第一讲 1、功能：相当于形容词，修饰名词或代词，在句中作定语 一： 先行词： 被定语从句所修饰的词 二： 关系代词：用来连接定语从句，并在从句中代表先行词的代词。 先行词是物： which that 先行词是人： who whom that 在从句中充当的成分： 主语、宾语 （1）先找关系词，看先行词指的是什么
。 （2）看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。 e.g. 把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句 1. They had a radio. It could send out messages. (主语) She spoke just now. He never read them. They had a radio which/ that could send out message. 2. The girl is my best friend. 3. He always buys some books. 注意点： 1.） 定语从句一般直接跟在先行词的后面： e.g. 4. The man who lives next door sells vegetables. The man sells vegetables who lives next door. ( × ) 5. The car which my uncle just bought was destroyed in the earthquake. The car was destroyed in the earthquake which my uncle just bought. ( × ) 2． ）关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省略： e.g. 6. The young man ( whom ) you saw was our manager. 7. There is something ( that ) we must keep in mind. 找出句中的从句并圈出先行词说出关系代词在从句中的成分 1. The man who told me the news refused to give me the name. 2. The airline has a booklet which will tell you most of the important things about a trip to Europe. 3. He found a dollar bill that he had forgotten in a suit . 4. He is the man whom we all respect. 5. There is somebody who wants to see you. 6. The house I would like to buy is not for sale. 7. The bicycle my uncle gave me was very expensive.
第二讲 whose 的用法： 关系代词与其后的名词构成所有格，即“的”时，它既可以修饰指人的先行词，也可以修饰指物的先行 词。 e.g. 1. The girl is my daughter. Her work got the first prize. The girl whose work got the first prize is my daughter.
2. The book is not mine. 3. Do you know anyone? 4. I live in the room.
The cover of it is red. His family is in Xi’an.
The book whose cover is red is not mine ( The book the cover of which is red is not mine) ________________________________________________________________ The windows of it face south. The leg of it was broken. ________________________________________________________________ 5. The chair has been repaired. ________________________________________________________________ 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 1、限制性定语从句：从句与主句关系密切，去掉从句，主句意义不完整，甚至不合逻辑。 e.g. I was the only person in our office who was invited.（去掉定语从句，意思就不完整） 2、非限制性定语从句：从句对先行词关系不密切，去掉定从句，意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号 隔开，不能 that 用引导。 e.g. Tom’s father, who is over sixty, still works hard day and night. （who 引导非限制性定语从句，整个句子可分成两句来翻译） that 与 which 的区别 1）用 that 而不用 which 的情况 ① 先行词为不定代词 all, anything, nothing, …；② 先行词有最高级修饰，有序数词修饰； ③ 先行词有 only, very, any 等词修饰； ④ 先行词既有人又有物时。 e.g. There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it. 没有什么能阻止他不干那件事。 The first place that they visited in Guilin was Elephant Trunk Hill. 在桂林他们所参观的第一个 地方是象鼻山。 ______________________________________ _______________________________________ 这部电影是我看过的最好的一部。 史密斯先生是他认识的唯一的外国人。
2）用 which 而不用 that 的情况： ① 引导非限制性定语从句； ② 指代前面整个主句的意思； ③ 介词 + 关系代词。 e.g. He had failed in the maths exam, which made his father very angry. This is the room in which my father lived last year. 找出句中的从句并圈出先行词说出关系代词在从句中的成分 1. What is the address of the factory whose advertisement we noticed the other day. 2. I saw some trees whose leaves were black with disease. 3. It was a meeting whose importance I didn’t realize at the time. 4. The Great Wall was the first place that went to visit while they were in China. 5. Miss Smith, who you met at our house, is going to marry Mr. Harry. 6. He failed in the exam, which made his classmates surprised.
第三讲 关系代词在从句中作介词宾语时，介词常可以提前， 但介词提前时，关系代词只能用 which 或 whom e.g. 1. The man is a famous runner. You talked to him just now. The man to whom you talk just now is a famous runner.
2. The chair is made of wood. 3. He is a library assistant. 4. It is a famous school.
He is sitting on it now. I borrowed some books from him.
