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LANGUAGE

Reminding and Disciplines
ABCD Principle: Attentive and Active Behave yourself Critical Diligent

The Importance of Review

Uni

t 1 Body Language

Teaching steps
1. Pre-reading: brainstorming & video watching 2. While reading: Skimming and scanning 3. Post reading: summary, story retelling and discussion

What does body language mean?
-Body Language is a form of non-verbal communication.

-It includes facial expressions, gestures, posture.

Body Language shows our feelings…
confidence

What do their body languages show?

excitement

I will win the game

closeness hostility

Facial expressions
surprise

anger

sadness; sorrow

Happiness

Smile Politeness, friendliness

Gestures: What do they want to express?

victory

praise

Welcome and friendliness

Discussion
When and where do people use more body languages than spoken languages? -Direct traffic -Judges of the sports -Ask for help from foreigners

Body language in communication
Watch the short video clip from “The Big Bang Theory” and answer questions:

Leonard Sheldon

Penny

Questions:
1. What are the different body languages of Leonard, Sheldon and Penny?

2. What do their body languages tell you?
3. What is the importance of body languages in daily communication (using your own examples)?

Different Body Languages in daily communication

Leonard and Sheldon
Greets nervously and smiles unnaturally; Look somewhere else instead of at others’ eyes, and often look down while talking; (Sheldon) twists his fingers while talking

Penny

Smiles and greets cheerfully, looks at other people’s eyes

Nervous, friendly

Sociable, welcome

While reading: Skimming
Skimming means looking at titles and headings, pictures and diagrams, and certain sentences in a passage (such as the first and last sentences). When we skim a piece of reading, we read it very quickly in order to get the general idea of the reading. When we skim, we skip the unimportant parts. While skimming a passage, look for clues to what it is about and you can ask yourself questions with who, what, when, where, why and how. This takes only one minute or two.

Answer those questions after the first reading: 1. What is the main topic of the story? Body language.

2. Where are Debbie and Simon? At a travel agency.
3. Who gives Simon advice?
Mr Young.

Find the words in the story that have meanings similar to these. glance _________ 1. to take a brief look at 2. to breathe deeply and heavily 3. to like sb. better than sb. else sigh _______ prefer _______ communicate _______ gesture _______

4. to show or tell one’s thoughts or feelings to others
5. movement of hands or body to emphasize or help to express a thought or feeling

6. the look on one’s face
7. outward or visible aspect of a person or thing 9. help or support 10. to help sb. remember sth. important

expression _________ appearance _______

impression _______ 8. a clear and telling mental image
assistance _______ remind _______

Complete the dialogue below using the words in the box.
impression hesitation gestures remind remark Jim: I’m worried about my speech in the English contest tomorrow. I impression in front of others. always have trouble making a good _________
hesitation when you speak. Anne: You show too much _________

Jim: Really?
remark Anne: Yes, other people _________ about that.

Jim: What can I do?
remind Anne: Well, I can _________ you to speed up during the speech.

Jim: How?
gestures to you. Anne: I can make _________

Read this passage again and fill in blanks in the table.
Characters Setting Situation Problem
Reasons Solution Outcome
Debbie, Simon, Mr. Yang in a travel agency a lady… looked unhappy; prefer Debbie to him different body languages improve his body language A beautiful girl entered, went to Simon and gave a big smile

Scanning:

Put the events of the story in the correct order.
a. Mr. Yang said that body language is important. b. The lady walked over to Debbie instead of Simon. c. Simon began to sit up and smiled. d. A well-dressed lady entered the travel agency. e. Mr. Yang said that Debbie made others feel welcome. f. Simon’s sister reminded him of his birthday. g. Simon walked over to the fax machine. h. Mr. Yang said that Simon looked downwards.

d-b-g-a-e-h-c-f

Read again and answer the questions.
1. Why did Simon not look happy? Because people always preferred Debbie to him.
2. What are the three aspects of communicating? Speaking, listening and body language. 3. Why do people prefer to talk to Debbie? Because Debbie’s body language makes them feel welcome.

4. Why do people not go to Simon for assistance? Because his body language tells people to go away. 5. What happened after Simon decided to sit up and smile at people? A girl entered and sat down opposite him without hesitation. 6. Who was the girl that walked over to Simon? The girl was Simon’s sister.

What is/are the topic sentence/sentences of this passage?
Communicating is more than speaking and listening. Your body language is important too. (Line 15那段)

What is body language?
It is the way you sit and stand. It is your gestures and the expression on your face and in your eyes.
Your whole appearance communicates things.

Further reading What are the different body languages of Debbie and Simon and the different effects?

Name

Debbie

Simon

Body languages

greets cheerfully holds her head up looks at the customer’s eyes smiles

sighs
rests his head on the hand looks downwards never smiles

Effects

Turn her head or body towards people makes others feel welcome; assistance

doesn‘t turn her head or body toward people

tells people to go away

Post reading 1. Consolidation: summary
Simon is phoning a friend about his experience. Fill in the blanks. The first letters have been given. senior I spoke to Mr Yang today. He’s one of Sunbeam Travel’s ______ prefer to employees. I told him that our customers always ______ deal with Debbie. He told me the problem might be the way I communicate He explained to me about ______ ______________. body language. He said that I was not giving customers a good __________. impression away My body language was telling customers to go ________, instead of making them feel ________. welcome So now I’m trying to improve my body language. _________

Post reading
2. Free talk:

What is the importance of body languages in daily communication (using your own examples)? who when 5W1H

what
where

why
how

The importance of body languages
-show friendliness -show politeness -show respect

2. Discussion
The 2014 Nanjing Youth Olympic Games impress many people. Our government is advocating(倡导) excellent etiquette(礼仪). As hosts, how did we greet friends both at home and abroad?

