动词不定式、分词(现在分词，过去分词)和动名词统称为非谓语动词。现代英语将现在分词 和动名词合为一大类叫作 v + ing 形式。这些动词的形式不能在句中单独作谓语用，因而没有语 法主语。但可以有逻辑主语。由于没有语法主语，也就不受人称和数的限定，因为不是谓语，也 就没有时态和语态，但这些词仍能表示动作和状态，所以仍
有表示与其他动词相对时间关系的形 式。由于与其它词有逻辑上的主谓关系，因此也有表示主、被动的形式，同时也有自己的宾语和 状语，一起构成非谓语动词的短语(动词不定式短语，分词短语，动名词短语)。动词不定式、过 去分词及 v-ing 形式在句中均不能作谓语用，所以叫做非谓语动词。 （一）动词不定式： 动词不定式由“to+ 动词原形”构成，如：to study, to play，动词不 定式虽然不能作谓语动词用，但仍留着动词的特征，它可以带有所需要的宾语或状语而构成动词 不定式短语，如：to study hard, to play table tennis。 1、动词不定式的形式变化：动词不定式有下列时态和语态的形式变化。 不定式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 主动 to build to have built to be building to have been building 被动 to be build to have been build 2、动词不定式的基本用法：动词不定式能起名词、形容词和副词的作用，可在句中作主语、 表语、宾语补足语、定语和状语用，如： （1）作主语：To help each other is good.（动词不定式作主语时，一般可用 it 作形式主语， 而将作主语的动词不定式置于句末，如：It is good to help each other. （2）作表语：My job is to drive them to the power station every day. 动词不定式在系动词 be 之后作表语，与表示将来时的 be + 动词不定式结构有所区别，如：Our plan is to set up another middle school for the peasants’ children.我们的计划是给农民子弟再成立一所中学。 （句中的谓语 动词为 is，动词不定式 to set up? 为表语，主语为 plan，但 plan 并不是动词不定式的逻辑主语， 即动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作不是主语 plan 产生的。We are to set up another middle school ） for the peasants’ children.我们将为农民的子弟再成立一所中学。 （句中的 are to set up 整个结构为 句中谓语，主语为 we，同时也是动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作的逻辑主语，即动词不定式 to set up 所表示的动作是由 we 产生的） 。 （3）作宾语：①作及物动词的宾语，如：She wishes to be a musician.；②作某些形容词的宾 语：可以有动词不定式为宾语的形容词一般有 glad, sorry, afraid, pleased, determined, willing, eager, anxious, ready, sure 等，如：I am determined to give up smoking.；③动词不定式一般不作介词的宾 语， 但动词不定式之前如有疑问词时， 就可作介词的宾语， Can you give us some advice on what 如： to do next? （4）作宾语补足语，如：Tell the children not to play on the street. 如果句中的谓语动词为 see, hear, watch, notice, have, make, let 等， 作宾语补足语的动词不定式须将 to 省去， I saw a little girl 如： run across the street. （5）动词不定式在句中作宾语，如带有宾语补足语时，须先用 it 作形式宾语，而将该动词 不定式后置，如：I don’t think it right to do it that way. （6）作定语：动词不定式作定语时，须位于被其修饰的名词或代词之后，如：Is this the best way to help him? 和定语用的动词不定式如果是不及物动词，不定式后面就要用必要的介词，如： He is the man to depend on. 如果被不定式修饰的名词为 place, time, way，不定式后面的介词，习 惯上可以省去，如：The old man is looking for a quiet place to live. （7） 作状语： 动词不定式可以作下列的状语： ①目的状语： Every morning he gets up very early to read English. 为了强调不定式表示目的的作用，可在不定式前加 in order to 或 so as to（以便或 I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
为了） ，但应注意 in order to 位于句首或句中均可，而 so as to 不能位于句首，如：She reads China Daily every day in order to (so as to) improve her English. 将表示目的的不定式置于句首，也可强调 目的的作用，如：To master a foreign language, one must work hard at it. ②结果状语：They lived to see the liberation of their home town.他们活到亲眼见到了他们家乡的解放。③too + 形容词或副词 + 动词不定式，表示“足能?”的结果，如：You are old enough to take care of yourself now. 3、复合结构不定式：由 for + 名词（或代词宾格）+ 动词不定式即构成复合结构的动词不定 式。其中 for 本身无意义。for 后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语，这种不定式在句中可作主 语、表语、宾语、定语或状语，如：It is very important for us to get everything ready for the harvest. 当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质或特征时，就用介词 of 而不用 for 引出不定式 的逻辑主语，这些形容词一般有 good, nice, kind, wise, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, careless, impolite 等，如：It is very kind of you to help him every day. 4、疑问词 + 动词不定式：疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语，在句中 可作主语、表语或宾语，如：How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem. 5、动词不定式的否定式：动词不定式的否定式是由 not + 动词不定式构成，如：It’s wrong of you not to attend the meeting. 6、动词不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系： （1）一般式：动词不定式一般式所表示的动作是和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生，但在 多数情况下，是在谓语动词所表示的动作之后发生，如：We decided to plant more trees this spring. （其后） ，They often watch us play table tennis.（同时） ； （2）完成式：动词不定式完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前，如：I am sorry to have kept you waiting. （3）进行式：动词不定式进行式所表示的动作正在进行中，而且与谓语动词所表示的动作 同时发生，如：She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I came in. 7、动词不定式的被动语态用法：如果动词不定式的逻辑主语为这个不定式所表示的动作的 承受者时，不定式一般就用被动语态形式，如：What is to be done next hasn’t been decided yet.
