,be fearful of 代 indicate, suggest ,fear 21.give rise to, lead to, result in, trigger 代替 cause. 22. There are several reasons behind sth 23.desire 代替 want. 24.pour attention into 代替 pay attention to 25.bear in mind that 代替 remember 26. enjoy, possess 代替 have(注意 process 是过程的意思) 27. interaction 代替 communication 28.frown on sth 代替 be against , disagree with sth 29.to name only a few, as an example 代替 for example 30. next to/virtually impossible,代替 nearly impossible 代替..reasons for sth

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作文常用句型 一)比较

1.The advantage far outweigh the disadvantages.

2.The advantages of A are much greater than those of B.

3.A may be preferable to B, but A suffers from the disadvantages that...

4.It is reasonable to maintain that ...but it would be foolish to claim that...

5.For all the disadvantages, it has its compensating advantages.

6.Like anything else, it has its faults.

7.A and B has several points in common.

8.A bears some resemblances to B.

9.However, the same is not applicable to B.

10. A and B differ in several ways.

11. Evidently, it has both negative and positive effects.

12. People used to think ..., but things are different now.

13. The same is true of B.

14. Wondering as A is ,it has its drawbacks.
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15. It is true that A ... , but the chief faults (obvious defects )are ...

二)原因

1.A number of factors are accountable for this situation.

A number of factors might contribute to (lead to )(account for ) the phenomenon(problem).

2. The answer to this problem involves many factors.

3. The phenomenon mainly stems from the fact that...

4. The factors that contribute to this situation include...

5. The change in ...largely results from the fact that...

6. We may blame ...,but the real causes are...

7. Part of the explanations for it is that ...

One of the most common factors (causes ) is that ...

Another contributing factor (cause ) is ...

Perhaps the primary factor is that …

But the fundamental cause is that ...

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三)后果

1. It may give rise to a host of problems.

2. The immediate result it produces is ...

3. It will exercise a profound influence upon...

4. Its consequence can be so great that...

四)批驳

1)It is true that ..., but one vital point is being left out.

2) There is a grain of truth in these statements, but they ignore a more important fact.

3) Some people say ..., but it does not hold water.

4) Many of us have been under the illusion that...

5) A close examination would reveal how ridiculous the statement is.

6) It makes no sense to argue for ...

7) Too much stress placed on ... may lead to ...

8) Such a statement mainly rests on the assumption that ...

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9) Contrary to what is widely accepted, I maintain that ...

五)举例

1) A good case in point is ...

2) As an illustration, we may take ...

3) Such examples might be given easily.

4) ...is often cited as an example.

六)证明

1) No one can deny the fact that ...

2) The idea is hardly supported by facts.

3) Unfortunately, none of the available data shows ...

4) Recent studies indicate that ...

5) There is sufficient evidence to show that ...

6) According to statistics proved by ..., it can be seen that ...

七)开篇

1) Many nations have been faced with the problem of ...
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2) Recently the problem has been brought into focus.

3) Recently the phenomenon has become a heated topic.

4) Recently the issue has aroused great concern among ...

5) Nowadays there is a growing concern over ...

6) Never in our history has the idea that ... been so popular.

7) Faced with ..., quite a few people argue that ...

8) According to a recent survey, ...

9) With the rapid development of ..., ...

八)结尾

1) From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that ...

2) It is high time that strict measures were taken to stop ...

3) It is necessary that steps should be taken to ...

4) In conclusion, it is imperative that ...

5) There is no easy method, but ...might be of some help.

6) To solve the above-mentioned problem, we must ...
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7) In summary, if we continue to ignore the above-mentioned issue, more problems will crop up.

8) With the efforts of all parts concerned, the problem will be solved thoroughly.

9) We might do more than identify the cause ; it is important to take actions to ...

10) Taking all these into account, we ...

11) Whether it is good or not /positive or negative, one thing is certain/clear...

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三十五个经典句型 帮你过写作关 一、~~~ the + ~ est + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc) ~~~ the most + 形容词 + 名词 + (that) + 主词 + have ever + seen ( known/heard/had/read, etc) 例句:Helen is the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. 海伦是我所看过最美丽的女孩。 Mr. Chang is the kindest teacher that I have ever had. 张老师是我曾经遇到最仁慈的教师。 二、Nothing is + ~~~ er than to + V Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V 例句:Nothing is more important than to receive education. 没有比接受教育更重要的事。 三、~~~ cannot emphasize the importance of ~~~ too much. (再怎么强调...的重要性也不为过。 ) 例句:We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much. 我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。 四、There is no denying that + S + V ...(不可否认的...) 例句:There is no denying that the qualities of our living have gone from bad to worse. 不可否认的,我们的生活品质已经每况愈下。 五、It is universally acknowledged that + 句子~~ (全世界都知道...) 例句:It is universally acknowledged that trees are indispensable to us. 全世界都知道树木对我们是不可或缺的。 六、There is no doubt that + 句子~~ (毫无疑问的...) 例句:There is no doubt that our educational system leaves something to be desired. 毫无疑问的我们的教育制度令人不满意。

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七、An advantage of ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的优点是...) 例句:An advantage of using the solar energy is that it won't create (produce) any pollution. 使用太阳能的优点是它不会制造任何污染。 八、The reason why + 句子 ~~~ is that + 句子 (...的原因是...) 例句:The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can provide us with fresh air. The reason why we have to grow trees is that they can supply fresh air for us. 我们必须种树的原因是它们能供应我们新鲜的空气。 九、So + 形容词 + be + 主词 + that + 句子 (如此...以致于...) 例句:So precious is time that we can't afford to waste it. 时间是如此珍贵,我们经不起浪费它。 十、Adj + as + Subject(主词)+ be, S + V~~~ (虽然...) 例句:Rich as our country is, the qualities of our living are by no means satisfactory. {by no means = in no way = on no account 一点也不} 虽然我们的国家富有,我们的生活品质绝对令人不满意。 十一、The + ~er + S + V, ~~~ the + ~er + S + V ~~~ The + more + Adj + S + V, ~~~ the + more + Adj + S + V ~~~(愈... 愈...) 例句:The harder you work, the more progress you make. 你愈努力,你愈进步。 The more books we read, the more learned we become. 我们书读愈多,我们愈有学问。 十二、By +Ving, ~~ can ~~ (借着...,..能够..) 例句:By taking exercise, we can always stay healthy. 借着做运动,我们能够始终保持健康。 十三、~~~ enable + Object(受词)+ to + V (..使..能够..)

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例句:Listening to music enable us to feel relaxed. 听音乐使我们能够感觉轻松。 十四、On no account can we + V ~~~ (我们绝对不能...) 例句:On no account can we ignore the value of knowledge. 我们绝对不能忽略知识的价值。 十五、It is time + S + 过去式 (该是...的时候了) 例句:It is time the authorities concerned took proper steps to solve the traffic problems. 该是有关当局采取适当的措施来解决交通问题的时候了。 十六、Those who ~~~ (...的人...) 例句:Those who violate traffic regulations should be punished. 违反交通规定的人应该受处罚。 十七、There is no one but ~~~ (没有人不...) 例句:There is no one but longs to go to college. 没有人不渴望上大学。 十八、be + forced/compelled/obliged + to + V (不得不...) 例句:Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to give up doing sports. 既然考试迫在眉睫,我不得不放弃做运动。 十九、It is conceivable that + 句子 (可想而知的) It is obvious that + 句子 (明显的) It is apparent that + 句子 (显然的) 例句:It is conceivable that knowledge plays an important role in our life. 可想而知,知识在我们的一生中扮演一个重要的角色。 二十、That is the reason why ~~~ (那就是...的原因) 例句:Summer is sultry. That is the reason why I don't like it. 夏天很燠热。那就是我不喜欢它的原因。 二十一、For the past + 时间,S + 现在完成式...(过去...年来,...一直...) 例句:For the past two years, I have been busy preparing for the examination.
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过去两年来,我一直忙着准备考试。 二十二、Since + S + 过去式,S + 现在完成式。 例句:Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard. 自从他上高中,他一直很用功。 二十三、It pays to + V ~~~ (...是值得的。 ) 例句:It pays to help others. 帮助别人是值得的。 二十四、be based on (以...为基础) 例句:The progress of thee society is based on harmony. 社会的进步是以和谐为基础的。 二十五、Spare no effort to + V (不遗余力的) We should spare no effort to beautify our environment. 我们应该不遗余力的美化我们的环境。 二十六、bring home to + 人 + 事 (让...明白...事) 例句:We should bring home to people the value of working hard. 我们应该让人们明白努力的价值。 二十七、be closely related to ~~ (与...息息相关) 例句:Taking exercise is closely related to health. 做运动与健康息息相关。 二十八、Get into the habit of + Ving= make it a rule to + V (养成...的 习惯) We should get into the habit of keeping good hours. 我们应该养成早睡早起的习惯。 二十九、Due to/Owing to/Thanks to + N/Ving, ~~~ (因为...) 例句:Thanks to his encouragement, I finally realized my dream. 因为他的鼓励,我终于实现我的梦想。 三十、What a + Adj + N + S + V!= How + Adj + a + N + V!(多么...! ) 例句:What an important thing it is to keep our promise! How important a thing it is to keep our promise!

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遵守诺言是多么重要的事! 三十一、Leave much to be desired (令人不满意) 例句:The condition of our traffic leaves much to be desired. 我们的交通状况令人不满意。 三十二、Have a great influence on ~~~ (对...有很大的影响) 例句:Smoking has a great influence on our health. 抽烟对我们的健康有很大的影响。 三十三、do good to (对...有益) ,do harm to (对...有害) 例句:Reading does good to our mind.读书对心灵有益。 Overwork does harm to health.工作过度对健康有害。 三十四、Pose a great threat to ~~ (对...造成一大威胁) 例句:Pollution poses a great threat to our existence. 污染对我们的生存造成一大威胁。 三十五、do one's utmost to + V = do one's best (尽全力去...) 例句:We should do our utmost to achieve our goal in life. 我们应尽全力去达成我们的人生目标。

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附 录: 有关 "启 、承、转、合"的常用词语和句型 1、有关"启"的常用词语和句性型 (1)列举的开启 first, firstly, first of all, in the first place, to begin with , to start , at first , at the beginning, for one thing ( for another ), on the one hand (2) 引用式开启论述话题 It goes without saying that… As the saying goes , " Haste makes waste" (3) 复合句开启论述话题 With the rapid development of economy, great changes have taken place in our cultural and social life. When asked about what is the biggest problem today, many people say that it is the serious energy. They are afraid that the world will soon run out of oil and run short of food. When it comes to international sport such as the Olympic and the World Cup soccer game, some people believe that it creates goodwill between nations and that if countries play games together, they will learn how to live together. Recently the problem of development vs. environment has now been brought into wide focus / has now been in the limelight. Nowhere is the clash more visible than in China, where the world's largest population faces pollution, deforestation and acid rain on a large scale. Recently, the alarm about the problem of the use of genetic technologies on human beings have caused wide public concerns and understandably so. One of the most popular topics many city residents talk about now is the tide of the rural poor flooding the cities. Now there is a growing awareness of the importance of acquiring a mastery of a foreign language. To them, the knowledge of a foreign language, say English, often means a good opportunity for one's career, even a passport to a prosperous future.

