1. He was born in 1995. 2. When I was a child , I was taken to Shanghai once.
有两个特点，一是表示动作或 状态发生在过去，而不是现在， 常伴有表示过去的时间状语； 二是说话人在心中对动作发生 或状态存在的时间是明确的。
r />Past simple I 他们两年前在南美洲。
They were in South America two years ago.
He learnt hard and made rapid progress in last term.
Past simple II
He came to the laboratory twice a week.
He was always the first to come
used to smoke.
During the vocation he would 表示过去经常反复发生的动作。
swim in the sea.
常用used to /would do
Past simple III
Mr. Wang 告诉我们第二天早上开始上课。
He told me that he would not leave until I came.
Mr. Wang told us that school opened the following morning.
His mother said she would wait until her son come back.
在时间和条件，方式，让步状语从 Tom 告诉我第二天早上来。 句中表示将来发生的动作，用一般 Tom told me that he would come the 过去时表示。 following morning.
Past simple Iv
I didn’t know you were a teacher.
I thought you were in London.
一般过去时中始料未及的，表示过 去的意识，心态，看法等与现在不 同，常有动词：know, realize, guess, expect ,recognize , mean.
1. At this moment yesterday, I was packing for camp.
2. What were you doing at eight last night?
表示某个时间正在发 生、进行的动作。句 past continuous 子常有表示“过去某 个时间点”的状语。
Past continuous I
1.I was drawing a horse when the teacher came in . 表示过去某一时刻，或某一段时间 2. I was mending my bike at ten o’clock 内正在进行的或持续进行的动作。 yesterday. 3. I was washing my hair when knocked 如： a moment ago, thenyou , at that the door. time , at 9 o’clock, all morning , 4. He was working in a car factory during when …….2004 the summer
Past continuous II
1.He told me that he was leaving for New York the next month.
表示按计划，安排过去某时即将发 2.They were leaving a few days after. 生的动作，但仅限于 3.She whether he was comewondered ,go ,leave ,start, coming back. arrive ,begin, return, fly, drive, do ,have…….
Past continuous III
1.He was always changing his mind.
与always ,frequently, usually等副 2.The two brothers were frequently quarrelling, 词连用，带有感情色彩。如，赞扬， 3.My mother was always losing keys. 责备，抱怨等，用过去进行时。
1.We had learnt four thousand new words by the end of last year. They had no sooner got home than it began to rain. He asked me whether I had seen the film the night before. said/ told/ thought/ wondered 2. We had hoped to catch the 9:30 train, but we failed to.
1.动作发生的时间是“过去的过去” 常带有by(the end of) +过去某时刻, 2.表示由过去某一时间开始，延续到 过去另一时间的动作着这个动作还 可能延续下去。since, for, when, before 3.表示过去未曾实现的愿望 “本打 算（希望）…” hope, want, expect, think, mean,
Past perfect I
表示过去某个时间或动作之前已经 2. The film had already begun when I 发生的动作或已经存在的状态，可 got there . 用： by ,when, before, until 等引导 3. They had left before I returned. 的状语从句。
4. I had learnt 5,000 words when I entered the university.
1. He had completed his studies by the end of last year.
Past perfect II
1.I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.
2. 他睡觉前赶来12个小时。 3. 旱了好几个月昨天才下雨。
1. Before he slept , he had worked for 12 hours .
2. It rained yesterday after it had been dry for many months. 表示从过去某个时间开始，一直延
Past perfect III
3. 他刚一入睡电话就再次的响起了。 1.I had no sooner arrived home than it began to rain.
2.We had hardly arrived when she started complained.
No sooner ….than ; 3.No sooner had he gone to sleep than hardly …when… ; more. telephone rang once Scarcely ….when….
一般过去时表示过去已 经发生的动作或存在的 状态，强调一种事实或 结果；而过去进行时表 示过去某时正在持续进 行的动作或尚未完成的 动作，强调过程。 Mary wrote a letter to her friend last night.
Mary was writing a letter to her friend last night.
一般过去时 与 过去进行时 的区别
一般过去时 与 过去完成时的 区别
一般过去时表示动作发 生在过去某时(其时间参 照点是现在)，而过去完 成时则表示动作发生在 过去某时之前(其时间参 照点是过去)。
They had done the work before I returned. They did the work at five o’clock.
?Match the sentences with the names of the tenses.
1. He survived.
past simple past continuous past perfect
2. He was driving a lorry. 3. He had had lots of jobs.
?Read the sentences and answer the questions.
1. Before he volunteered to direct traffic, Timoteo had had lots of jobs. 2. He was driving a lorry when he came off the
3. Somehow he survived.
a. Which tense refers to actions in the past? b. Which tense refers to an action in progress when another thing happened? c. Which tense refers to something which happened before something else?