（二）-ing 形式：动词的-ing 形式也是一种非谓语动词。-ing 形式仍保留有动词的特征， 可以带有 其所需要的宾语或状语而构成-ing 短语。 1、-ing 的形式：-ing 有一般式和完成式。及物动词的-ing 还有主动语态和被动语态，而不 及物动词的-ing 则没有被动语态。现在以及物动词 make 和不及物动词 go 为例，将其-ing 各种 形式列表如下： 动词-ing 及物动词 make 不及物动词 go 主动语态 被动语态 主动语态 一般式 making being made going 完成式 having made having been made having gone 2、-ing 形式的基本用法。 （1）作主语：Seeing is believing.百闻不如一见。Talking is easier than doing. –ing 作主语时，如果其结 构较长，可用 it 作形式主语，而将作主语的-ing 后置。如：It isn’t much good writing to them again. It’s no use waiting here. （2）作表语：Her job is washing and cooking. My hobby is collecting stamps. （3）作宾语：①作及物动词的宾语。She likes drawing very much.；②作某些短语动词的 宾语。 Mary is thinking of going back to New York.；③ do+限定词（my, some, any, the 等）+ -ing，表示“做?事”之意，如：We often do our cleaning on Saturday afternoon. Will you do any shopping on Saturday this afternoon? ④作介词的宾语：Her sister is good at I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
learning physics.；⑤作形容词 worth, busy 等的宾语：This book is well worth reading. – ing 作宾语带有宾语补足语时，要用 it 作为形式宾语，而将作宾语的-ing 后置，如：We found it no good talking like that. Do you think it necessary trying again? （4）作定语：The sleeping child is only five years old. Do you know the man standing at the gate? 注：-ing 形式作定语用时，如果-ing 只是一个单词，就位于其修饰的名词之前， 如果是-ing 短语，就位于其修饰的名词之后，-ing 作定语时，被-ing 所修饰的名词就是该-ing 的逻辑主语。另外，-ing 作定语用时，其动作和句子谓语动词所表示的动作是同时进行的，如果 不是同时进行的， 就不能用-ing 作定语， 要使用定语从句， The girl who wrote a letter there 如： yesterday can speak English very well. （5）作宾语补足语：We can see steam rising from the wet clothes. 注：当-ing 在复合 宾语中作宾语补足 语用时，句中宾语就是这个-ing 的逻辑主语，可以带有这种复合宾语的动词 有 see, watch, hear, observe, feel, find, have, keep 等。 （6）作状语：①时间状语：Seeing Tom, I couldn’t help thinking of his brother. 分 词在句中作时间状语时，其前一般可加 when 或 while，如：When crossing street, you must be careful. ②原因状语：Being ill, he didn’t go to school yesterday. ③方式或伴随状语： Mary stood at the school gate waiting for Betty. 3、主动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。主动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在句中谓语动 词所表示的动作之前，一般在句中作时间或原因状语用。句中的主语是它的逻辑主语，并且是它 所表示的动作的执行者，如：Having answered the letter, she went on to read an English novel. 4、被动语态-ing 一般式的基本用法。被动语态-ing 一般式所表示的动作是一个正在进行中 的被动动作，而且这个被动动作也是和句中谓语所表示的动作同时发生的。它一般在句中作定语 或状语用。如：The truck being repaired there is ours. 5、被动语态-ing 完成式的基本用法。被动语态-ing 完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所 表示的动作之前，在句中一般作状语用。如：Having been shown the lab, we were taken to see the library. 6、-ing 形式的复合结构。在-ing 前加物主代词或名词所有格即构成-ing 的复合结构。其中 的物主代词或名词所有格为-ing 的逻辑主语。这种结构在句中可作主语、宾语或表语，如：Your smoking and drinking too much will do harm to your health. 但在口语中，这种结构如作 宾语用，其中的物主代词常用人称代词的宾格，名词的所有格常用名词的普通格代替，如：She insisted on Peter’s (or Peter)going there first. 7、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。一般说来，表示一个比较抽 象或泛指的动作时多用-ing 形式。表示一个具体某一次的动作时，多用动词不定式，如：Our job is making steel. She likes playing the piano, but she doesn't want to play it today. 8、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。-ing 形式作定语用时，其动作一般与句中 谓语动词所表示的动词同时发生，而动词不定式作定语时，其动作一般发生在句中谓语动词所表 示的动作之后。如：The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well./I have three letters to write. 9、-ing 形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。 （1）不定式作宾补时，其动作一般发生 在谓语动词所表示的动作之后， I have told them to come again tomorrow. 如： （2） see, watch, 在 hear, feel 等之后，如果用-ing 形式作宾补，表示其动作正在进行中，而用不带 to 的不定式作 宾补时，不定式所表示的动作是一个动作的过程，如：I hear her singing in the room.我听 见她正在屋里唱歌。 I hear her sing in the room.我听见她在屋里唱过歌。 10、-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。-ing 形式在句作状语表示时间、原因、方 式或伴随情况，而动词不定式一般式在句中作状语时，一般是作目的或结果状语，如：Not receiving his letter, I wrote to him again./ I looked into the window to see what was I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
going on inside.