The chair on which he is sitting now is made of wood. _________________________________________________________ He graduated from it 3 years ago. _________________________________________________________ 介词的确定应依据定语从句中短语的习惯性搭配， Who is the girl with whom you just shook hands?(shake hands with…是习惯性搭配) 介词常受先行词的制约（即介词和先行词的搭配） ， He built a telescope through which he could study the skies.(through which 即 through the telescope) 有一些动词短语中的介词是固定搭配，不可以拆开， (look after e.g. 5. He is the student. / The teachers are looking for him. He is the student who the teachers are looking for. 6. The number of the children is 30. / She takes care of the children. The number of the children who she takes care of is 30. 找出句中的从句并圈出先行词说出关系代词在从句中的成分 1. This is the house about which we wrote to you. 2. Wu Dong, with whom I went to the concert, enjoyed it very much. 3. He used to live in a big house in front of which grew many banana trees. 4. This is Peter in whose house I have lived for five years. take care of look for)
第四讲 关系副词： when 代替: e.g. 1. I will never forget the day./ I went to university on that day. I will never forget the day when/ on which I went to university. 2. He still remember the morning. / The earthquake happened on that morning. ______________________________________________________________ 当先行词是表示地点的名词，用 where，在定语从句中充当地点状语，这时一般可以用介词＋which 来代替: e.g. 3. This is the house. / He used to live in the house. This is the house where/ in which he used to live. 4. I know of a place. / We can swim in that place. _____________________________________________________________ 先行词是表示原因的名词，即 reason，用 why，在定语从句中充当原因状语，这时一般可以用 for ＋ which 来代替: e.g. 5. I don’t know the reason. / He did it for this reason.
当先行词是表示时间的名词，用 when，在定语从句中充当时间状语，这时一般可以用介词＋which 来
I don’t know the reason why/ for which he did it. 6. The reason was not clear. / He was fired for it. ___________________________________________________________ 找出句中的从句并圈出先行词说出关系代词在从句中的成分 1. I know a forest where you can find wild strawberries. 2. Is there any reason why you should have a holiday. 3. I will show you the way to the Friendship Hotel where foreign visitors are staying. 4. Be sure to call on us next time when you come to town. 5. We shall never forget the days when we were united as one to fight against the Japanese.
第五讲 注意点：要注意判断关系词及关系词在从句中所充当的成分。 e.g. 1. This is the house This is the house. He visited it yesterday. He once lived in it.
This is the house which/that / / he visited yesterday. This is the house where/in which he once lived. 2. We will remember the day. We will remember the day. We spent the day together. We worked on this day together.
___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 找出句中的从句并圈出先行词说出关系代词在从句中的成分 1. I will show you to the factory which produces this kind of TV sets. 2. I will show you to the factory where he has worked for five years. 3. I will show you to the factory whose workers are all disabled people. 4. I will show you to the factory which your factory once visited five years ago.
第六讲 定语从句时特别注意的几个问题 as 引导定语从句时的用法 1. as 引导限制性定语从句通常用于 the same … as, such … as 结构中。 e.g. Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China. 我们车间使用的这种机器是 中国制造的。 ________________________________________________ 我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。 2. as 引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前，也可放在主句之后，用来修饰整个句子。常用下 列句型: as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。 e.g. As I expected, he got the first place again in this mid-term examination. 正如我所预料的那样，他 在这次期中考试中又获得了第一名。 关系代词在从句中作主语时，从句的谓语动词单数还是用复数应由先行词决定。 e.g. The man who lives downstairs speaks English fluently.