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2. 有关"承"的常用词语和句型 (1) 列举的承接 second, secondly, in the second place, next, then, for another, also, too; third, thirdly, besides, besides, besides this, in addition, in addition to, further more, moreover, what is more important, as another example, (2) 论证的递进 namely, then, in other words, in the same way, in particular, after that, afterwards, at the same time, in the same manner….., Another equally important aspect is…. (3)例证的引出(原因的阐述) for example / instance, such as, tale…for example, Let us suppose / Suppose that….. A good case in point is…. To understand the truth of the achievement the New Government has made in education, it is necessary to have a clear unsentimental picture of the way the schools were in the past. To understand the necessity of abolishing the entrance examination, it is necessary to analyze its weakness. To illustrate how academic pressure can contribute to teenage suicide, let us consider the competition, the preparation, and the anxiety different kinds of tests and exams involve. Teachers play an important role in the shaping of student's character. A study of the influence of a teacher on children will make my point clear. Besides simplicity, other things I have found to be essential to success are communication, moderation, and patience, last but by no means least, luck. Perhaps I can think of no better illustration of the spirit of a scientist them the examples of Columbus, Galileo, Einstein, Leonorv and other great men who devoted their lives to conquering unchartered places, discovering unknown facts and exploring new frontiers.

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No one can deny the fact that our society for the past 30 years has been caught up in a storm of change. There is sufficient evidence to show that parents are particularly influential in the decisions of their children about college. The government has become so involved with business these days that unless a business can count on the government's favorable policies, it cannot expect to do well. You don't have to look very far to see the truth of this proposition. The textile industry benefits tremendously from the heavy tariffs that the government places on imported cloth. Our intellectual prowess over most of the period was unchallenged. It is ironic that it is just this prowess that enabled other countries to prosper and in turn to threaten our economic and scientific growth. No one is patriotically comfortable with the fact that those went to study overseas a few years ago now have returned to compete fiercely with us-----and in most cases defeat us ------in almost all fields on behalf of foreign countries. This special liking for mathematics and science is partly explained by the fact that Asian-American students who began their education abroad arrived in the U.S with a solid grounding in mathematics but little or no knowledge of English. Most Asian-American students owe their success to the influence of parents who are determined that their children take full advantage of what the American educational system has to offer, To take an even more dramatic example, which is in everybody's mind at the present time; you study the makeup of the atom from a disinterested desire for knowledge, and by chance place in the hands of flats base their case primarily on the human race. Those who oppose the building of flats base their case primarily on the assumption that everyone prefers an individual home and garden and on the high cost per unit of accommodation.

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Home schoolers oppose the system because they have strong convictions that their approach to education------whether fueled by religious enthusiasm or the individual child's interests and natural pace----is best.

3、有关"转"的常用语和句型 (1)意义的转折 but, yet, after all, however, nevertheless, in spite of that, on the contrary, but on the other hand, at the same time, in other words, in fact (2)利弊类文章的开始、转折与评价 Obviously, it has negative effects and positive effects…… As a coin has two sides, it also has its negative aspects. Like anything else, television also has a harmful effect on children. In spite of all the advantages discussed above, the computer also has its disadvantages. To most college students, the advantages of taking up a job immediately after graduation far outweigh those of continuing their studies. 4、有关"合"的常用词语和句型 (1)列举的终结 last, lastly, finally, in the last place, last of all, (2)观点的总结 above all, shortly, briefly, in short, in brief, in a word, in conclusion, in all, to sum up, therefore, For all these reasons,….. As has been said above….. From what has been discussed above, we can ( conclude / make a conclusion / draw a conclusion / reach a conclusion / come to a conclusion ) that….. Taking into account all the relevant factors which affect and contribute to this attitude, we may safely came to the conclusion that we won't make dent in

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the attainment of women's social status and their equal opportunities in every field if men's attitude remains unchallenged. (3)"采取措施"的表达 It is high time that efforts should be made to reduce this senseless waste of human life. Here are a few of examples of some of the things that might be done. There is no doubt that adequate attention must be paid to the improvement of / steps should be taken to improve recreational facilities in the neighborhood of the home, and the urban environment must offer as many recreation activities as possible. besides, in addition, for the more, moreover I don't like this T-shirt, in addition/ besides/ for the more/ moreover/ in addition to this, it is too expensive.

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写作常用句型与过渡词语 ①【常见开篇句】 1) With the rapid improvement in.../growing awareness of..., more and more.../sth.... (e.g. With the considerable improvement in building industry, more and more structures are being erected to set the people's minds at ease.) 2) Recently, sth./the problem of...has been brought to popular attention/ has become the focus of public concern. A (e.g. Recently, the problem of unemployment has been brought to such popular attention that governments at all levels place it on the agenda as the

first matter.) 3) One of the universal issues we are faced with/that cause increasing concern is that... (e.g. One of the universal issues that draw (cause) growing concern is whether it is wise of man to have invented the automobile.) 4) In the past few years, there has been a boom/sharp growth/decline in.. . (e.g. In the past ten years, there has been a sharp decline in the number of

species.) 5) Nowadays, more/most important/dangerous for our society is... (e.g. Nowadays, most dangerous for our society is the tendency to take advantage of each other in political circles.) 6) According to the information given in the table/graph, we can find that... 7) As can be seen from the table/graph/figure, there is a marked increase /decline/favorable (an unfavorable) change in... 8) As we can see from the table/graph/figure above, drastic/considerable/ great changes have taken place in...over the period of time from...(年 份)to...( 年份) 9) The table/graph shows that there is a(n) declining/increasing trend of ...from...(年份) to...(年份) 10) Anyone who takes a closer look at the data in the table/graph can be surprised to find that...
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11) It is a traditional practice to...in our society. (e.g. It is a traditional practice for young people to be financially dependent on their parents for anything like marriage and housing.) 12) It has long been considered only right and proper to...(in China.) (e.g. It has long been considered only right and proper/perfectly justified for the old to assume full responsibility for the growth of the young.) 13) As things usually go against sb.'s will, his original intention was to... (e.g. As things usually go against man's will, his original intention was to change the way people lived by inventing the internal combustion engine. Indeed, its birth has greatly enhanced their enjoyment of life, especially in traveling and transporting. But its dark side is presenting a growing worry to our society.) 14) The current situation of..., if approached from the opposite angle, reveals that... (e.g. The current situation of our reforms is political structure, if approached from the opposite angle, reveals that much of the achievement is far from satisfactory. For example,...But...) 15) Everything about...seems (not) to be getting on smoothly/just as one wishes in... (e.g. Everything about the economic reform seems to be getting on just as our government wishes in China.) 16) To sb.'s mind/In sb.'s eye(s), sth. seems/means... (e.g. In the eyes of the public, official corruption means taking bribes,. ..But such corruption comes in many different forms.) 17) No one would deny that... 或:Everyone would agree that... (e.g. 见例2) 18) When it comes to...(sth.), most people (the public) maintain(s)/contend(s) that... (e.g. When it comes to fake commodities, every consumer has much anger to pour upon them.) 19) Now it is widely believed that...
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(e.g. Now it is widely believed that examinations are the best possible measure for the selection of the qualified.) 20) A public debate has arisen as to/over/concerning... (e.g. A public debate has arisen as to whether one should step forward bravely in the event of crime.) 21) All that sth. has done for our society seems like a big step forward in the right/wrong direction, but it has also brought along with it a great worry /benefit to...(the average people.) (sth.: cloning, the reform in managerial structures, etc.) 22) The birth/invention of...has made an enormous/essential difference to ...But it does not mean that... (e.g. The birth of the computer has made a radical difference to the human progress. But it does not mean that this wonder does no threat to our society.) 23) Sth. has changed the way our society develops....But its bright side should not keep us from following closely its dark side. (sth.: the genetic engineering, etc.) 24) Things about...are going on to our advantage, but a long cool look at ...reveals that... (e.g. Things about the reform in state enterprises are not going on to the most workers' advantage....But a long cool look at this move reveals that it will produce some substantial benefits to our nation in a long run.) 25) No/Little doubt that...But... (e.g. [There is] Little doubt that the traditional schooling has contributed much to our social development....But some grave defects in it begin to stand out against the modern times.)

26) What does sth. mean? 27) How/Why does sth. affect our life? 28) What is it like to do...? (e.g. What is it like to have lost all confidence in oneself?) 29) What would our society be like if there were no...? (e.g. What would our society be like if there were no public morals?)
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30) Should we put sth. above sth. else? 或:Should we attach as much weight to A as to B? (e.g. Should we put intellectual development above moral education?) 31) Sth. is often referred to as/defined as... (e.g. Corrupt officials are often referred to as the most dangerous borers in our government bodies, who are nibbling

away the healthy organism of our party by dishonest means.) 32) (Doing) Sth. is just the same as.../is compared to.../is likened to.. ./is like... (e.g. Life in the middle of marriage is often compared to wire walking, for in the early years spouses attract each other and in late years they need each other.) 33) Sth. is to...what sth. else is to... (e.g. An individual human existence is to the human society what a river is the ocean, small and busy rushing past rocks at first, but gradually growing wider and quieter until it becomes merged in the ocean in the end.) 34) To/For/With most people/sb., sth. is/means... (e.g. To dishonest people, a friend means a target or an object that is of some use to them at present or in the future.) 35) Sth. is the symbol/mark/equivalent of.../is symbolic of.../is equivalent to... (e.g. If selling one's sex is the mark of degeneration, selling one's power is equivalent to committing crime.) 36) Suppose/Imagine that.../Let's suppose/assume/imagine (that)... (e.g. Suppose, by any chance, you heartily disagree with anything that is going on to