( 三）过去分词： 1、过去分词的基本用法：过去分词只有一种形式，也没有主动语态，它所表示的动作是一个 被动的或是已完成的动作。过去分词在句中也可用作定语、表语、宾语或状语等成分。过去分词 在句中作某种成分时，其逻辑主语一般为该分词所表示的动作的承受者，如： （1）作定语：过去分词作定语时，如果这个分词是一个单词，就位于其修饰的名词之前，如 果是分词短语，就位于其修饰的名词之后。被过去分词所修饰的名词，就是该分词的逻辑主语， 如：The stolen car was found by the police last week. （2）作表语：过去分词作表语时，表示其逻辑主语所处的状态，其逻辑主语就是句中的主语， 如：The glass is broken.这个玻璃杯是破的。 注：过去分词作表语时，和动词的被动语态结 构相似，但两者表达的意义不同，如：The glass was broken by my little brother.这个玻璃 杯是被我小弟弟打破的。 作表语用的过去分词在许多词典中已列为形容词， crowded, devoted, 如： discouraged, done, dressed, drunk, experienced, frightened, gone, hurt, interested, killed, known, learned, lost, pleased, satisfied, shut, surprised, tired, undressed, worried, astonished, broken, completed, covered 等。 （3） 作宾语补足语： 过去分词作宾语补足语时， 句中的宾语就是其逻辑主语， When I opened 如： the door, I found the ground covered by fallen leaves. 注：动词 have 后的复合宾语中， 宾语补足语如为过去分词，常表示该分词所表示的动作是由别人来执行的而不是句中主语自己来 执行的，如：I had my bike repaired yesterday. 昨天我（找别人）把我的自行车给修了。 （4）作状语：过去分词作状语时，相当于一个状语从句，该结构的逻辑主语一般都是主句 的主语，是过去分词所表示意义的逻辑宾语。为了使作状语的过去分词意义更加明确，常在分词 前加 when, if, while, though, as 等连词，如：Seen from the hill/ When seen from the hill, our town looks beautiful.; Given more time/ If given more time, we could have done it better.（we 是该结构的逻辑主语，是 give 的逻辑宾语。 ） 独立主格：上述-ing 和过去分词的用法中，-ing 和过去分词在句中均有逻辑主语，但有时它 们也能有 自己的独立的主语，这种独立的主语，一般为名词或代词，位于其前之前，和-ing 或 过去分词构成独立主格。独立主格在句中一般只作状语用，而-ing 和过去分词作用的形式，则要 根据它们所表示的动作和句中谓语动词所表示的时间关系而定。 至于独立主格中是使用-ing 或是 过去分词，则要根据它们的主语和其所表示的动作的主动被动关系而定，如：The bell ringing, we all stopped talking. 注：The work having been finished, she sat down to have a rest. ①独立结构中的 being 或 having been 常可省去，如：The meeting (being) over, all left the room. ②作伴随状语的独立结构常可用 with 短语来代替，如：She read the letter, tears rolling down her cheeks./ She read the letter with tears rolling down her cheeks. 2、-ing 形式与过去分词的区别： （1）语态不同：-ing 形式表示主动概念，及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。an inspiring speech 鼓舞人心的演说；the inspired audience 受鼓舞的听众。 （2）时间关系不同：现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在进行中的动作，而过去分词所表示的 动作，往往是已经完成的动作，如：The changing world 正在发生的世界；the changed world 已经起了变化的世界。
1．疑问词 ＋ 动词不定式：疑问代词和疑问副词后可加动词不定式构成不定式短语，在句中 可作主语、表语或宾语，如：How to prevent them from swimming in this river is a problem. 2．动词不定式的否定式：由 not ＋ 动词不定式构成. I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
3．v.-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作主语、表语、宾语时的区别。 v．-ing 形式：表示抽象或泛指的动作。 不定式：表示具体某一次的动作。 She likes playing the piano, but she doesn't want to play it today. 4．v.-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作定语的区别。 v．-ing 形式：动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生。 不定式：动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后。 eg. The girl writing a letter there can speak English very well. I have three letters to write. 5．v.-ing 形式与动词不定式在作宾语补足语时的区别。 (1)不定式作宾补时，其动作一般发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之后， 如：I have told them to come again tomorrow. (2)在 see, watch, hear, feel 等之后，如果用 v.-ing 形式作宾补，表示其动作正在进行中， 而 用不带 to 的不定式作宾补时，不定式所表示的动作是一个动作的过程， 如：I hear her singing in the room. 我听见她正在屋里唱歌。 I hear her sing in the room. 我听见她在屋里唱过歌。 6．v.-ing 形式与动词不定式在句中作状语的区别。 v．-ing 形式：表示时间、原因、方式或伴随情况。 不定式：作目的或结果状语。 7．v.-ing 形式与过去分词的区别： (1)语态不同：v.-ing 形式表示主动概念，及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。 an inspiring speech 鼓舞人心的演说； the inspired audience 受鼓舞的听众 (2)时间关系不同：现在分词所表示的动作一般是正在进行中的动作，而过去分词所表示 的 动作，往往是已经完成的动作，如： the changing world 正在变化的世界 the changed world 已经变化了的世界 8． 独立主格结构： 有时 v.-ing 和过去分词在句中也有自己的独立的主语， 这种独立的主语 一 般为名词或代词，和 v.-ing 还有过去分词构成独立主格结构。该结构在句中一般只作状语。 独 立主格中是使用 v.-ing 还是过去分词，则要根据它们的主语和其所表示的动作的主动或被 动关 系来定，如：The bell ringing, we all stopped talking. 注意：①独立结构中的 being 或 having been 常可省去，如： The meeting_(being)_over, all left the room. ②作伴随状语的独立结构常可用 with 短语来代替， 如： She read the letter, tears rolling down her cheeks. ＝ She read the letter with tears rolling down her cheeks.