The students who are in Grade Three are going to climb the hill tomorrow. He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks.（one 为先行词） He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.（students 为先行词） 定语从句有时不直接紧靠先行词，中间由一个定语、状语或谓语隔开。 e.g. There is an expression in his eyes that I can’t understand. 引导定语从句的关系副词有时可以用“介词 + which”来代替。 e.g. October 1, 1949 was the day on which ( = when ) the People’s Republic of China was founded. 几个特殊的定语从句句型： 1. Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday? Is this the place(that / which)we visited yesterday ? 2. situation 后常用 where,in which 引导定语从句： Can you imagine a situation where/in which you can use the word? 3. way(方式，方法)后常用 in which 或 that 或省略来引导定语从句，也可省略： Do you know the way(in which/that/how) he worked out the problem? 4. He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening. It may rain, in which case the match will be put off. 找出句中的从句并圈出先行词说出关系代词在从句中的成分 1. He is a teacher, as is clear form his manner. 2. As is known to all, water resources are very limited on the earth. 3. He used such expressions as he could find in the texts. 4. They stayed for the night in the same room as they had once rented 5. I don’t like the way he speaks. 6. He is one of the students who know the Japanese. 7. He is the only one of the students who knows the Japanese. 定语从句配套练习 第一讲 一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句： 1. The fan is on the desk. You want it. 2. The man is in the next room. He brought our textbooks here yesterday. 3. The magazine is mine. He has taken it away. 4. The students will not pass the exam . They don’t study hard. 5. The woman is our geography teacher. You saw her in the park. 6. The letter is from my sister. I received it yesterday. 7. The play was wonderful. We saw it last night. 8. The train was late. It was going to Nanning. 9. The boy is my brother. He was here a minute ago. 10. The tree is quite tall. He is climbing it.
The thief who had robbed the man was caught by the policeman. I have to make up for the test that I missed last week. The car I hired broke down on my way home. Thank you very much for the present you sent me.
Do you know anyone who wants to buy a second-hand motorbike. 第二讲 一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句： 1. Here is the girl. Her brother works in this shop. 2. That’s the child. We were looking at his drawing just now. 3. This is the boy. His sister is a famous singer. 4. I want to talk to the boys. Their homework haven’t been handed in. 5. Is that the woman? Her daughter is in my class. 把下列每对句子合并成含有非限制性定语从句的主从复合句： 6. He has a brother. He is an artist. 7. This poem was written by the famous writer. Almost everybody knows it. 8. They have invited me to dinner. It is very kind of them. 9. My father arrived at the town yesterday. He had been on a visit to American. 10. The travelers took another road. They knew about the floods. 用 that 、which 或 whose 将下列每一组句子合并成一个含有定语从句的复合句 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. A plane is a machine. A plane can fly. Tea is mostly from China. It is loved by many peoples in the world. All the students in my class like the book. The book tells about Harry Porter. I have a very smart brother. He is only seventeen years old now. An earthquake happened in 1976. The earthquake totally destroyed Tangshan. Everybody wants to enjoy the picture. You took the picture just yesterday. My wife is a very efficient woman. Her class always comes out first in the school. I stayed in a nice room in Qingdao. The window of the room opens to the sea. I’m sorry to have killed the hen. It lays ten eggs every day on average.
10. I like this new book very much. Its cover is designed by a friend of mine. 11. In front of my village flows a small river. It is not polluted yet. 12. Who is the gentleman? He is standing over there. 13. Did you see a novel named The Godfather? It was on my desk just now. 14. I used to work with a computer company. The company has a staff of over 600. 15. B. Gates is the richest man in the world. His wealth comes to some $50 billion. 16. These are the books. You will need them. 17. The car broke down halfway to Hangzhou. We were driving the car there. 18. Lecture Room（百家讲坛） is a famous program. Many people like it. 19. China is an ancient country. Its history covers about 5,000 years. 20. My father is a teacher of physics. His job is taking care of his students.
第三讲 一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句： 16. The service should be improved. The students complain a lot about it. 17. They passed a factory. At the back of the factory there were rice fields. 18. The soldier ran to the building. On the top of it flew a flag.
19. In the evening they arrived at a hill. At the foot of the hill there was a temple. 20. She came into a big room. In the middle of it stood a large table.