Key: a. past simple b. past continuous c.past perfect
? Complete the passage in exercise 4 with the correct form of the verbs.
Key: (1) had done (2) was waiting (3) had seen (4) had asked (5) was crying (6) left (7) ran (8) was talking (9) had finished (10) did (11) knew (12) had happened (13) had forgotten (14) took (15) had frozen
1. I ______ c while reading the English textbook. Luckily, my roommate woke me up in time! (04北京春 34) A. had fallen asleep C. fell asleep find it. （04 四川 30） A. asked C. was asking B. ask D. had asked B. have fallen asleep D. fall asleep
A you not to move my dictionary ----now I can' t 2. I ____
3. My mind wasn’t on what he was saying so I’m afraid I ____ D half of it. （NMET2004 30） A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss D. missed 4. –You haven’t said a word about my new coat, Brenda. Do you like it? D anything about it sooner. I certainly --I’m sorry I ___ think it’s pretty on you. (NMET 2002 23) A. wasn’t saying B. don’t say B. C. won’t say D. didn’t say
B her heart out because she ___ 5. The little girl ___
her toy bear and believed she wasn’t ever going to
find it. (02北京 21)
A. had cried; lost B. cried; had lost
C. has cried; has lost
D. cries; has lost
6. The teacher, with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class,
A visiting a museum when the earthquake ___
struck. (04 北京 28) A. was B. were C. had been D. would be
7. I first met Lisa three years ago. She ___ B at a radio shop at the time. (NMET97 10)
A. has worked
C. had been working
B. was working
D. had worked
8. Shirley ___ D a book about China last year but I don’t
know whether she has finished it. (NMET98 20) A. has written C. had written B. wrote D. was writing
9. -- Has Sam finished his homework today? -- I have no idea. He ____ it this morning. （04四川 25） A. did B. has done C. was doing D. had done 10.－Sorry to have interrupted you. Please go on. －Where was I? －You ______ you didn’t like your father’s job. (04 北京春 24) A. had said B. said C. were saying D. had been saying 11. --Hey, look where you are going! --Oh, I’m terribly sorry. _____. (NMET99 24) A. I’m not noticing B. I wasn’t noticing C. I haven’t noticed D. I don’t notice
1.The pen ______ well. A. writes B. wrote C. is written D. has written 2.I have much work _________. A. to do B. to be done C. to be doing D. to have done 3.Do you have any work _____ now? I’m free. A. to do B. to be done C. to be doing D. to have done
1. I arrived late; I _____ the road to be so icy. (2004北京春) A. wouldn’t expect B. haven’t expected C. hadn’t expected D. wasn’t expecting 2. —John took a photograph of you just now. —Really? What a pity! I____. A. didn’t look B. wasn’t looking C. hadn’t looked D. haven’t looked
3. What we used to think ____ impossible now does seem possible. (2006天津) A.is B. was C. has been D. will be 4. I ____ in London for many years, but I’ve never regretted my final decision to move back to China. (2006重庆) A. lived B. was living C. have lived D. had lived
5. The young girl sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. She ____ before. (2006广东)
A. hasn’t flown C. hadn’t flown B. didn’t fly D. wasn’t flying
6. When he turned professional at the age of 11, Mike ____ to become a world champion by his coach and parents. (2006上 海)
B. was expecting
C. was expected
D. would be expected
7. I ____ along the street looking for a place to park when the accident ____. (2006安徽) A. went; was occurring B. went; occurred C. was going; occurred D. was going; had occurred
8. The moment the 28th Olympic Games ____ open, the whole world cheered. (2006福建) A. declared B. have been declared C. have declared D. were declared
9. I was giving a talk to a large group of people, the same talk I ____ to half a dozen other groups. (2006湖南) A. was giving B. am giving C. had given D. have given
10. In a room above the store, where a party ____, some workers were busily setting the table. (2006湖南) A.was to be held B. has been held C. will be held D. is being held
11. My cousin went to Canada two years ago. He ____ there for a few months and then went to America. (2006江西) A. worked B. would work C. would be working D. has been working
12. It is said that the early European playing—cards ____ for entertainment and education. (2006辽宁) A. were being designed B. have designed C. have been designed D. were designed
13. —You look very tired. ____ at all last night? —No, not really. I’m tired out now. (2006陕西) A. Do you sleep B. Were you sleeping C. Did you sleep D. Had you slept
14. _______ the right kind of training , these teenage soccer players may one day grew the international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given 15. —You speak very good French! —Thanks. I __________ French in Sichuan University for four years. A. studied B. study C. was studying D. had studied
责备、后悔,常用情态动词must, may (might), can(could), should(ought to), would 等＋have＋过去分词表示。依据说 话人的语气或推测的把握程度不同,使用的 情态动词也不同。
must have done
May/migh may/migh t t do may/migh t have done Can/could can/could can/could do have done
否定句， 疑问句 （could可 用于肯定
e.g. If he had really been there, I must have seen him.