（1） 先判断空格部分所需的是主句，从句还是非谓语动词。 独立的句子， 从句或非谓语 独立的句子 加句号，分号或破折号的话，后再加一个独立的句子。 独立的句子， （逗号） 有 and,but, so 等词 加独立的句子。 （2）再根据主句的主语，来判断主动或被动； （3）接下来再判断时态， （4）如果是否定的话，not 一定要放在非谓语的前面 （5）一定不要忘记主语一致的原则，如果不一致的话，要把非谓语的独立主语加上。
I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
（1） 非谓语动词短语， + 主句 或者是 主句， 非谓语动词短语 这时的非谓语动词短语起到状语的作用 例如： influenced by the growing interest in nature, more people enjoy outdaoor activities. 在这种情况下，首先,找出主句的主语，然后以主句的主语为出发点，来判断非谓 语 动词是主动还是被动，如果已有的非谓语动词的主语和主句主语不一致，还要 考虑独立主格结 构，也就是把非谓语动词的自己的主语加上去： 例如： All flights having been cancelled , they decided to take the train. 其 次,把非谓语动词和主句的动词比较，看是否同时发生还是有明显的先后。 （2） 跟在介词，动词或某些形容词的后面固定搭配 只接动词-ing 形式而不接不定式作宾语的动词有： admit 承认 appreciate 感 激 avoid 避免 put off 推迟 keep 保持 consider 考虑 delay/ postpone 耽搁 dislike 嫌恶 resist 抵制 mention 提及 enjoy 喜欢 escape 避免 excuse 原谅 practice 练习 mind 介意 fancy 想不到 feel like 意欲 finish 完成 risk 冒险 include 包括 forgive 原谅 give up 放 弃 suggest 建议 miss 逃过 imagine 想象 can’t help 情不自禁 involve 需要 can’t stand 无法忍受 understand 理解 常见的带介词 to 的短语： be used to 习惯 be related to 与??有关 get down to 着手做 contribute to 贡献 put one’s mind to 全神贯注于 give rise to 引起 be equal to 胜任 devote oneself to 献身于 lead to 导致 be opposed to 反 对 look forward to 盼望 object to 反对 stick to 坚持 pay attention to 注意 （3） 介词后一定要加动词的-ing 形式； （4） 跟在名词后面做定语时， 一般不用 having done/ having been done 结构 （5） 放在句首做主语 ， 一般用动词的 ing 和 to do ? 特殊的非谓语短语 Generally speaking 一般来说 Considering ?. 考虑到，鉴于 Time/weather permitting 时间、天气允许的话 Taking ? into account 考 虑 到 Taking ?into consideration 考虑到 Provided ?假如 Providing?假如 Suppose? 假如 Supposing?假如 Judging from/ by?根据?判断 Given sth 假如，如果；鉴于， 考虑到 Given that?假如，如果；鉴于，考虑到 including sth (sth included)包括某事
1. He looked around and caught a man ______ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting 2. When you’re learning to drive, _______ a good teacher makes a big difference. A. have B. having C. and have D. and having 3. I felt it a great honor ______ to speak to you. A. to ask B. asking C. to be asked D. having asked 4. I would love _______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 5. Before you decide to leave your job, _______ the effect it will have on your family. A. consider B. considering C. to consider D. considered 6. Robert is said _______ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in. A. to have studied B. to study C. to be studying D. to have been studying I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
7. It is said that in Australia there is more land than the government knows _______. A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 8. Anyone _______ bags, boxes, or whatever, was stopped by the police. A. seen carry B. seen carrying C. saw to carry D. saw carrying 9. Mr Reed made up his mind to devote all he had to _______ some schools for poor children. A. set up B. setting up C. have set up D. having set up 10. The discovery of new evidence led to _______. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 11. She looks forward every spring to _______ the flower-lined garden. A. visit B. paying a visit C. walk in D. walking in 12. To test eggs, _______ them in a bowl of water: if they float they’re bad, if they sink they’re good. A. put B. putting C. to put D. to be putting 13. “Where is David?” “He is upstairs ______ ready to go out.” A. to get B. getting C. to be getting D. having got 14. “Mum, why do you always make me eat an egg every day?” “________ enough protein and nutrition as you are growing up.” A. Get B. Getting C. To get D. to be getting 15. He was reading his book, completely _______ to the world. A. lost B. losing C. to lose D. to have lost 16. We looked everywhere for the keys, but they are nowhere _______. A. to find B. to have found C. to be found D. being found 17. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not do 18. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______ in the kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked 19. Finding her car stolen, _______. A. a policeman was asked to help B. the area was searching thoroughly C. it was looked for everywhere D. she hurried to a policeman for help 20. “How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers?” “The key ______ the problem is to meet the demand ______ by the customers.” A. to solving, making B. to solving, made C. to solve, making D. to solve, made 21. “What do you think made Mary so upset?” “_______ her new bike.” A. As she lost B. Lost C. Losing D. Because of losing 22. The research is so designed that once _______ nothing can be done to change it. A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun 23. Though ________ money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in 24. Tony was very unhappy for _______ to the party. A. having not been invited B. not having invited C. having not invited D. not having been invited 25. Though I have often heard this song _______. I have never heard you _______ it. A. being sung, sang B. sang, singing C. sung, sing D. to be sung, to sing
I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
1. The great hall was crowded with many people, __ many children __on their parents’ lap A. including; seated B. including; seating C. included; sat D. included; sitting 2. It’s said that the Olympic Games _____ in Beijing in 2008 will cover more events than any other Olympics did. A. holding B. to be held C. held D. to be holding 3. _____ for a long time, most of the crops in this area died from lacking water. A. Being no rain B. There was no rain C. To be no rain D. There being no rain 4. Yesterday a street-beggar bought a lottery ticket purposelessly, _____ him a millionaire overnight. A. making B. makes C. to make D. made 5. In the face of the big fire in October in California, many people in the fire-stricken areas moved out _____. A. to escape burning B. to escape being burned C. escaping burned D. escaping from burning 6. Taking this medicine, if _____, will of course do good to his health. A. continued B. to continue C. continues D. continuing 7. The little boy still needs the _____ 20 dollars to do with some things _____. A. remaining; remained to be settled B. remaining; remaining to be settled C. remained; remained to settle D. remained; remaining to settle 8. _____ his age, the little boy read quite well. A. Considering B. Considered C. Consider D. Having considered 9. _____ from the appearance, it is very peaceful; but in fact, a war will break out soon. A. Judged B. Judging C. Having judged D. To judge 10. — Tom enjoys _____ basketball on Sunday afternoons, doesn’t he? — Yes, he does. But what his sister enjoys _____. A. to play; dancing B. playing; to dance C. to play; to dance D. playing; is to dance 11. His letter, _____ to the wrong number, reached me late. A. having been addressed B. to have addressed C. to have been addressed D. being addressed 12. The Space Shuttle Columbia broke into pieces over Texas as it returned to the earth on February 1, 2003,_____ all seven astronauts aboard. A. having killed B. killing C. being killed D. killed 13. There are lots of places of interest _____ in our city. A. needs repairing B. needing repaired C. needed repairing D. needing to be repaired 14. — What caused the party to be put off? — _____ the invitations. A. Tom delayed sending B. Tom’s delaying sending C. Tom delaying to send D. Tom delayed to send 15. I was afraid _____ to my customers because I was afraid _____ them. I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