about you, you are less likely to stay on the good side of people around you.) 37) We often find ourselves caught/involved in a dilemma whether... (e.g. We often find ourselves caught in a dilemma whether we should reach for the bear's paw or for the shark's fin/whether to reach for...) 38) If/In case/In the event that..., it is better to.../a better course is to.../sb. has no choice/option/alternative but to.../all we want to know is ho w... (e.g. In the event that you fall in a love river, all we want to know is how you will swim in it, as you are no longer a fisherman.) 39) Unfortunately, sth. may affect sb.'s life to the point where...
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(e.g. Unfortunately, the desire to be well thought of affects one's life to the point where he is reluctant to say no to anyone else regarding anything.) 40) In our life, there often appears such an occasion when.../on which... (或it often happens that...) (e.g. In our daily life, there appears such an occasion when we drink success to our work in one field but, at the same time, begin to do great damage to other fields.) 41) “...” That is how one of the great minds/scientists/writers remarked on... (e.g. “Happiness, like an old friend, is inclined to drop in unexpectedly— when you're working hard on something else.” That is how a famous writer once remarked on happiness.) 42) One of the great sociologists/psychologists has said:“...” (e.g. The great classical ballerina Anna Pavlova has said: “No one can arrive from being talented alone. God gives talent; work transforms talent into genius.” In other words ...) 43) “...” Such is the accurate exposition/exposure of...frequently over heard in public. (e.g. “Public morals are declining day by day.” Such is the correct exposure of the dark side of our society.) 44) How often nowadays we hear such remarks/complaints/words as this “...” or “...”! (e.g. How often nowadays we hear such complaints from officials as this “I have too many social engagements to carry out” or “I have too many social engagements to carry out” or “I have to bear too many titles for our society”! Don't be misled by the complaints of this kind!) 45) One of the great men once said that... (e.g. A gifted American psychologist once said that it is an illusion to believe in the Sunday-school truth—more comfort, more happiness.) 46) Once in a newspaper/magazine, I hit upon the report that... (e.g. Once in a newspaper, I hit upon the news that a quick witted policeman spotted a
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suspect's spittle in the street blotted it up and ran a DNA test on

it which led

to the man's arrest for a murder. This case best counts as a practical application of the DNA technique.) 47) One day, I happened to witness the incident as follows:... (e.g. 略) 3) According to the recent survey/poll/questionaire/statistics, there is/a re...percent of... (e.g. According to a recent survey made in a certain university, there are 43.8 percent of male students and 38.3 percent of female students either facing problems with nutrition or having to miss classes because of illness each term.) 48) The scientific studies/statistics show/indicate that... (e.g. The latest scientific studies show that, if one's mind catches hold of something and does not let it go, it is useless to argue with the mind in this condition. This finding further confirms that a modern man is apt to get anxious and depressed.) 49) Every weekend sees sb. go about... (e.g. Every weekend sees Ms Song, my roommate, wolf down her dinner and hurry out with her boy friend.)

②【常见段首句】 1) According to/In the opinion(eye) of/From the viewpoint of some (those) people, the issue in question is... (e.g. In the opinion of some old people, traditional modes of thought are the touchstone by which to tell good from bad.) 2) Hit (Confronted/Faced/Seized/Stuck/Haunted/Cursed/Overcome/Infatuated) with..., some people tend to... (e.g. Haunted with sad memories, some people are apt to take a gloomy view on life.) 3) In (the) event (face/case/course/time/view) of..., some people usually ... (e.g. In the course of human struggle for survival, quite a few people always direct their eyes to its dark side.)
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4) As is stated (shown/suggested/listed/illustrated) in.../According to a recent (the latest) report (survey/quetionaire/study/scientific research), the issue in question really...(there are quite a lot of people who...) (e.g. As is shown in a recent questionaire, there are a large number of people who express greater dissatisfaction than satisfaction at the general mood of society.) 5) In our daily life (activities/social contact)/In reality/Actually, man y people respond/react to the issue in question by... (e.g. In reality, most people respond to evil-doing by avoiding it whenever possible.) 6) A good case in point is (can be best provided by) that of... (e.g. A good case in point is that of a businessman who makes money by fair means or foul. 7) Just consider/think of the matter/case of... (e.g. Just consider the matter of raising flowers that are delicate and sensitive to watering.) 8) In the course of..., for example, there is/are... (e.g. In the course of coping with worries in life, for example, there is an to what way you take.)[HJ*4/7] 9) Take...for example(或Take, for example,...)A (e.g. Take foot racing (for example), it is a sport in which endurance and strong finish is often more important.) 10) As a(n) example (of...)/illustration (of...)/case in point, let's take/see/consider/follow/cite... 11) Awareness of the matter in question is one thing/only the beginning( 或 the first step), but more important to us is the step/the question of how to (cope with/do with it)... (e.g. Awareness of the harmfulness of superstition is only the first step, but more important to our nation is the step of how to clear it out of our society.) 12) There is no easy (perfect/universal/two-bird-one-stone/happiest) method (short-cut/solution/remedy/way) at hand, but...can put us on the right way (in
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art

the correct direction) to our final goal/destination (...are/is worth trying out in our work.) (e.g. There is no easy short-cut to removal of superstition, but the following measures/suggestions can put our determination in the right direction.) 13) There is no better/sounder time to take steps/measures/action than right now, for no chance will be greater than the one we are offered. (e.g. 略) 14) It is obvious (evident/clear/no surprising/high time/hoped/suggested), therefore, that all-out (constant/great/cooperative/further/genuine/substantial/considerable/persiste nt) efforts should be made (exerted/used/bent/put forth) directed to.../focused on...) (e.g. It is evident, therefore, that constant efforts should be directed to the ecological balance.) 15) Therefore/Obviously/No doubt/Clearly, to...is not a(n) goal/aim to achieve in one step/move/go(或is no easy job/task), and to achieve in one stp/move/ go(或is no easy job/task), and it requires/involves/entails special/proper/all possible means/efforts/measures/remedies. (e.g. Therefore, to eradicate this inherent weakness from our society is not goal to reach in one move, and it requires special efforts.) 16) When/If asked to...I would like to.../would rather (not).../will do as follows. (e.g. If asked to find the way out of the danger these depraved practices have created, I would rather live a simple life than go along with any others in their evil deeds.) 17) To...I might as well cite my own experience. (e.g. To draw out of others more valuable opinions upon the problem, I might as well cite my own experience.) 18) If I were thrown/put/involved in (to) the context/background/situation/the state of making my choice, I would... a to ...(或should be

26

(e.g. If I were thrown into the freedom to make my choice among the styles of surviving, I would live like this:...) 19) Faced with/Hit with...I resolve/propose to... (e.g. Faced with the challenge from the future life, I resolve firmly to perfect myself in the aspects as follows.) 20) As far as I am concerned, I will/have/would...(e.g. 略) 21) If sth. is allowed to take its course, it will be sure/bound to bring about/leave/entail desired (unexpected/grave/immediate/reverse/disastrous/far-re aching) effects/consequences/influences.(e.g. 略) 22) There are sure/believed/supposed to be some good/bad/beneficial/harmful effects/consequences/influences.(e.g. 略) 23) Come what may, it has given rise to several adverse/wholesome effects.(e.g. 略) 24) What merits our special/increasing attention/concern, therefore, is a number of effects/influences sth. has produced/exerted. (e.g. What merits our primary concern, therefore, is a variety of effects the bad practices in our Party have produced.) 25) The influence/effect/consequence of...has not been confined/limited to...(It also...)(e.g. The influence of our outlook on life has not been confined to any particular aspect of social life. Instead, it has left its mark on every facet of our society.) 26) From the analyses of causes for...it is not hard for one to arrive at/come to/reach/draw/assert/deduce/confirm the conclusion that...(或...to distinguish/see the direction in which...) (e.g. From the analyses of causes for divorces, it is not hard for us to draw the conclusion that the divorce rates will go up steadily under the current circumstances.) 27) If one continues to cast an indifferent eye on/to turn a deaf ear to/ to be blind to/to overlook the problem, things are sure to go from bad to worse.
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或:If one is in real earnest in giving all his attention/concern to the problem/matter, things are bound to go from good to better/from bad to good. A (e.g. If the governments at all levels are in earnest in giving their special concern to the problem of unemployment, things are more than likely to go from bad to good.) 28) Thus it can be seen from the above that (doing) sth. means much/a great deal/lots more than itself. (e.g. Thus it can be seen that nourishing honesty in government bodies means much more than itself.) 29) The significance of (doing) sth. is embodied/reflected in the following respects. (e.g. 略) 30) Obviously/Evidently/Clearly/No doubt, sth. will contribute much to... (will add life/color/variety/new meanings/vigor to...) (e.g. Clearly, the afforestation drive will contribute much to our living environment.) 31) Of the two things in question, I prefer/favor/give more weight to/endorse the first (second)/the former (latter).(e.g. 略) 32) If it is up to me to make a choice (between both), I would rather choose...over... (e.g. If it were up to me to make a choice between both in the event of betrayal of one's country, I would rather choose death over life.) 33) Since neither of the two things can be perfect in.../work effectively / come up to...(the required standard), the best/only/ideal course open to sb. is to... (e.g. Since neither of the two measures can be perfect in the solution to the problem of cheating in exams, the best course open to us is to combine the two measures with other possible solutions.)

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34) In view of the fact that there are obvious/serious drawbacks/weakness e s in either of the things in question, I advocate/endorse...(或insist/maintain/h old that...) (e.g. In view of the fact that there are serious drawbacks in either of the suggestions, I insist that full play should be given to each other's advantages for our purpose.) 35) As seen from the above comparison, the first (second) thing is prefer able/more favorable (desirable) (或the first/second thing has more to recommend it), but it should suck advantage out of the other for the sake of perfection. (e.g. 略) 36) From the above comparison and contrast, anyone can safely/reasonably conclude that... (e.g. ...that travelling by car can offer him a greater privilege (chance) of getting to know natural conditions and social customs of places on his way.) 37) When the advantages and disadvantages (the pros and cons of both are weighed in terms of...(on the basis of.../in the light of...), don't you think/agree that...(agree to/favor...)? (e.g. When...in terms of actual results, don't you agree that the latter is a better way of learning?) 38) Therefore/In conclusion/To sum up, it is because of the unique/substantial/manifold advantages/superiority offered/held by...that... (e.g. In brief, it is because of the substantial advantages held by the perfection of supervision that the public places high hopes on it.) 39) As things stand, in fact/substance, nothing can be compared with B in ...although... (e.g. it is not without defects.) (e.g. As things stand, in fact, nothing can be compared with the crackdown o f corrupt officials in arousing the enthusiasm of the masses, although it is not without defects.)

