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非限定动词2


Grammar Non-finite verb 非限定动词,也叫非谓语动词, 在句中不能单独作谓语。其中包 括不定式(infinitive),动名词 (gerund),和分词(participle)三种 形式。

? 不定式(infinitive)的用法:

不 定 式

1.作主语: 不定式作主语时,往往放在谓 语之后,用it作形式主语。 To see is to believe. It is right to give up smoking. 2.作宾语。不定式作主语时, 如果还带有宾语补足语,往 往把不定式放在宾补之后, 而用it作形式宾语。

不 定 式

He wanted to go. I find it interesting to study computer. 3.作宾语补足语。 He asked me to do the homework with him. 注意在feel, hear, listen to, look at , notice, see, watch, make,等 词后的宾语补足语中,省略to. 但改为被动要补出to.

不 定 式

The boss made the workers work long hours before liberation. The workers were made to work long hours before liberation. 4.作定语 He needs a room to live in.

不 定 式

I’ve got a letter to write. 5.作状语,表示目的,原因, 结果或条件。 I came here to see you. We turned the lights off in order not to waste electricity. Check your homework so as to avoid mistakes.(目的) To look at the puppy, you would like it. (条件)

不 定 式

We were very excited to hear the news.(原因) He hurried to the school to find nobody there.(结果) 6.做表语 My job is to help the patient. To see is to believe.

? 动名词:动词+ing构成,具

动 名 词

有名词和动词的特性,在句 中起名词的作用。 1.作主语。 Collecting information is very important to business men. It is no use arguing with him. It is no use/good, /useless =doing 泛指抽象动作。

2. 做表语

动 名 词

Her job is teaching. Reading aloud is a good way in learning languages. 3.作宾语 She didn’t mind Jack coming late. He finished reading the book.

动 名 词

4.作定语 He has a reading room. There is a swimming pool in our school.

? 分词为现在分词和过去分词。

? 现在分词有一般式和完成式。
? 一般式表示的动作和谓语的

分 词

动作同时发生。 Being a student, he was interested in books. ? 完成式(having+V.V.P.)表示

分 词

的动作在谓语动词所表示的动 作之前发生。 Having been criticized by the teacher, Li Ming gave up smoking. 1.作定语 分词短语放在被修饰的名词之 后;单个分词则放在被修饰 的名词之前。

分 词

The man standing at the window is our teacher. Polluted air and water are harmful to people’s health. 2.作状语 时间、原因、结果、条件、让 步、伴随状况。 Being a student, I must study hard.(原因)

分 词

While reading the book, he nodded from time to time.(时 间) The teacher stood there surrounded by the students.(方 式) 3做表语 The news is inspiring. He remained studying the sea animals.

4.作宾语补足语 We saw the teacher making the experiment.

分 词

不定式与动词ing形式的区别 不定式表示具体的,将来的, 有意识的动作;V+ing表示

抽象的,无意识的,习惯性 的倾向。
区别 1.作主语 To swim in the sea in hot summer is very pleasant. Reading aloud is a good way in learning English.

Plying with fire is dangerous.
(泛指玩火)

To play with fire will be dangerous.(指具体动作)

区别 2.作表语 All that I want is to learn from practice. It is no use crying over spilt milk. (表抽象动作)

区别

3. forget, remember, go on, like,, stop, try, mean,等动词后可跟 动词ing和动词不定式作宾语, 但表示意义不一样。 Stop talking. Stop to talk. I’ll try to improve my English. Try improving this way if you are bad at English.

区别

I mean to come early today. (我打算今天早些来) Missing the train meaning waiting for another hour. (误了这趟火车意味着再等一 小时。)


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