A. of talking back; to lose B. of talking back; of losing C. to talk back; to lose D. to talk back; of losing 16. Standing on the top of the hill, I would not do anything but _____ the flowing of the smog around me. A. enjoy B. enjoying C. enjoyed D. to enjoy 17. — Is Tom a good talker? — No, he never speaks to me other than _____ something? A. ask for B. to ask for C. asked for D. asking for 18. I can’t get my car _____ on cold mornings, so I have to try _____ the radiator with some hot water. A. run; to fill B. running; filling C. running; to fill D. ran; filling 19. The drunken husband knocked against the table and sent the bowls _____ in all directions before he was sent _____ by his wife. A. flying; to sleep B. flying; sleeping C. to fly; to sleeping D. to fly; to sleep 20. When we got back from the cinema, we found the lamp _____ but the door _____. A. being on; shut B. burning; shutting C. burning; shut D. on; shutting 21. We found the students seated at tables and had their eyes _____ on the scene of the launch of Shenzhou V spaceship. A. fixed B. fix C. fixing D. to fix 22. A doctor can expect _____ at any hour of the day or night. A. calling B. to call C. being called D. to be called 23. The boy often gives a satisfactory answer to the teacher’s question, _____ just a minute. So he’s usually the teacher’s pet. A. thought B. having thought C. and to think D. thinking 24. The policeman came up to the lonely house with the door ____, ____ there for a while and then entered it. A. open; to stand B. opening; stood C. open; stood D. opened; standing 25. _____ along the quiet road at forty miles an hour, and then an old man suddenly started to cross the road in front of me. A. Driving B. I was driving C. Having driven D. When I was driving 26. Mr. Smith was much surprised to find the watch he had had _____ was nowhere to be seen. A. repairing B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired 27. What did the librarian _____ out of the library? A. permit to take B. forbid to be taken C. allow to take D. insist being taken 28. — Mum, why do you give me so much popcorn? — _____ the boring time. A. Kill B. Killing C. To kill D. Having killed 29. What Yang Liwei wanted to do when he got out of the spaceship was __ the joy with all the Chinese. A. share B. shared C. having shared D. about to share 30. When she was alone at home, Mary needed a friend _____. A. playing with B. having played with C. with whom to play with D. with whom to play 31. _____ the big snake, the little girl stood under the tree _____ out of life. A. Seeing; frightened B. Seeing; frightening I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
C. Seen; frightened D. To see; frightening 32. The competitor never dreamed of _____ for him to win the first prize in the 100-meter race. A. there was a chance B. there being a chance C. it being a chance D. it was a chance 33. _____ everything to go wrong in advance, and you won’t feel quite so bad when it does. A. Having expected B. Expect C. To expect D. Expecting 34. — You _____ part in the party on time. — Sorry, I was delayed by the accident. A. are to take B. have supposed to take C. were to have taken D. supposed to take 35. _____ with the size of the whole earth, the highest mountain doesn’t seem high at all. A. When compared B. To compare C. While comparing D. It compared 36. _____ in her best suit, the girl tried to make herself _____ at the party. A. Dressed; noticed B. Dressing; noticing C. Dressed; noticing D. Dressing; noticed 37. The matter _____ your study surely requires _____ carefully. A. relating to; dealing with B. related to; dealt with C. related to; being dealt with D. relating to; having dealt with 38. _____ made her parents worried a lot. A. Her not to come back B. Not her to come back C. Her not coming back D. Not her coming back 39. Everything _____ into consideration, they believed themselves more and returned to their positions. A. to take B. taken C. to be taken D. taking 40. He moved away from his parents and missed them _____ enjoy the exciting life in New York. A. much so as to B. very much to C. too much to D. enough to 41. — What do you think of the plan? — It’s easier said than _____. A. carried out B. carrying out C. carry out D. to carry out 42. Many businessmen attended the Boao Forum (博鳌论坛)because they knew what _____ from the forum. A. to get B. to be got C. got D. getting 43. There was a famous person at the party whom everyone would like _____ to themselves. A. to introduce B. to be introduced C. introducing D. being introduced 44. — Were you at home last Sunday? — Yeah! I devoted the whole day to _____ the English grammar. A. review B. reviewing C. be reviewed D. being reviewed 45. Once _____ at the shop, you will be dismissed immediately. A. caught stealing B. caught to steal C. catching stealing D. to catch to steal 46. Prices of daily goods _____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 47. _____, John returned to school from his hometown. A. The summer vacation being over B. The summer vacation is over C. Because the summer vacation over D. After the summer vacation being over I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
48. _____ she can’t come, who will do the work? A. Supposed B. Supposing C. Having supposed D. Being supposed 49. — Is there anything you want from town? — No, thank you. But I would like to get _____. A. those letters mailed B. mailed letters C. to mail those letters D. those letters mail 50. After the guests left, she spent as much time as she could _____ the rooms. A. tidy up B. to clear away C. clear away D. tidying up
1【2012 江西卷】33．Having finished her project, she was invited by the school A．speaking B．having spoken C．to speak to the new students. D．to have spoken ____________him
2【2012 江西卷】35．John has really got the job because he showed me the official letter it. A．offered B．offering C．to offer D．to be offered
3【2012 湖南卷】21. We've had a good start, but next, more work needs ____ to achieve the final success. A. being done B. do C. to be done D. to be 4【2012 重庆卷】31. Before you quit your job, ______how your family would feel about your decision. A. consider B. considering C. to consider D. considered 5【2012 重庆卷】28. We’re having a meeting in half an hour. The decision ______ at the meeting will in the future of our company. A. to be made B. being made C. made D. having been made 6【2012 重庆卷】23.______to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. A. Having been asked B. To ask C. Having asked D. To be asked . Anybody can learn to use it in a few minutes. C. operated D. to operate 7【2012 辽宁卷】29. This machine is very easy A. operating B. to be operating
8【2012 四川卷】8. I looked up and noticed a snake ______ its way up the tree to catch its breakfast. A. to wind B. wind C. winding D. wound D. to wash 高 666 9【2012 四川卷】12. Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car ____. A. washed B. wash C. washing 10【2012 陕西卷】15.________ in a long queue, we waited for the store to open to buy a New iPad . A. Standing B. To stand C. Stood D. Stand 11【2012 陕西卷】22.If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but ______ an even greater challenge. A. meets B. meeting C. meet D. to meet 12【2012 北京卷】23. One learns a language by making mistakes and ______ them. A. corrects B. correct C.to correct D. correcting 13【2012 北京卷】27. _______ with care, one tin will last for six weeks. A. Use B. Using C. Used D. To use 14 【2012 全国 II】 The old man sat in front of the television every evening, happy _____ anything that happened to 15. be on.