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40) True/Admittedly/Indeed, there are still imperfections in B, but its strong/bright side is what one needs badly.(e.g. 略) 41) The most pressing question/task/problem/issue/matter for us to tackle , in my opinion/in fact, is...(e.g. The most pressing task for us to tackle, in my opinion, is to find new available.) 42) Our efforts/concern/attention/interest should be directed to... (e.g. Our efforts should be directed to what should be done to reverse the t rend.) 43) What we really/badly need now is... (e.g. What we really need now is to accept any suggestion conducive to the solution of the problem.) 44) It is high time (that)... (e.g. It is high time that we made our minds open to new, different ideas about it and that we started to take some practical measures so as not to leave it to continue its course until it runs wide.) 45) Then/On the basis of the above refutation, how/what...(next)? (e.g. ...how to lift ourselves out of the passive situation?...how to repair the damage man has done to the environment?...what can be done about the present trend of blind faith in things foreign.) 46) So, I feel strongly that... (e.g. So, I feel strongly that the recent trend of superstition reflects a credibility crisis hanging over the country.) 47) In my opinion/To my mind, nothing is more...than... (e.g. To my mind, nothing is more important than the need to know right from wrong.) 48) If our first reaction to this wrong thinking/practice is just a retort on it, our true/ultimate goal is... (e.g. ...is to make/put right such illusion/practice.) 49) Nowhere in history has the problem/issue/illusion/trend been so...that...
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ways of making best of water resources now

(e.g. ...so critical/hindersome that there is a growing awareness of the urge/necessity to abandon the belief that man can always conquer nature.) 50) Now (that)/Since...the focus of our concern/argument should be switched over to... (e.g. Now that the issue is too obvious to need further refutation, the focus of our argument should be switched over to intensifying the concept of water shortage among the people.) 51) I am of the opinion/point/view that... (e.g. I am of the view that China's future is bright but the road to success is not smooth.) 52) To my mind/From my point of view/In my opinion, whether...or...depend s on how... (e.g. To my mind, whether money may bring us happiness or evils depends on how we get it and how we use it.) 53) Anyway/Anyhow/In any case, whether...or...is a difficult question to answer (remains to be turned over), one thing is certain that... (e.g. In any case, whether cloning is a blessing or a curse remains to be turned over; but one thing is certain that it will make a great difference to our outlook on life.) 54) In my eye(s), the wide divergence of opinions as to...does not mean that...(we are at a loss to know how to conduct ourselves). The truth of the matte r (The basic question) is... (e.g. In my eyes, the wide divergence of opinions as to failure does not mean that...The truth of the matter is what place we leave it to hold (occupy) in our heart.) 55) I can't give my consent to either of the extreme opinions, for/because/as I believe/hold that... (e.g. ...for I hold that a safer way is to make best of each other's rat ional arguments.) 56) I am of the view/opinion/point that we should give first place (priority) to...while making...subsidiary.

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(e.g. I am of the view that we should give first place to the quality-oriented education while making the examination-oriented education subsidiary.) 57) In my opinion, the former (latter) standpoint is more. .to/for... (e.g. In my opinion, the former standpoint is more suitable for our national conditions.) 58) Although the first (second) viewpoint holds water to some degree (extent), I am still favorably inclined towards the second (first) one. (e.g. 略) 59) To be frank/To tell the truth, I should second the former (latter) attitude/position in preference to the latter (former). 60) Despite the extreme to which the former (latter) viewpoint goes, the fact of the matter, in my opinion, is that... (e.g. ...the fact of the matter, in my opinion, is that more and more people are doing their bit in brightening China's future.) 61) For the foregoing reasons, I (have/will) never... (e.g. For the foregoing reasons, I have never wavered in my pursuit of this purpose.) 62) Although...nothing has...can...(或I have/will all along...)A (e.g. Although these years have witnessed drastic changes in the way people think and live, I have all along held firmly to the belief that anything in line with the true interests of the people is worth carrying forward.) 63) Things may change with tidal currents, but what remains the same as before is... (e.g. ...is my attachment to sb./sth.) 64) In my mind, there is not anything/anybody that/who...than... (e.g. In my mind, there is not anything that arouses more excitement than this sport/event/place.) 65) Indeed, time and space has proved (that)... (e.g. Indeed, time and space has proved that, the more effort I make in that direction, the more hungry I feel for it.)
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66) My list could go on, but more important/substantial/pressing to me is (that)... (e.g. ...is what steps I should take towards the realization of my aim.) 67) To..., however, is/requires/demands... (e.g. To be a successful learner, however, demands a great deal of work.) 68) But in reality, the expression of one' reasons in one thing while the accomplishment of his purpose is another thing, which usually needs/is/requires...(So,...) (e.g. ..., which usually needs a greater effort of will.) 69) To me, however, the greatest challenge is not the matter/question of...but (the matter/question) of... (e.g. To me, however, the greatest concern/challenge is not the matter of the grounds for my aspiration, but of capacities to be increased for making it a reality.) 70) Since/Now (that)..., what remains to be done/desired is... (e.g. Since the factors for my choice are in black and white, what remains to be desired is how to strive towards it.) 71) Another (good/ideal) case in point is that of... (e.g. Another ideal case in point is that of rowing against current.) 72) To the already well-known/familiar examples/cases of..., another may/can be added:... (e.g. ...of things turning out contrary to one's wishes, another can be added: A great invention in medicine leads to a sharp increase in the average span of human life. But on the other hand, it turns out to overburden the food supply of the world.) 73) As another illustration/example, let's take/see (the case of)... (e.g. As another illustration, let's see the case of swimming in an ocean.) 74) A very similar case/example/story can be cited/told from... (e.g. ...from the modern military history of China.) 75) Perhaps it will suffice to mention another example/case/story of..., which unfolds as follows:...
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(e.g. ...of an unbridgeable gap between ideal and reality, which unfolds as follows: A woman was speaking to her friend about her two beaus. “If I could combine their qualities, I'd be the happiest person in the world. Ronald is rich, handsome and witty but unwilling to propose marriage to me. Tony, compared with t he first, is outshone but he is eager to marry me.”) 76) It is only by/through...that... (e.g. It is only by adapting oneself to a new environment that he is more likely than others to survive in it.) 77) From the exemplifications above, it turns out that... (e.g. From the exemplifications above, it turns out that the power of determined will enables one to find some way out of any difficulty.) 78) As the foregoing turns out, it matters not...but... (e.g. As the foregoing turns out, it matters not what color your cat is but once it catches mice, it must never be one of the bad.) 79) Indeed, the evidence upon all sides justifies/confirms/supports/points to/is in favor of the truth/view/maxim that... (e.g. ...that failure teaches success.) 80) Judging from all evidence offered/From what has been mentioned above, we may reasonably/safely arrive at/come to/reach/draw/deduce/assert the conclusion that... (e.g. ...that a just cause enjoys abundant support while an unjust cause finds little.) 81) If there is anything more/well worthy of mention/consideration/attention/careful study, nothing comes close to... (e.g. 略) 82) To make the better (clearer/easier) best (clearest/easiest), a further/deeper/wiser step/way/study/method/measure/plan is/should be... (e.g. To make the clearer clearest, a further study should be taken up of how the phenomenon “La Ni a” came into being.)

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83) If you are.../want to..., it is vital/ideal/important/essential that...(e.g. If you are more at home in associating one thing with others, it is full advantage of the divergent thinking.) 84) The most important/essential/substantial/critical thing/matter worth pointing out, however, is... (e.g. ...is what structure of knowledge a would-be achiever has in the future competition.) 85) Following/Abiding by the above instructions/advice/directions/rules can...but you will achieve/gain/do better/more if you... (e.g. Following the above instruction can give you a feeling of achievement, but you will achieve more if you have a good command of its specific property.) 86) The comparison/contrast that calls for deepest thought lies/consists (e.g. ...in social values that convey different senses to the two peoples.) 87) The most striking/sharpest/shocking/instructive contrast between A and B can be found in... (e.g. ...in the way both see the world.) 88) If standing in contrast to..., the thing/matter/person (of one's concern) differs essentially/greatly/radically/profoundly from the reference in... (e.g. ...in the mode of reproduction/living.) 89) The effect of comparison/contrast between both is heightened most by the difference in... (e.g. ...in size/intelligence/principles/values/outlook on life/abilities to adapt to new environments.) 90) Still under/in similar/the same circumstances/conditions/situations, however, the two things can turn out quite/most differently(或A turns out to be radically/utterly/totally different from B).(e.g. 略) 91) But in the other culture/atmosphere/society/scope/field, by contrast, the thing(s)/person(s)/subject(s) grow(s)/develop(s)/turn(s) out/act(s) in the opposite/contrary directions.(或a(n) in... vital that you take

35

completely/entirely/qualitatively/vastly/strikingly different result comes of/from the same thing/action/practice/event.) (e.g. But in the western societies, by contrast, an entirely different result/effect comes of the same thing.) 92) Of all the differences between A and B, the greatest one is... (e.g. Of all the differences between science and pseudoscience, the greatest one is their truthfulness. Science originates in nature or from practice while pseudoscience is created/invented out of nothing or without foundation.) 93) A study of.../A cold look at/into...may be the best/sound way to learn more about the difference/contrast between A and B.A (e.g. A study of attitudes towards money may be the sound way to learn more about the contrast between a noble-minded person and a person with vulgar interests.) 94) Against the same/different background(s), however, what stands out most between the two things/from he same thing is... (e.g. Against the same background, however, what stands out between the two peoples is the angles/perspectives from which they see things.) 95) Between the two things/subjects/people under comparison, nothing can bring out/present as great/sharp/poignant contrast as... (e.g. ...as poignant contrast as the occasion when both run into danger.) 96) As far as...is/are concerned, sth. in question means/signifies/symbolizes... (e.g. As far as a person of bad taste is concerned, life means seeking for physical incentives, of which money is usually counted as No. One.) 97) If adopted/used to define/measure/weigh/judge..., sth. in question is often seen/valued/looked upon/thought of/referred to/cherished as.../is embodied (reflected) in.../lies (consists) in... (e.g. If adopted to weigh the college student, beauty is embodied in his or her comprehensive qualities.) 98) With/For/To..., sth. in question is just the same as.../is as...as... /is like.../is...
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(e.g. With some of the upstarts, luxurious living is just as essential as parading their success.) 99) In the case of..., sth. stands for/refers to/means... (e.g. In the case of the Me-generation, friendship stands for an obedient tool on hand.) 100) What is the meaning/interpretation/connotation of...if it is limited /restricted to the field/scope/circle/group of...? (e.g. What is the meaning of loyalty if it is restricted to the circle of pure scientists?)