二、根据句子意思， 填入介词加关系代词费 1. The person _____ I spoke just now is the manager that I told you about. 2. The pencil _____ he was writing broke. 4. The two things _____ Marx was not sure were the grammar and some of the idioms of English. 5. Her bag, ____ she put all her books, has not been found. 6. The stories about the Long March, _____ this is one example, are well written. 7. The ship, ______ the Europeans sailed to the American continent, was called the Mayflower. 8. The family _______ I stayed in Rome is coming to England soon. 9. He has written a book, the name _____ I have completely forgotten. 10. It is a family of eight children, all _______ are studying music. 11. Can you suggest a time ______ it will be convenient to meet. 12. The town, ______ they came, was in the north of the province. 13. The fur coat ________ the lady was dressed was very expensive. 14 The emperor, ________ the palace was built, was very cruel. 15. He had a dream _______ he was taken to the amusement park. 16. The money _______ he bought the bike, was given by his grandfather. 17. Ann White, _______ we received the invitation, lives next door to us. 18. The story, ________ the film is based , is a true one. 第四讲 一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句： 1. I still remember the day. 2. Is there any shop around? We first met on the day. I can buy a pen in the shop. The American astronauts first landed on the moon in this year. I was born in this city.
3. The year 1986 was important in history. 5. The city is on the new railway line. 6. This is the reason. He left the company.
第五讲 e.g. This is the date _______ we’re proud of. This is the date _______ he was born. I will never forget the time ______ we spent together. This is the factory _______ my mother works. This is the factory _______ we visited last week. A. when B. where C. which D. that I don’t believe the reason _____ he gave for his decision. Another reason _______ he made this decision is that he had to consider the feelings of others.
一． 填上合适的关系代词或关系副词 1. A country is a nation _________ has its own government, land and population. 2. I’ve looked the words up in the dictionary _______ I borrowed from my teacher. 3. The man __have made much money do not know what to do with their money. 4. We haven’t found a language ______ would be accepted by people. 5. He went to a friend _______ knew a lot about money matters. 6. Hand signs can be useful in places ______ are very noisy and in places ______ are very quiet. 7. Mr Black would never forget the day _____ he was bitterly punished. 8. The reason _______ he did not buy the modern painting was that it was not a painting at all. 9. The winter Olympics are always held in a mountainous country ______ there is plenty of snow. 10. The greeting “Good afternoon” is given to anyone ______ you are passing quickly. 11. Tom stop to speak someone ______ makes an inquiry about friends. 12. Adults sometimes envy children, ______ can run out to play. 13. I’d like to borrow a book _______ cover is blue. 14. This is the very work _______ I’m after. 15. I have the same book _____ you lent me. 16. Some soldiers arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ________ sat a little boy. 17. This is the shop ________ sells books. 18. This is the shop ______ we can buy books. 19. I’ll never forget the day ______ we once stayed together. 20. I’ll never forget the day _______ we spent together. 二 翻译 1. 众所周知, 台湾属于中国。 2. 这是我们上个学期参观过的工厂。 3. 那把用来切面包的刀很锋利。 4. 只有二位在教室里学习的学生。 5. 我想要知道你学习的方法。 6. 他们住在一间前面有一个大花园的房屋里。 7. 这是一家生产电视机的工厂。 8. 我从不忘记我们曾一起呆过的日子。 9. 他迟到的原因是因为他未能赶上汽车。 10. 你认不认识那个和我们老师交谈的学生。 11. 这是他仅能记得的事情。 （only） 12. 他的同桌是一个让他在困难时得以依托的人。(turn to for help) 13. 众所周知，中国是一个具有悠久文明历史的国家。(As). 14. 那个在地震中失踪的男孩最终被找到了。 （who） 15. 你还记得我们拜访过的那个城市吗？(pay a visit to) 16. 李宇春所唱的歌中，哪一首是最吸引你的？(which) 17. 我所能做的所有的事情便是等待。 （all） 18. 很多中国学生非常羡慕西方人的生活方式。(way) 19. 我到超市去买了和你一样的笔。 （the same as） 20. 他们全家住在一个窗户被人打破了的房子里。 （whose）
This is the only thing that he can remember. His desk mate is a person who he can turn to for help when in trouble. His desk mate is a person to whom he can turn for help when in trouble. As is known to us all, China is a country with a long history of civilization The boy who was lost/missing in the earthquake was finally found. Do you still remember the city that we have paid a visit to? Do you still remember the city to which we have paid a visit? Which of the songs that has been sung by Li Yuchun most attracts you? All that I can do is to wait. Many Chinese students envy the way (that/in which) the westerners live. I bought the same pen as you did in the supermarket. The whole family lived in the house whose window had been broken by others.
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