I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
A. to watch
D. to have watched
15【2012 全国 II】10. Tony lent me the money, ______that I’d do as much for him. A. hoping B. to hope C. hoped D. having hoped 16【2012 北京卷】32. Birds’ singing is sometimes a warning to other birds ________ away. A. to stay B. staying C. stayed D. stay 17【2012 天津卷】He got up late and hurried to his office, _________the breakfast untouched. A. left B. to leave C. leaving D. having left such art forms as music and 18【2012 全国新课程】32. Film has a much shorter history, especially when_ painting. A. having compared to B. comparing to C. compare to D. compared to . D. permit 19【2012 全国新课程】28. The party will be held in the garden, weather A. permitting B. to permit C. permitted
20【2012 山东卷】35. After completing and signing it, please return the form to us in the envelope ________. A. providing B. provided C. having provided D. provide 21【2012 山东卷】26. George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him. A. to be told B. telling C. being told D. told 22 【2012 福建卷】 China recently tightened its waters controls near the Huangyan Island to prevent Chinese fishing 28. boats from A. attacking in the South China Sea. B. having attacked C. being attacked D. having been attacked
23 【2012 福建卷】 Pressed from his parents, and ______that he has wasted too much time , the boy is determined to 34. stop playing video games. A. realizing B. realized C. to realize D. being realized 24【2012 浙江卷】1"It's a such nice place," Mother said as she sat at the table________ for customs. A. to be reserved B. Living reserved C. reserving D. reserved 25【2012 浙江卷】I think Tom, as the head of a big department, should either study regularly or________ _his job. A. quits B. to quit C. quitting D. quit 26【2012 浙江卷】3. No matter how bright a talker you are, there are times when it's better__________silent. A. remain B. be remaining C. having remained D. to remain 27【2012 江苏卷】31.__________an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later. A. Based B. Basing C. Base D. To base 28【2012 安徽卷】30. When for his views about his teaching job, Philip said he found it very interesting and rewarding. A. asking B. asked C. having asked D. to be asked 29【2012 安徽卷】24. I remembered the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked D. to have locked
1 (1)I regret ____ you that your mother is absent in Beijing. ⑵I don’t regret ____ her what I thought even if it might have upset her. I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
A. to tell B. to telling C. having told D. tell 2. ⑴We don’t allow _____ in the reading room. ⑵We don’t allow them _____ in the reading room. A. to smoke B. smoking C. smoke D. smoked 3.(1)___hard and you’ll make rapid progress in your English learning. ⑵___hard, you’ll make rapid progress in your English learning. A. Working B. To work C. Work D. Worked 4. ⑴_____ , we went for a swim in the river. ⑵_____, so we went for a swim in the river. A. Being hot B. It being hot C. As it hot D. It was hot 5.⑴I can’t help ____ when I hear that terrible noise. A. laughing B. laughed C. laugh D. being laughed (2)I can’t help ____ the room, for I am very busy now. A. clean B. cleaning C. have clean D. cleaned 6.⑴_____from the tower, Dalian looks more beautiful. ⑵_____ from the tower, we can see our beautiful city . A. Seeing B. Seen C. To see D. Having seen 7. ⑴The sport meet ______ next week is of great importance. ⑵The sports meet ______ now is very important ⑶The sports meet ____ last week is of great importance. A. holding B. being held C. to be held D. held 8.⑴He raised his voice in order to make us ___ him. ⑵He raised his voice in order to make himself _____. A. heard B. hearing C. hear D. to be heard 9.(1)He stood there with his eyes _________ his mother． (2)He stood there, _______his mother． A. staring at B. stared on C. fixing upon D. fixed upon 10.⑴Most of us went to see her, ____ some girls. ⑵Most of us went to see her, some girls ____. A. include B. including C. included D. to include 11.⑴He was surprised to see some villagers ____ there. ⑵To his surprise, he saw some villagers _____ themselves. A. seat B. seated C. seating D. to seat I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