③【常见段首句和过渡句】 1) Some (people) argue/claim/believe/hold that... But others set (put) forth a different argument about/oppositive views on the matter in question. (e.g. Some claim that setting off firecrackers is a good practice of celebrating the Spring Festival. ...But others put forth opposite views on the problem. ) 2) Some (people) advocate/endorse/favor/are for (或oppose/object to/are against)... Yet others stick to/hold on to/cling to the opposite views/argument/points. (e.g. Some advocate changes intended to modernize the building code. ...Yet others hold on to the opposite views.) 3) To some people's mind/From some people's point of view/In the eye(s) o f some people, the matter in question is/seems/should be/means...But to others' mind/from others' point of view/in others' eyes, it is just/quite the other way around/contrary/opposite(或the opposite/reverse is the case/true.) (e.g. To some people's mind, reading should be done in a selective way. ...But to others', it is just the other way around.) 4) Some (people) respond/react to...by...But others behave/act in the other direction/in the opposite way. (e.g. Some people respond to failure by remaining inactive or avoiding it...But others behave in the opposite way.)
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5) Some take the view that...And/But on the other hand, others argue for the opposite view that... (e.g. Some are of the view that institutions mould characters. ...And on the other hand, others argue for the opposite view that characters transform institutions.)

④【常见让步法段首句和过渡句】 1) It is true/There is no need to deny that...But it does not mean... (e.g. There is no need to deny that recreational services have added variety to our social life. ...But it does not mean leaving them to take their own courses.) 2) Although it is widely believed that..., it can not stand close/cold scrutiny/analysis/examination. 3) Admittedly/True/Obviously/Indeed, the issue in question. ... But one basic/vital fact is being left out of our analysis/consideration, namely/that is,... (e.g. Admittedly, the official figures and statistics show that much improvement has been made in people's living standards. ... But one vital fact is being left out of our analysis, namely a growing gap between the rich and the poor. ) 4) Those in favor of the issue in question argue/contend/hold/maintain/claim that...But what they fail to consider/analyze/see/find out is that... (e.g. Those in favor of euthanasia contend that its practice can benefit both the patient and his family. ...But what they fail to consider is that euthanasia may be taken advantage of for some evil or hidden purposes.) 5) Superficially/On the surface/At first glance(thought)/In appearance, the issue in question seems...But in fact(on second thoughts/on close examination/in substance),... (e.g. At first glance, the western-type democracy seems superior to any other types. ...But on second thoughts, it does not entitle every citizen of the same nation to the equal freedom to act.)

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⑤【常见过渡句】 1) To prevent this phenomenon/trend from worsening/running wide/To guide the matter/situation to the best advantage, it is necessary/important to...(可用 于分析建议类、原因分析类等议论文) 2) In the face of...some people take the position that.../some people come to believe that..., to which I can't attach/add my consent.(可用于批驳分析类议论 文) 或: the face of...people retain/take/show/assume different attitudes/position In s/standpoints.(可用于各抒己见类议论文) 或:In the face of...many people have come up with...(可用于对比分析类议论 文和知识性说明文等) 3) But many people feel puzzled about/perplexed at/over whelmed with...(the changes/situation), so this essay is intended to...(可用于批驳分析类议论文和 知识性说明文) 4) Although lots of people follow the fashion/trend, I still set my heart on...(可 用于理由陈述类议论文) 5) To get a sense of how...we must turn first to causes for it/to what benefit (harm/problems/difference) it has brought to our society.(可用于分析建议和原 因分析类议论文) 6) This is a (n) favorable/unfavorable/unhealthy/essential/marked/grateful change/tendency/situation, but factors/causes/reasons for it are not hard to find(或but its appearance/existence derives from a variety of factors). (用于原 因分析类议论文) 7) The progress/improvement/change(s) in...is(are) really tremendous/remarkable/prodigious/marvelous, so it is necessary to understand (see) what it (they) illustrate (s)/prove(s)/account(s) for.(用于原因 分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 8) A comparison between these changes may be a good way to learn more about...(可用于对比说明文)

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9) More insight/inspiration/truth/thought can be deduced from these changes.(可用于知识性说明文) 10) This situation/phenomenon/trend/tendency is rather distressing/disturb ing/depressing/heart-rending, for the opposite of it is just in line with our wishes/just what is to be expected.(可用于分析建议、批驳分析和原因分析等议 论文) 12) This is what we are unwilling to see, so some way must be found out to...(可用于分析建议、对比分析、批驳分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 13) Fortunately, however, more and more people come/begin to realize that ...(可用于分析建议、对比分析和各抒己见类议论文) 14) Unfortunately, things have worsened/come/developed to the point where ...(用于分析建议、原因分析、批驳分析、各抒己见类议论文和知识性说 明文) 15) But have you ever stopped to think what/how/why...?(可用于除理由陈述之 外的各种议论文和知识性说明文) 16) If we take a further/colder/closer look at this problem/matter, however, more secrets/grounds/chances/ways will be found out for... (e.g. ...putting it right/taking action against it/improving it) (可用于分析 建议、 对比分析、原因分析等议论文和知识性说明文) 17) But this (dis)agreement ceases to exist as soon as...(用于各抒己见、批驳 分析、对比分析等议论文和对比说明文) 18) A further/deeper analysis/study/exposure of.../A further comparison between...can reveal more about.../can show us more ways to...(how to...)可 用于分析建议、原因分析、对比分析、批驳分析等议论文和对比说明文及知识性 说明文) 19) If you push the analysis/study/argument/comparison/exposure further, you will see that...(用于分析建议、对比分析、批驳分析、各抒己见类议论文和 对比说明文及知识性说明文) 20) The same is true of many cases in life.(用于举例说明文)

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21) Now, let's see what would happen to...in this case/light(或in different conditions/circumstances).(用于分析建议类议论文和对比说明文) 22) Perhaps, it is ideal/high/ripe time for us to tackle/handle/answer/take up the question in no half-hearted manner.(用于分析建议、原因分析类议论文和知 识性说明文) 23) To be frank, I have turned the question over and over in my mind, but found no reason to sidestep it; so here are my ways to.../my reasons for...(用 于理由陈述类议论文和知识性说明文) 24) I was once cursed/perplexed/seized with this question, but I have forged/made my own way out of it.(用于知识性说明文) 25) People from different backgrounds, however, put different interpretations on the same thing.(用于各抒己见类议论文和展开式界说性说明文) 26) But different people hold completely different views as to its nature.(用于 各抒己见类议论文和界说性说明文) 27) If/When adopted to account for/define/expose..., it can come in different meanings.(用于具体定义说明文) 28) If it is intended for..., however, the divergence of outlook on it ceases to continue while a new meaning to it begins to stand out.(用于归纳性定义说明 文) 29) Our life abounds with examples in point.(或The truth in the definition goes for/is applicable to many cases in our life.)(用于举例说明文) 30) In that case, however, I prefer to...rather than...(用于理由陈述、比较分析、 批驳分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 31) (Un)Fortunately, there are still some people who act in the other way around.(用于分析建议和原因分析类议论文) 32) Once/If hit/cursed/overwhelmed with such troubles/straits/matters, you'd better/I would (not) do something about them to find your/my way out.(用于 知识性说明文)

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33) I was once caught/stuck in the same situation/context, but I managed to lift myself out of it.(用于知识性说明文) 34) When exposed to/subject to the same conditions/challenge/choice, however, different people tend to behave in different ways.(用于各抒己见类议 论文) 35) If this is true/the case, what accounts for such an issue:...(如: perversion of justice for bribes 贪赃枉法)?(用于分析建议和原因分析等议论文) 36) If that remark still holds water now, the situation (trend/phenomenon) in question should make us ponder about what harm/benefit/influence it will bring to us/about how it will affect our society.(用于分析建议篇) 37) (In other words,...) But echoes of his view/voice(对他观点的附和声) die away as to w-questions.(用于各抒己见类议论文) 38) His view is voiced by more and more people, but finds no echo in my heart.(用于批驳分析类议论文) 39) His voice arouses echoes among people of insight, who have come up with some practical measures.(用于对比分析类议论文和知识性说明文) 40) His/Her case is not unique, and now more and more...(But...)(用于各种议 论文和知识性、对比性说明文) 41) His/Her story is not unusual/rare, it is typical of thousands of people who are following his/her lead, so some people have abundant reason to ask how this came into being/how this will affect our future life/what measures should be taken to cope with it.(用于分析建议、原 因分析、对比分析、批驳分析类议论文和知 识性说明文) 42) The results of this survey/questionaire have aroused/drawn nationwide / public attention/concern, which is why some great efforts are being made by our government/society.(用于分析各抒己见类议论文和举例、知识性说明文) 43) Such a dilemma/problem/condition we often run into in our life, but the basic question is how to cope with it/but all we need to do is how to approach it.(用于分析建议、原因分析、对比分析等类议论文和知识性说明文)

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44) What this survey reveals is cold and hard, so the top priority task f or us to set about is to...(用于分析建议、 原因分析、 对比分析等议论文和知识性说明 文) 45) This case has aroused echoes throughout the country, with more and mo r e people following its lead, but ideas about it vary widely/is there anything serious it has reflected?(用于分析类议论文和各抒己见类议论文) 46) Most people have realized the seriousness/potential of what this survey exposes, but...(用于分析类议论文) 47) With/For different people/things, however, sth. is open to different interpretations/tastes/connotations. A (e.g. With the people from different family backgrounds, however, devotion is open to many interpretations.) 48) When adopted to define different things/people, sth. comes in a variety of flavors/tastes/meanings/values/senses. A (e.g. When/If adopted to describe the people with different intentions, life often comes in various senses.) 49) Sth. may be/bear/convey many meanings/values/hints to many/different people/things, but, in all senses/the broadest sense/a real sense, it is/means...A (e.g. Happiness may convey many hints to many families, but, in every sense, it means making more contribution than demand in a family.) 50) On the whole/As a whole/All in all/In substance (essence), however, the diverse/different/various meanings/interpretations/concepts/definitions of sth. originate (stem/come) from/can be boiled (narrowed/condensed) down to/can be traced back to one core (the same core)/one source (the same source) one connotation (the same connotation):... (e.g. On the whole, however, the diverse meanings of success to the people above can be boiled down to one connotation: Success is a realization of one's ideal.) 51) Whether the definition/interpretation of sth. is constant or mutable, however, depends on what backgrounds it is in. A
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(e.g. Whether the definition of beauty is constant or mutable, however, depends much on what backgrounds it is put against.)

⑥【常见中心意思句】 1) From sth./what one has done, he can derive profits (will well deserve punishments) as follows. (e.g. From his great inventions in many fields, man has well deserved punishments as follows.) 2) Sth., if made the best/the worst of, will bring some distinct advantages/disadvantages to our social development/one's growth. (e.g. Stock markets, if made the best of, will bring some advantages to our social construction.) 3) Sth. is expected to do a lot of benefit/threat/harm to sb./sth. else. (e.g. Cloning, as a new-born thing, is expected to do a lot of benefit to the human progress.) 4) (Doing) sth. will enrich/endanger/influence one's life in more than one aspect. (e.g. Having one's head in the clouds sometimes can enrich a good teacher's teaching in more than one aspect.) 5) Some good/bad/unexpected effects come of what we have done/sth. done in...(e.g. Some good effects will certainly come of the efforts we have mad e in birth control.) 6) There are several reasons/causes/factors for the changes/increase/decline/growth in...(First,...Second...) (e.g. There are probably a variety of reasons for the drastic changes in people's moral concepts.) 7) The reasons/causes/factors for sth. are complex/varied/profound. (Some attribute it...Others put it down to...Still others owe it to...) (e.g. The causes for the prevalence of living together are varied and complex.)