2. can (could)＋have＋过去分词 表示对过去发生的动作或存在的状态
Where can he have gone?
Jim cant have been at home yesterday.
3. may/might＋have＋过去分词 表示对过去发生的动作或存在的状 态进行的不肯定的推测,语气比使用 can (could)弱。might的语气比may 更弱。
She may have read the book.
He might not have got your letter.
或不需要做的事情,表示“本来不 必……”。 You needn’t have told him the news. 你没有必要告诉他那消息。
5. should/ought to＋have＋过去分词 肯定式表示“过去本应做某事(但 没做)”;否定式表示“过去不该做 某事(但做了)”,含有不满或责备之 意。 You’re right. I should have thought of that. She ought to have come earlier.
表示过去本来要做某事却因某种原因 未做,用来说明某种情况,不含有责备 之意。 I would have written to you earlier but I have been ill. 我本来要早点给你写信,但我生病了。
If I had seen the advertisement, I would have applied for the job. 我 要是看见那个广告了, 我就申请那
1. John _____ a better job, but he was
A. should do
C. could do
B. must have done
D. could have done
2. -- I don’t know why he is late.
-- Nor do I. He __ have had an accident.
A. can B. should C. might D. must
3. He must have seen the inspector last
night, ____ he?
A. mustn’t B. hasn’t
4. --Mary looks sad. Did you tell her about the accident? --Yes, but I ____ have told her. A. should B. shouldn't C. must D. ought to not 5. The playground is all wet. It ___ rained last night. A. had B. can have C. should have D. must have
6. We _____ have hurried. We had to wait twenty minutes before the meeting began. A. needn’t C. must B. should D. couldn’t
7. -- Who told you my address?
--I don’t remember clearly. It __ Tom.
--It ____ Tom. He doesn’t know it.
A. may have been; can't be B. can be; mustn’t be C. must have been; can’t have been D. may have been; mustn’t have been
8. John passed the exam. He didn’t study very hard. The exam __ difficult. A. can’t have been B. must have been C. couldn’t be D. might have been 9. She ____ have gone to college, but she didn’t pass the exam. A. might B. would C. must D. need
10. It’s already eleven o’clock. He _____to bed. A. must have gone B. must go C. should have gone D. can’t have gone
? 5. I was on the highway when this car went past followed by a police car . They _____ at least 150 kilometers an hour . A.should have been doingB.must have been ___ doing C. could have done D. would have done ? 6. --- The woman biologist stayed in Africa studying wide animals for 13 years before she returned . ----- Oh , dear! She___ ____ a lot of difficulties ! A. may go though B. must have gone though C. ought to have gone though D. might go though
7.---Tom is never late for work .Why is he absent today? ---Something______ to him. A. must happen B. should have happened C. could have happened ____ D. must have happened 8.---Do you know where David is? I couldn’t find him anywhere? ----Well. He ____ have gone far—his coat’s still here. A. shouldn’t B. mustn’t ___ C. can’t D. wouldn’t 9.—Lucy doestn’t mind lending you her dictionary. -----She _____. I’ve already borrowed one. A. can’t B. mustn’t ___ C. needn’t D. shouldn’t
?Complete the sentences in exercise 1 on page 17.
1. “I visited China last year.” “That must have been __________________ interesting!” 2. “I looked after a group of fifteen French can’t have been children.” “ That __________________ easy!”
might 3. They _____________ have got lost, or had an accident.
a. Which sentences show that the speaker is certain about
1 and 2
b. Which sentence refers to a possibility in the past?
?Complete the sentences with must, can’t or might.
1. “ When I was younger, I worked as a must have been hard.” miner.” “ That ______ 2. I’m surprised David didn’t apply for the job. He ______ have seen the can’t advertisement.
3. “ Where’s Sam?” “ I don’t know. He might _______ have gone to the meeting. 4. I don’t know why the manager didn’t might reply. He _______ not have received our letter. must 5. Jackie looks happy. They ________ have increased his salary. 6. The secretary wasn’t listening. She can’t _______ have heard what I said.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
permanent--- temporary pay---salary assistant staff contract earn career prospects
salary/ pay contract staff permanent earn
data analyst firefighter lorry driver school teacher social worker travel agent
1. Have you every driven a large vehicle? 2. Do you speak any foreign language? 3. What experience do you have with computers? 4. Are you interested in primary or secondary education? 5. Do you enjoy working with people? 6. How strong are you?
1- lorry driver 2- travel agent 3- data analyst 4- school teacher 5- social worker 6- fire fighter
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