12.⑴The man _____ Zhaosan used to live here. ⑵The man ____ himself Zhaosan used to lived here. A. called B. calling C. to call D. call 13.⑴He had no choice but ________ at the bus-stop in the rain. ⑵He had nothing to do but ________ at the bus-stop in the rain. A. to wait B. waiting C. wait D. should wait. 14.(1) I’m not free this evening because I have a lot of things ______. (2) He was so lazy that he had all of his washing ______. A. to do B. to be done C. doing D. done 15.(1)He often see them _______ football on the playground. ⑵The missing boys were last seen _____ near the river. A. playing B. played C. play D. to play 16.(1) We are considering ___up a new factory here in this town． (2) We are considering how__ up a new factory here in this town． (3) The boy is considered ____a good example to his classmates． A. setting B. to set C. to have set D. having set 17.(1) Mr Li is said ______ abroad? but I don’t know which country he studied in． (2) Mr Li is said ______ abroad? but I don’t know which country he is studying in． (3) Mr Li is said ______ abroad? but I don’t know which country he will study in. A. to study B. to have studied C. to be studying D. having studied 18. (1)I insist that you ______ me my money back． (2)I insisted on your _____me my money back． A. give B. to give C. giving D. would give (3)The old man insisted that I ______ his wallet． A. has taken B. took C. should take D. had taken 19. (1)I don't enjoy _____ fun of others. (2)I don't enjoy _____ fun of by others. A. to make B. to be made C. making D. being made 20.(1)If time _____, I'll go to see my friends tomorrow. (2)Time _____, I'll go to see my friends tomorrow. A. permitted B. permits C. permitting D. permit 21.(1)He had no choice but ____ aloud the text in the classroom.. (2)He did nothing but _____ aloud the text in the classroom.. I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
A. reading B. to read C. read D. to be reading 22. (1)_____ a good writer, he has a lot of things to learn. (2) ______ a good writer, he wrote a number of articles. A. To be B. Being C. Having D. Done 23. (1) _____ his wallet ,he became very worried. (2)______in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. to lose B. losing C. lost D. having been lost 24.(1) Having finished homework,______. (2) Having been finished, _______. A. the homework was handed in B. the teacher praised him C. he went home with his classmates D. and he went home quickly 25. Finding her car stolen, ____. A. a policeman was asked to help B. the area was searched thoroughly C. it was looked for everyone D. She hurried to a policeman for help 26. (1) The teacher came in,____ the Ss. (2) The teacher came in,____ by the Ss. A. following B. followed C. having followed D. being followed 27.(1)_____ more attention, the tree could have grown better. (2) _____ a hand to the poor, he felt very happy. A. give B. given C. to give D. giving 28.(1) Look around when ____ the street. (2) Look around before you ____ the street A. cross B. crossing C. be crossing D. to be crossing 29. (1)I would like to _____ the holiday with you, so I am sure I will come. (2)I would like to ____ the holiday with you, but I was really busy last week. A. spend B. spending C. have spent D. having spent 30. (1) The girl ____ in a colorful skirt looks beautiful. (2) The mother ___ her son must be late for the work. A. dressed B. dressing C. dressed D. dress
I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
1. 选 D。catch sb doing sth 意为“碰上某人在做某事”或“逮住某做某事” 。 2. 选 B。这是一个含 when 引导时间状语从句的主从复合句，having a good teacher 在主句中 用作主语。 3. 选 C。句中的 it 为形式主语，不定式 to be asked to speak to you 为真正主语，因“我” 与 ask 为被动关系，故用被动式。 4. 选 B。like 和 love 后接不定式或动名词均可，但 would love / like 后只能接不定式，据 此可排除选项 C、D。表示过去未曾实现的愿望，其后要接不定式完成式，即选 B。 5. 选 A，before 引导的是时间状语从句，填空句为主句，而此主句为一祈使句，故动词用原形。 其中 it will have ? 为修饰名词 the effect 的宾语从句。 6. 选 A。根据句中的 studied 可知，他曾到国外留过学，也就是说“留学”这个动作已结束并 发生在谓语动作(is said)之前，故用完成式，即选 A。 7. 选 C。do with 与 what 连用可以表示“处置”“放置”“利用”等。如： What shall I do 、 、 with it? 怎样处置它好呢? What have you done with my umbrella? 你把我的雨伞放到哪 里去了? I don’t know what to do with this strange object. 我不知道这怪东西有什么用。 8. 选 B。anyone seen carrying bags?为 anyone who was seen carrying bags 之略，其中过 去分词短语 seen carrying bags ? 用作定语修饰代词 anyone。另外，句中的 who was seen carrying bags 为 see sb doing sth 这一结构的被动式。 9. 选 B。devote?to? 的意思是“把??贡献给??”或“致力于??” ，其中 to 是介词， 不是不定式符号，若后动词要用动名词。句中的 he had 为定语从句，用以修饰 all，注意不将 had to 视为同一个语义结构。 10. 选 C。lead to 意为“导致” ，其中的 to 是介词，不是不定式符号，若后接动词要用动名 词。由于逻辑主语 the thief 与 catch 为被动关系，故答案选 C。 11. 选 D。look forward to 意为“期盼” ，其中 to 是介词，后接动词要用动名词。注意不能 选 B，因为 pay a visit 不能带 the flower-lined garden 作宾语，假若在 paying a visit 后 加上介词 to，则可选 B。 12. 选 A。句首的 to test eggs 为目的状语，填空句为祈使句谓语，故要用动词原形。 13. 选 B。现在分词短语表伴随。 14. 选 C。to get enough protein and nutrition 表目的。 15. 选 A。(be) lost to sth 为习语，意为“不再受某事物的影响”“将某事物置之度外” 、 。 16. 选 C。因 keys 与 find 是被动关系。 17. 选 A。不定式的否定式总是将否定词 not 置于不定式符号 to 之前，而不能置于其后，同 时结合 tell sb (not) to do sth 这一结构可排除选项 C、D。当不定式的动词是前面已出现过 的相同的动词时，为避免重复，通常省略该不定式而只保留不定式符号 to。 18. 选 B。find 后可接现在分词（表示动作在进行）或过去分词（表被动关系）作宾语补足语， 但是不接不定式。另外，由于 he 与 smoke 是主动关系，故选 B。 19. 选 D。非谓语动词作状语时，其逻辑主语就是句子主语。比较四个选项，finding her car stolen 的逻辑主语显然是 she，而不是 a policeman, the area, it 等，故选 D。 20. 选 B。the key to? 意为“??的关键” ，其中的 to 是介词，不是不定式符号，若后接动 词要用动名词。另一方面，名词 demand 与 make 是被动关系(make demands 提出要求)，同时 根据句中的 by the customers，可确定答案选 B。 I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