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8) The success/failure/change/increase/decline(in sth.) mainly/largely stems/derives/results from the factors as follows.(One lies in...Another is found in...Still another consists in...) (e.g. The rise in China's economy mainly derives from a number of factors/the factors as follows.) 9) Why has/did/is...? (For one thing/...For another...Perhaps the most fundamental/adequate/competent reason is...) (e.g. Why is there a growing drift toward power-seeking in society?) 10) It is no easy/simple task/job to furnish/identify/find every reason / cause for sth., but/while, on the whole, three/some factors shout louder/weigh heavier than others/stand out from others. (e.g. It is no easy job to find every reason for the increase in the number of teenagers who run away from their homes, but, on the whole, two factors shout louder than others.) 11) In view of this situation/drift/boom/social disorder/drastic change, people put forward/advance/suggest/propose two countermoves/countermeasures:... (e.g. In view of this population boom in large cities, people have come up with two countermeasures: dispersal of city population and development of an underground city.) 12) From the suggested solutions (to...)/measures (against...)/plans (for . ..)/moves (toward...)/ideas (on...), two have begun to stand/stick out, namely.. .(e.g. 略) 13) There are believed/expected/supposed to be two effective measures/practical schemes/workable ideas/sound solutions, one of which is... (e.g. There are believed to two workable ideas on prevention of teenage pregnancy, one of which is the sex education of teenagers.) 14) To promote/suppress/cultivate/popularize/curb/enhance/root up the thing in question, the public attention/more stress/emphasis is placed/put/focused upon two proposals/moves/measures/solutions:...

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(e.g. To root up the prostitution in our society, the public attention is focused on two solutions: a permanent ban against unhealthy recreations and a long -term moral education.) 15) When it comes to the comparison between A and B, each has its own advantages and disadvantages. (e.g. When it comes to the comparison between travelling by car and travelling by train, each has advantages and disadvantages of its own.) 16) Ideas/Views on the issue in question vary from person to person/vary widely. A (e.g. Ideas on the way of reading vary from person to person. 17) As to whether it is a blessing or a curse, however, people take different views/positions/attitudes/stands(或people's attitudes are quite opposite to each other.).A (e.g. As to whether birth of various associations on campus is a blessing or a curse, however, people take different stands.) 18) People's views, however, are divergent on the matter in question. A 或:People are divided in opinion/outlook/view on the matter in question. A (e.g. People's views, however, are divergent on the newborn thing.) 19) People respond/react to...in the manners/ways opposite to each other. A(e.g. People respond to the stress in the manners opposite to each other.) 20) Although people arrive at/reach/achieve the common understanding of sth., their views/ideas about its influence/future/impact (on our life) are at opposite poles. A (e.g. Although people have arrived at the common understanding of China's achievement, their views about her future are at opposite poles.) 21) There are several/a number of reasons/factors for my choice/pursuit ( o f...)/fondness (for...)/adaptability (to...)/concentration (on...)/advocacy (of. ..)/belief (in...) (或my seeking/choosing to do sth.) (e.g. There are several reasons for my fondness for the sports.)

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22) Among the factors that contribute to my achievement/choice/struggle/. .., three/a few shout louder/weigh more heavily/stand out. (e.g. Among the factors that contribute to my success in studies, three shout louder.) 23) The reasons/factors/causes for my love (of...)/interest (in...)/determination (to do sth.)/objection (to sth.)/...are varied and individual. (e.g. The reasons for my pursuit of the career are varied but individual.)

24) A variety of/Quite a few factors have led me to do sth. (e.g. Quite a few factors have led me to form the habit of collecting stamps .) 25) My outlook (on...)/choice (of...)/participation (in...)/devotion (to...) stems from/derives from/results from some/several chief factors. (e.g. My pleasant memory of my Chinese teacher stems from several chief fact ors.) 26) Our life/history/society abounds with/is rich in/is full of typical examples/illustrations.(e.g. 略) 27) Cases illustrative of this definition/truth/theory/principle/mechanism /saying/proverb are not rare/are too numerous to mention one by one/can be found everywhere in our life/society. (e.g. Cases illustrative of the saying—facts speak louder than words—are too numerous to mention one by one.) 28) To illstrate the theory in question, we can cite many examples.( e.g. 略) 29) According to my observation/knowledge, many examples from our real life can serve/be used (employed/cited) as good evidence for the definition in question.(e.g. 略) 30) This truth/principle/motto/popular saying/way of coping with sth. is/ h olds true for/goes for/can be applied to many/various matters/cases in our actual life. (e.g. The above theory can be applied to a variety of cases in our daily life.)

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31) There are some/several/a few steps (measures/ways/methods/tricks/less o ns) you/a would-be beginner can follow (take/try/use/learn) to achieve your (his /her) goal/to realize your/his dreams/to the best advantage. (e.g. There are some clever tricks a would-be relaxer can learn to keep himself free of worry or stress.) 32) When/If sth. in question/you...it is better/advisable/necessary/essential (for you) to follow the instructions/courses/steps/schemes/ways as given/described below. (e.g. If your trouble builds up to the point where you can not put up with it, it is advisable for you to follow the instructions as given below.) 33) To do sth., one/you'd better (not) go by/act upon/comply with some concrete/practical/sound/effective rules/regulations/orders/procedures/courses. (e.g. To break with the bad habits like smoking, you'd better go by some effective instructions.) 34) For anyone/those who..., here are the best ways to... (e.g. For those who are anxious to make friends with the opposite sex, here are the best ways to remove all their anxiety.) 35) What/How/Why...then? (e.g. How does this small association develop into a nationwide organization ?) 36) If/When placed together to undergo a close/careful/sound/rational/all -sided comparison, they/the two subjects (parties) can reveal/show/manifest/display their resemblance/difference in...(some aspects)(e.g. 略) 37) Just as one can distinguish only by comparing(或Just as there can be n o differentiation without contrast), it is

necessary/better/worthwhile to see/find out what will come of the contrast/comparison between A and B. (e.g. ...it is worthwhile to find out what comes of the contrast between the Western culture and the Eastern culture.)

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38) In/Under/On different/similar situations/conditions/circumstances, how ever, the meanings/connotations/inspirations/lessons/doctrines/experiences/value s/implications/hints derived from (gained in) the same (different) thing(s) are similar/contrary/opposite to one another(或different from one other). (e.g. In different situations/Against different backgrounds, however, the values derived from the same incident are found contrary to one another.) 39) The best/only/nearest/sound way for us to understand/seize the essence /substance of..., however, is to put both/it against each other/different backgrounds/another thing (或...is to make a comparison/contrast between A and B). (e.g. The only way for us to get the sense/core of dishonesty, however, is t o put it against honesty.) 40) To..., however, no way works better than by comparing/contrasting A with B. (e.g. To see through this superstition, however, no way works better than by contrasting it with science.)

⑦【常见转折句】 1) In view of the above-mentioned negative factors/disadvantage(s)/defects in A, people's second thought is to... (e.g. In view of the above-mentioned negative factors in raising the output, our second thought is to improve the quality of products.) 2) To counter/offset/counteract/cancel undesirable/side/ill effects/influence/results of A, B is put forward/proposed/advanced as another better course/ solution to... (e.g. To counter the undesirable effects of rigid administration, emotional investment is advanced as another better course to success in business.) 3) In their efforts to battle against dark side/incongruous elements A h as brought

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along with it, however, people come up with another approach/solution /course to...namely... (e.g. In their efforts to battle against the dark side the examination-oriented education has brought along with it, educators come up with another approach to the problem, namely the quality-oriented education.) 4) In contrast with the drawbacks/demerits/flaws of A, B can serve as a better step/move/advance in the right direction/to ward the solution for the problem of... (e.g. In contrast with the drawbacks caused by nuclear power, the solar power can serve as a better move toward the solution for the problem of energy crisis.) 5) So when it comes to an effective remedy for/a good counter-balance to the problems/limits/faults/weaknesses in A, people naturally think of B. (e.g. So when it comes to an effective remedy for the weaknesses in competition, people naturally think of cooperation.) 6) But it has also brought along with it the negative effect/disadvantage /weakness that... 7) However, it is not without limits/problems/faults/defects, for example, ... 8) Like anything else, it also has its own dark side, as evidenced in... 9) For/Despite/In spite of the advantages/benefits/positive effects A has, it has suffered from/posed some disadvantages/harm/negative effects. 10) To attain this goal, however, we still have much work to do/many obstacles to remove.

⑧【常见让步句】 1) Indeed, A is superior to/enjoys a distinct advantage over B in...,but it pales/proves inferior beside B/as compared with B in many aspects. (In the first place...In the second...In the third...) A (e.g. Indeed, television is superior to newspapers in vividness and quickness, but it pales beside B in many other aspects.)
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2) In spite of the fact that A has made a great difference/contribution t o.../has given life/color/variety/rein/birth/rise/a push to..., it means/proves/ sounds nothing/trivial when compared with B in some respects. (For one thing,... For another,...For still another,...)A (e.g. In spite of the fact that the revolution in industry has given variety to the way people live, it proves trivial when compared with the revolution in information.) 3) Although nothing/few things can come close to A/can outweigh A in..., its demerits/disadvantages/drawbacks/defects stand out against B.(First...Second ...Third...And above all...)A (e.g. Although few things can outweigh the intellectual education in tapping mental resources, its disadvantages stand out against the moral education.) 4) Popular/Highly-praised/Welcome/Fashionable/Prevalent as A is in+地点名词 /among some people(或Helpful/Useful/Beneficial/Advantageous as A is to sb.), it suffers from/reveals/displays practical problems/faults/limits/weaknesses before/by comparison to/compared with B.(To begin with...Next...Last...)A (e.g. Beneficial as the CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) is to students, it suffers from some undoubted faults by comparison to the face-to-face language learning.) 5) It is obvious/true that B can't compete/be compared with A in..., but B still enjoys/secures/has/possesses distinct/considerable/decided/substantial advantages over A.(One of these is...Another...Still another...)A (e.g. It is obvious that radio can't compete with television in visuality, but it still possesses substantial advantages over television.)

⑨【常见界说性句式】 1) Sth. is like/as...as/similar to/the same as/compared to/as if (though) ...(明 喻) (e.g. In the eyes of book worms, books are compared to/like a magic blanket that carries them anywhere as they like.)
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2) Sth. is/refers to/is nothing but...(暗喻) (e.g. For/To a seeker after the treasure of knowledge, learning is rowing across an unbounded ocean, in which hardship is seen as his boat.) 3) Sth. is thought of/defined/valued/cherished/seen/esteemed as... (e.g. A true friend is valued not only as your shadow that comforts your body but also as your mirror that helps you find any dirt on your face.) 4) A does sth. just as B does sth. else. (e.g. Educative experiences of life can tell us how to get rid of failure, just as weather beaten sailors know how to steer clear of rocks.) 5) Sth. means/signifies/stands for/is a symbol(matter/sign/token)of... (e.g. Love is not a matter of seeking self-satisfaction; it is first a matter of giving and then discovering, as an unexpected gift, the deepest satisfaction one can know.)

⑩【常见结尾句式】 1) Only in this way/Only when.../Only through...will/can we... 或:It is only if/when...that we will... (e.g. It is only if all sides of society take their roles fully that we will achieve the society we want.) 2) As/So long as...we will be able to.../the problem is bound to... (e.g. As long as we persist in spreading scientific knowledge among the masses, all the superstitions are bound to go out of our life.) 3) For any place that.../For anyone who...there is every/no reason/chance to... (e.g. For any government that devotes itself to nourishing honesty among its officials, there is every reason to bid an eternal farewell to corruption.) 4) In short/brief/one word/sum, once we are on the way to..., the chance of achieving/making it will increase/grow greater/come to our advantage. A (e.g. In short, once our country is on the way to clearing corrupt dealings out of the Party, the chance of making it will come to the people's advantage.)

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5) The quotations/remarks from sb.(或The popular saying/maxim/proverb) “...” may be a better/sure cure/remedy for ...(或...sound/practical/sensible/well-weighted advice on how to...) (e.g. The old saying “Laziness in youth spells regret in old age” may be sensible advice on how to cherish the years of youth.) 6) And worst of all/best of all, it has/will/would effect(ed) the most unfavorable/favorable change in... (e.g. And worst of all, the official corruption has effected the most unfavorable change in the people's attitude towards the government. 7) As another severe shock (genuine comfort) to the people/society/As the most destructive/pushing effect on...(our life), it has permeated among the people/through our social soil/throughout the whole country(或has melted/penetrated into/been rooted in (the) Chinese soil (in the people's minds).A (e.g. As the destructive effect on our nation, his heretical ideas have been rooted in many people's minds.) 8) As a(n) sensational/unexpected result of..., more and more people have come/got/begun to..A (e.g. As an unexpected result/consequence of the patriotic education, more and more people have come to regain/restore their sense of justice.) 9) To one's greatest astonishment/delight, sth. has affected...to the point of... (e.g. To our greatest astonishment, the corruption has affected the society to the point of threatening its political stability.) 10) The most obvious/direct result/consequence it produces/brings about is... (e.g. The most obvious result the economic reforms have produced is the way the people live and think.) 11) With a constant/steady improvement in ...(或With the gradual worsening of...) sth. will... (e.g. develop to one's advantage)A

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(e.g. With a steady improvement in its administration, the new-born thing will flourish on Chinese soil.) 12) In (the) course of time/In a long run (the long term), sth. is more likely/believed/bound/sure to... (e.g. In a long run, the practice of birth control is believed to do a great benefit to the future of China.) 13) In spite of the fact that...(或Although...), sth. will (not)...in our /one's assiduous/conscious/consistent efforts. A (e.g. In spite of the fact that their is no hope of attaining the final goal at one go, this reform will be spreading far and wide in our consistent efforts .) 14) In a word, there is every/little chance/probability/possibility that. ..in time to come. A (e.g. In one word, there is every chance that this wise move in economic construction will acquire a broader significance in time to come.) 15) Anything (anyone) that (who)...will have to... (e.g. Those who have a strong bias against the Chinese nation (will) have to treat her with increased respect.)

?B11?【常见列举用转折词语】 1) for one thing, for another, above all things; 2) to begin/start with, next/besides/moreover, last/finally; 3) in the first place, in the second, in the third, (and) best of/worst of all; 4) one of these, another,(there is) still another(reason/factor); 5) first of all, second, third, in short/in sum.

?B12?【常见对比转折词语】 1) but, but on the contrary, but on the other hand, but then; 2) by contrast, in contrast, in contrast with/to, as a contrast to, as opposed to; 3)by contraries, on the contrary, to the contrary, contrary to (A), opposite to, in opposition to;
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4) whereas, while, while on the other hand, while on the whole, yet, however; 5) (as) compared with/to, by comparison, in comparison with, by comparison to. 6) First..., Next..., Last...; 7) In the first/early/initial/infant period/stage/phase(或In its infancy) ..., In the second/middle/adult/ripe period/stage/phase..., In the third/last/closing/later/concluding period...; 8) One step (way/course/approach/secret/trick)..., Another step..., Still another step...; 9) The first measure/step/move..., Next to it comes..., And the last/final/the most important measure...; 10) The direct experience/lesson/factor/way(或One lesson)...The indirect experience/lesson/factor/way(或The other lesson)...

?B13?【常见对比转折词语】 1) But the obvious(fatal/serious) flaw (defect/drawback) in their argument (attitude/idea/view/action/behavior) is that.../But the basic (main/great/key/ big) problem with their argument (...) is that... (e.g. ...that they are ignorant of (blind to) a bare fact: Social changes have attached new meanings and values to the division between good and bad.) 2) But if...it is (not) easy (difficult/hard) to see (find/discover) that ... (e.g. But if they adjust their frame of mind a little in the other direction , it is not hard for them to find that life is just as promising as before.) 3) Too much emphasis (attention/stress/concern/significance) placed on (given to/focused on/attached to/paid to) the negative (sunny/gloomy/bright) side of the issue, however, may...(如mislead/confuse/cloud/bias/disturb our judgment of it.)A (e.g. ..., however, may mislead us to form a pessimistic estimate of current situations.或..., however, may stop us from rendering (passing/forming/having) a fair(correct/clear/infallible/wise)judgment on it.)
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4) But in most cases/from the point of view of justice (objectivity)/as a matter of fact/in a very true sense, their (public/general) satisfaction (dissatisfaction/disillusionment/concern) with...(或their criticism of.../their argument for/against.../their objection to.../their approval for...) can not.../is..., for... (e.g. But in an impartial sense, the public dissatisfaction can not hold every water, for our society is still abundant in goodness and beauty.) 5) As a result of..., however, things would/are bound to... (e.g. As a result of such an utter indifference to vicious behavior, however , things would be past saving/mending/all the hope.)

?B14?【常见情景/参照物设定的词语或结构】 1) when, if, the other day in a certain place, suppose/imagine/assume (that...), in (the) course/time of...for instance, in the event of 等; 2) in the case of, as for/to, as far as...is/are concerned, The same is t rue of..., when compared with, in comparison with, by comparison 等; 3) If there is anything that comes close to/is comparable to/with...,...t here is hardly, a thing that compares favorable with/can rival...

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图表写作常用词 一.主章开头 图表类型:table; chart; diagram; graph; column chart; pie graph 描述: show; describe; illustrate; can be seen from; clear; apparent; reveal; represent 内容:figure; statistic; number; percentage; proportion 二. 表示数据 一般:have 10%; at 10%;over 10% 最高(低)点:peaked; reached a peak/high(point) bottomed out; reached the bottom 变化:recover 略有回升; increase; jump; rise/rose; climb decrease; fall/fell; drop; decline; reduce fluctuate 浮动,摇摆不定 remained steady/stable; stay the same; little/hardly any /no change 变化程度:sudden/suddenly 突然的,意外的 rapid/rapidly 迅速的,飞快的,险峻的 dramatic/dramatically 戏剧性的,生动的 significant/significantly 有意义的,重大的,重要的 sharp/sharply 锐利的,明显的,急剧的 steep/steeply 急剧升降的 steady/steadily 稳固的,坚定不移的 gradual/gradually 渐进的,逐渐的 slow/slowly 缓慢的,不活跃的 slight/slightly 轻微的、略微地 stable/stably 稳定的 表示范围:from…to… between…and… for …to …多长时间直到 表示程度:almost adv. 几乎,差不多 nearly adv. 几乎,密切地 approximately adv. 近似的,大约

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about adv. 附近, 大约,转向,左右,周围 just over 刚超过 over adv. 结束,越过,从头到尾 exactly adv. 正确地,严密地 precisely adv. 正好 精确地;清晰地 比例:20 per cent 20% one in three 1/3 one out of every four 1/4 三。常用词 significant changes 图中一些较大变化 noticeable trend 明显趋势 during the same period 在同一时期 grow/grew 增长 distribute 分布,区别 unequally 不相等地 pronounced 明显的 average 平均 no doubt 无疑地 corresponding adj. 相应的,通讯的 represent vt. 阐述,表现 overall 总体上讲 except 除外 in the case of adv. 在…的情况下 in contrast 相反,大不相同 in conclusion adv. 最后,总之 in comparison 相比之下 inversely adv. 相反地,倒转地 in general 通常,大体上,一般而言 rang from
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excessive adj. 过多的,过分的,额外 lower v.降低,跌落 elapse vi.(时间)过去,消逝 category n.种类 government policy 政府政策 market forces 市场规率 measure n. 尺寸,方法,措施 v.估量,调节 forecast n. 先见,预见 v. 预测 作文模板大全 I. 一论文写作模板

1. 对立观点式模板 A. 有人认为 X 是好事,赞成 X, 为什么? B. 有人认为 X 是坏事, 反对 X,为什么? C. 我看法。 模板 1 Some people are in favor of the idea of doing X. They point out the fact that 支持 X 第一个原因。They also argue that 支持 X 另一个原因。However, other people stand on a different ground. They consider it harmful to do X. They firmly point out that 反对 X 第一个理由。An example can give the details of this argument: There is some truth in both arguments. But I think the advantages of X overweigh the disadvantages. In addition to the above-mentioned negative effects it might bring about, X also may X 有一个坏 处。

模板 2 Some people tend to think that 观点一。They point out that 理由一。 Additionally,理由二。(A case in point is 举例。)Therefore,小结。

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On the contrary,other people hold the view that 观点二。They argue that 理由一。What’s more,理由二。(as an illustration,举例。)Accordingly,小结。 As far as I am concerned,I think 我的观点。The reason is that 理由一。 And also,理由二。So,总结自己的观点。

模板 3 Some people believe (argue, recognize, think) that 观点 1. But other people take an opposite side. They firmly believe that 观点 2. As for me, I agree to the former/latter idea. There are a dozen of reasons behind my belief. First of all, 论据 1. More importantly, 论据 2. Most important of all, 论据 3. In summary, 总结观点. As a college student, I am supposed to 表决心. 或 From above, we can predict that 预测.