21. 选 C。答句是针对疑问词 what 的回答，而问句中的疑问词 what 在句中用作主语，所以答 句也应是一个能用作主语的东西， 比较四个选项， 只有 C 合适。 其完整回答形式为 Losing her new bike made Mary so upset. 比较，下面一题要填不定式，因为四个选项中只有 To choose a new chairman 能回答疑问词 why： “Why was a special meeting called?” “______ a new chairman.” A. Choose B. Choosing C. To choose D. Chosen 22. 选 D。由于 the research 与 begin 是被动关系，故用过去分词 begun。Once begun 可视 为 once it is begun 之省略。 23. 选 C。 由于 his parents 与 lack money(缺钱)是主动关系， 故用现在分词， 又因为 lack 是 及物动词，故后接宾语无需用介词，故选 C。 24. 选 D。非谓语动词的否定式要将否定词 not 放在整个非谓语动词之前，据此可排除 A、C。 另外，由于 Tony 与 invite 是被动关系，故选 D。 25. C。 第一空填 sung， 因为 song 与 sing 是被动关系； 第二空填 sing， 因为 you 与 sing 是 主动关系。
1.A。including 为介词;由 seat 的用法可知,此处应用其过去分词形式。 2.B。hold 与 the Olympic Games 之间是被动关系,且 2008 奥运会尚未举办,应用不定式表将来。 3.D. There being no rain 为 there be 句型的独立主格形式。 4.C。不定式作结果状语表示主语未曾预料到的结果。 5.B。 不定式作目的状语。 escape 意为―逃脱‖,不接不定式,而常接-ing 形式作宾语。 只能接-ing 形式作宾语的动词还有:mind, admit,avoid, appreciate, consider(考虑), delay, imagine, miss, practice 等。 6.A。if continued 是―if taking this medicine is continued‖的省略形式。 7.B。第一个 remaining 用作形容词,作―剩下的‖解;第二个 remaining to be settled 是-ing 形式短语作定语。 8.A。considering 为介词,作―就??而论;考虑到‖解。 9.B。judging from 意为―从??来判断‖,为固定结构。 10.D。enjoy 后常接-ing 形式作宾语; what his sister enjoys 作主语,is to dance 构成句子 的谓语。 11.A。address 所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,且与 letter 之间逻辑上存在着 被动关系,having been addressed...在句中作非限制性定语。 12.B。 13.D。needing to be repaired 相当于 needing repairing,在句中作定语。另外,require 和 want 也有类似的用法。 14.B。Tom’s delaying sending 是-ing 形式的复合结构可代替 what 在句中作主语。 15.D。be afraid to do 作―不敢??‖解(侧重指不敢作出的一种行为); be afraid of doing 作―担心??‖解(侧重强调害怕产生某种后果)。 16.A。but 用作―除了‖解,当其前含有实义动词 do 时, 则 but 后的不定式短语要省去 to。 17.C。 other than asked for something 相当于 unless he is asked for something。 18.B。get my car running 意为―使我的车发动起来‖;try doing 表示―试一试做某事的办 法‖;try to do 意为―努力去做某事‖。 19.A。send sb./sth. doing 意为―使 ??快速移动‖;send sb. to sleep 意为―使某人入睡‖, 其中 to 为介词,sleep 为名词。 20.C。句中的 burning, shut 均作 found 的宾语补足语,表状态。 21.A。fix one’s eyes/attention on/upon 为固定短语,意为―注视,注意‖,故此处应用过去分 词形式作宾语补足语。 I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
22.D。expect 后跟不定式作宾语,call 与 doctor 之间是被动关系。 23.B。-ing 形式短语作状语,且 think(思考)表示的动作发生于 give a satisfactory answer 之 前,故用 having thought。 24.C。with the door open 是 with 的复合结构,open 为形容词,表状态; stood 与 came, entered 为并列关系,在句中作谓语。 25.B。因句中有连词 and,所以 and 之前必须是一个并列关系的分句。 26.C。he had had repaired 是省去了关系代词 that/ which 的定语从句。 27.B。forbid sb./sth. to do sth.为固定用法,此句中 forbid 的宾语为 what。 28.C。why 引导的特殊疑问句通常可用不定式短语来回答。 29.A。what 引导的名词性从句作主语且从句中含有实义动词 do 时,用作表语的不定式可不带 to。 30.D。with whom to play 为―介词+关系代词+不定式‖结构在句中作定语,其相当于一个定语从 句(with whom she could play)。 31.A。 32.B。由题意―这位选手从来也没想到他竟有机会在 100 米比赛中获得第一名‖,及 dreamed of 后需用-ing 形式短语可知应选 B。 33.B。句中 and 决定了前句应为祈使句。 34.C。You were to have taken part in the party.意为―你本来应该参加那次聚会的‖。 35.A。When compared...是 When the highest mountain is compared...的省略。 36.A。be dressed in, be lost in, be seated, be disappointed in 等类似的短语在句中用作 状语时,常用过去分词形式;make herself noticed 意为―使自己被别人注意‖。 37.A。 relate to 意为 ―与??有关;涉及??‖,第一空既可以用 relating to, 也可以用 related to;deal with 为固定短语,与 the matter 之间是被动关系,因此,应用 dealing with(主 动形式表被动意义)或 to be dealt with。 38.C。此句考查-ing 形式的复合结构在句中作主语,其否定形式是在-ing 形式前加 not。 39.B。everything taken into consideration 是独立主格结构在句中作状语。 40.C。此题考查―too...to...(太??而不能??)‖句型。 41.A。carried out 与 said 是两个对等成分。 42.A。英语中,许多动词(如:know ,decide, tell sb., show sb.等)后可接疑问代词或疑问副词 +不定式短语的结构来作宾语。题中 knew what to get 相当于 knew what they would get。 43.B。此题考查 would like sb. to do 的结构。题中的 introduce 与 whom 之间是被动关系。 44.B。devote ... to ...中,to 为介词。 45.A。Once caught 为 Once you are caught 的省略; catch sb. doing sth.意为―发现或发觉 某人正在做某事‖。 46.B。bought through a computer 是过去分词短语作定语。 47.A。The summer vacation (being) over 是独立主格结构在句中作状语。 48.B。supposing (that)可引导条件状语从句,意为―假使‖。 49.A。get sth. done 意为―使(某人)做某事‖。 50.D
1-5 C B C A A 21-25 A C A D D
6-10 A D C A A 26-29 D B B B
11-15 D D C A A
16-20 A C D A B
易错题型 1 A C
BC 11 B C
3CA 13 A C
4 BD 14A D
5BA 15 C A
8CA 17 B C A
16 A B C
18 A CB
I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
19 C D 28 B A
20 B C 29 A C
21 B C 30 A B
23 B C
25D 26 A B
27 B D
I am a slow walker, but I never walk backwards.
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