模板 4 People hold different views about X. Some people are of the opinion that 观点 1, while others point out that 观点 2. As far as I am concerned, the former/latter opinion holds more weight. For one thing, 论据 1. For another, 论据 2. Last but not the least, 论据 3. To conclude, 总结观点. As a college student, I am supposed to 表决心. 或 From above, we can predict that 预测.

模版 5 There is no consensus of opinions among people about X(争论的焦点) 。Some people are of the view that 观点 1,while others take an opposite side, firmly believing that 观点 2。As far as I am concerned, the former/latter notion is preferable in many senses. The reasons are obvious.
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First of all, 论据 1。 Furthermore, 论据 2。 Among all of the supporting evidences, one is the strongest. That is, 论据 3。 A natural conclusion from the above discussion is that 总结观点。 As a college student, I am supposed to 表决心. 或 From above, we can predict that 预测.

2. 批驳观点式 模板 A.一个错误观点。 B. 我不同意。 Many people argue that 错误观点。By saying that, they mean 对这个观点进 一步解释。An example they have presented is that 一个例子。(According to a survey performed by X on a group of Y, almost 80% of them 赞成这个错误观 点或者受到这个错误观点影响)。There might be some element of truth in these people’s belief. But if we consider it in depth, we will feel no reservation to conclude that 与错误观点相反观点。There are a number of reasons behind my belief. (以下参照辩论文议论文写法)。

3. 社会问题(现象)式模板 A.一个社会问题或者现象 B. 产生原因 C.对社会和我们生活影响 D. 如何杜绝。(如果是问题话) E. 前景预测。 模板 1 Nowadays, there exists an increasingly serious

social/economic/environmental problem. (X has increasingly become a

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common concern of the public). According to a survey, 调查内容说明这种现象 情况。(或者是一个例子)。 There are a couple of reasons booming this problem/phenomenon.下面参照辩论式议论文写法。 X has caused substantial impact on the society and our daily life, which has been articulated in the following aspects. 参照辩论式议论文写法。 A dozen of measures are supposed to take to prevent X from bringing us more harm. 同上 Based on the above discussions, I can easily forecast that more and more people will ……..

模板 2 Whenever we hear people say that 主题,we’ll instantly have the idea that it is a good/bad thing/or 某人。Indeed,主题 have advantages to 某人。We can take 举例 as an example.It will benefit 好处一。In addition,好处二。 In the meantime, must realize those disadvantages of 主题。 we First of all, 坏处一。Second,坏处二。 To sum up the above arguments,I think a proper attitude towards 主题, is that 我的观点。

4.解决方法型模版 Nowadays,we have to face a problem that 问题。 (Nowadays, more and more people are concerned about the problem 问题。/It is important for us to 问题。)For instance 例一。(First,原因一)Moreover,例二。(Second,原因 二。 )People have figured out many ways to solve the problem. (Confronted with 问 题 , we should take a series effective measures to cope with the situation.)Firstly,解决方法一。Secondly,解决方法二。 Personally, believe that 我的方法。 me, am taking two ways to solve I (To I the problem of 问题。 )One of them is 我的方法。 other way is 方法二。 now The By ways have been working perfectly and efficiently 结果。

问题解决型实例:2001 年 1 月(How to Succeed in a Job Interview?

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面试在求职过程中的作用、面试成功的因素:仪表、举止谈吐、能力、专业知识、 自信、实事求是……) ,2000 年 1 月(How I Finance My College Education?) 1998 年 1 月 ( My View on Fake Commodities ) 模 板 : With the development/improvement of (铺垫), (某一问题). It is necessary that (关注解 决现象引出的问题很必要). On the one hand, (理由一). On the other hand, (理 由二).

Therefore, how to (承上启下句, 要解决的问题) is worth paying attention. Firstly, (办法一). Secondly, (办法二). For example, (举例解释解决办法二). Thirdly, (办 法三). In other words, (阐明解决办法三).

In fact, the ways to (解决问题的办法多种多样) are countless. It’s time that (强 调解决问题时不可待).

5.阐述主题型 A famous saying goes that 名言或谚语。It means that 释义。 An example of this case is 举例。解释。 Another case is point is 例二。 I like the saying——名言,which encourages me 理由。 6.说明原因型作文 模板 1 Currently, XX has been the order of the day. This does demonstrate the theory --- nothing is more valuable than XX It is clear that (1). If you (2), as a result, your dreams will come true. On the contrary, if you (3).Failure will be following with you. It turns out that all your plan falls through. No one can deny another fact that (4).You don't have to look very far to find out the truth, in respect that we all know (5).It will exert a profound influence upon (6).With reference to my standpoint, I think (7). 注释:1:XX 第一个优点

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2:支持 XX 做法 3:不支持 XX 做法 4:XX 第二个优点 5:举例证明优点二 6:说明 XX 优点三影响 7:我的观点

模板 2 In recent years, XX has caused a heated debate on (1). The factors for (2).First of all, (3).Then, there comes a case that (4). Moreover, (5). Especially when (6).Indeed, these unique points can be collected to remind people that (7).In this way, we should behave just like (8).

模板 3 For most of us today, (1). From above, we can find that the reasons why (2)are as follows. The primary reason, I think, is (3).Second,(4). The third reason, actually, is (5).The significance for (6)。Therefore, (7). 注释:(1)人们针对 XX 态度和举措 (2)归纳现状 (3)第一个原因 (4)第二个原因 (5)第三个原因 (6)重申造成现状最重要原因

模板 4 These days we often hear that (1).It is common that (2). Why does such circumstance occur in spite of social protects? For one thing, (3).For another, (4). What is more, since (5),it is natural that (6 ).To solve the problem is not

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easy at all, but is worth trying. We should do something such as (7) to improve he present situation, and I do believe everything will be better in the future. (1)提出论题(2)说明现状(3)理由一(4)理由二(5)理由三(6)理由三引起后果(7) 解决方法

观点论证型实例: 2003 年 1 月 pays to be honest)1999 年 1 月 (It 、 (Don’t hesitate to say “No”) 、1997 年 1 月(Practice Makes Perfect)模板:It is true that (指 出普遍存在的观点). However, (谈不同的观点). I think (提出自己的观点,即文 章的论点). (过渡句,转向观点的论证,根据情况选择具体的词) can be listed as follows.

Firstly, (论证理由一). Secondly, (论证理由二). For example, (举例具体说明理由 二). Thirdly, (论证理由三). A case in point is that (举例具体说明理由三).

It goes without saying that (转折句,提出执行该观点时应注意的事项). There is no doubt that (得出结论). In conclusion (总结全文)

II. 图表作文模板 模板 1 It is obvious in the graphic/table that the rate/number/amount of Y has undergone dramatic changes. It has gone up/grown/fallen/dropped

considerably in recent years (as X varies). At the point of X1, Y reaches its peak value of …(多少). What is the reason for this change? Mainly there are … (多少)reasons behind the situation reflected in the graphic/table. First of all, …(第一个原因). More importantly, …(第二个原因). Most important of all, …(第三个原因). From the above discussions, we have enough reason to predict what will happen in the near future. The trend described in the graphic/table will

65

continue for quite a long time (if necessary measures are not taken 括号里使用 于那些不太好变化趋势).

模板 2 From the graph,we know the statistics of 图表概况。It can easily be seen that 揭示含义。 There are many reasons responsible for this instance, the following are and the typical ones.For one thing,理由一。In addition,理由二。The main reason is that 理由三。 However,this graph may not predict the entire situation in the future.I believe 前景预测。(Above all,we now know about the problem and we should try to find some ways to solve it。For one thing,方法一。For another thing, 方法二。Still another,方法三。)

实例:2002 年 6 月,1991 年 6 月模板:(概括性词语最近出现的总体现象) has become a common part of people’s life. And (题目要求讨论的具体现象) has always aroused the greatest concern. What impresses us most is (现象的具体 表现). The reasons (现象或现象带来的结果,为下文分析产生的原因做铺垫) are varied. Among the various reasons, (原因一) plays an important part. That is to say, (具体说明原因一). What is more, (原因二). For example, (举例说明原 因二).

When talking about (作者要讨论的现象), (作者的看法). On the one hand, (支 持看法的理由一或说明看法的第一个方面). On the other hand, (支持看法的理 由二或说明看法的第二个方面). In brief, (总结).

五. 应用文 A:批评、抱怨、投诉信: Dear ,

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My name is (姓名). I am (身份). I venture to write you a letter about (表述抱怨 内容).

The focus of the complaint is (抱怨内容的核心点). For one thing, (抱怨内容的 一个方面). For another, (另一方面). Honestly speaking, (客观评论). But (抱怨 产生的原因之一). Besides, (抱怨产生的原因之二).

All in all, there is still much room for improvement (总结说明所抱怨现象或事物 还有很大改进空间). I do hope (表达本人的愿望). Thank you for your time and kind consideration. (信件结尾常用语)

Sincerely Yours, Signature

B:建议信模板 Dear ,

I am delighted to learn that (写信的原因). It (引出作者的建议). In my opinion, (表达建议内容). On the one hand, (提出建议的理由一). On the other hand, ( 建议的理由二).

As to the (具体到某一方面的建议内容), I suggest (). If (供被建议人选择的条 件). It is unnecessary for you to (建议内容的另一方面). In addition, (其它的建 议). I am sure (对建议内容的评价).

Please inform me (对建议内容所做的承诺). I am looking forward to (表达本人 的愿望).

Sincerely Yours,
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Signature 常用连接词

Certainty

Condition
if unless whether provided that for

Definition
is refers to means that is consists of

Summary
in conclusion in summary lastly finally to sum up

obviously certainly

plainly of course undoubtedly

so that whether depending on Reason
since as so because(of) due to owing to

to conclude to recapitulate
in short

Example
for instance one example for example just as in particular such as

Time
before since as until meanwhile at the moment

namely to illustrate

the reason why in other words leads to
cause

when whenever as soon as
just as

Addition

Sequence

Consequence

Contrast however on the other hand despite in spite of though although but on the contrary otherwise yet instead of rather whereas nonetheless even though compared with in contrast alternatively

in addition and similarly likewise as well as besides furthermore also moreover and then too not only ... but even besides this/that

first(ly) initially second(ly) etc. to begin with then next earlier/later after this/that following this/that afterwards

as a result thus so therefore consequently it follows that thereby eventually then in that case admittedly

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