The following pictures may help you:

Language points
1. Debbie and Simon look up as a welldressed lady entered.

=A lady who dressed well came in and Debbie and Simon looked up. 造句:作为办公室职员,她总是衣着得体。 As an office lady, she is always well dressed.

Well-dressed
副词+过去分词=复合形容词 一所新建的学校:

一个著名的科学家:
一个中年妇女: 一个表现良好的士兵: 一个高薪工作:

Debbie greeted her cheerfully.
Greet sb. Greeting n. 问候 Please give my greetings to your parents.

2. The lady glanced at them both. glance v. & n. 匆匆一看
glance through

glance at

glance over the shoulder

Glance at=take/have/cast a glance at 1. The general glanced at his soldiers and then started his speech. 将军扫视了一下士兵,然后开始演 讲。
2. I had no time so I just take/have/cast a glance at the headlines of the newspaper. 我没有时间,所以只是匆匆看了一下报纸 的标题。

Practice:
At first glance
乍一看,这块手表没有什么特殊之处,但其实它是 个手机。(There Be)

At first glance, there is nothing special about/
on(?) this watch, but in fact it is a cell phone.

3. Simon sighed and took some papers over to the fax machine.
Sigh: to make a noise by breathing out deeply because one is tired, sad or relieved. 叹气 Sigh with relief 舒了一口气 Give/ let out a sigh Stop sighing, and try to be optimistic. 别叹气,乐观点。

sigh: 叹气 Sign:标志,记号,符号;vt. 指示,标志

Signal: 信号,暗号

vt. 指示,用信号表示

Sign, signal, sigh
1. His face and movements rarely betrayed a sign of nerves. ______

2. In most cultures, nodding one’s head _____ signals agreement or approval.
3. After a whole day’s hard work, he ______ sighs with relief.

4. Mr. Yang, a senior

employee, was standing there.
=Mr. Yang was a senior employee and he was standing there. =Mr. Yang, who was a senior employee, was standing there.

造句:我们尊敬的(respectable)班主 任叶老师教我们语文。

Mr. Ye, our respectable head teacher, teaches us Chinese.

Senior: high in rank or

position

Mycroft Holmes is a senior government official. Mycroft Holmes是位政府高级官员. Mycroft Holmes is senior to Sherlock Holmes. A is senior to B
Now I have been promoted to CEO, so nobody is senior to me.
我现在已经被提升为执行总裁,没有人比我级别高.

高中:Senior high school 初中:junior high school be junior to sb.

What’s up, Simon? You don’t look very happy.
What happens?/what is wrong? What is up with the family? On my way over here, I stepped in gum. …What is up with the universe?!
而在我来这里的路上,我踩到了口香 糖…这个世界到底是怎么回事?

employee:
Employ: v. 雇用 employee: n. 雇员 employer: n. 雇主 More examples: Interviewer, interviewee Trainer, trainee

5. People always prefer Debbie to me.
prefer v. to like sth. better (1)Prefer A to B Which one do you prefer, English or Chinese? I prefer English to Chinese. (2)Prefer doing A to Doing B I prefer reading English to reading Chinese. (3)Prefer to do sth. We prefer to read English stories. (4)Prefer to do A rather than do B.

He prefers to watch television rather than listen to radio.

Listen and translate:
Some people prefer camping outside to staying in hotels.

=Some people prefer to camp outside rather than stay in hotel.

Practice

prefer A to B (A, B are n./pron.) prefer doing A to doing B prefer to do A (rather than do B)

6. It is the way you communicate.
Communicate: to give information to others, to contact people交流,与他人联系

communicate with sb. 与…沟通;通话
communicate in… 用...语言沟通

interpersonal communication 人际交往 ; 人 际交流
intercultural communication 跨文化交际

Listen and Guess the meaning:
Officials in this agency depend heavily on e-mail to communicate with each other. 这个机构的官员们很大程度上靠 电子邮件相互交流。

It’s the way you communicate. It’s the way you stand and sit. The way you look at people doesn’t give them a good impression. you communicate. That is the way that you communicate. in which you communicate. The way (that/in which) the parents treated the children improperly tensed their relationship. 父母对待孩子不恰当的方式使得他们关系紧 张。

7. Communicating is more than speaking and listening.
=Communicating is not just speaking and listening.
More than: 不仅仅是 The shopping mall is more than a place for shopping, and it is also a good place for entertainment. More than:very(放在形容词前) I am more than excited to enter Meishan High School.

8. It is your gestures and the expression on your face and in your eyes.
Gesture: a movement of one’s head and hand as part of communication 手势,姿势

expression:
(1) a look on one’s face that communicates things Facial expression:面部表情 See Page 2 A: Guess the facial expressions

What feelings our face expresses: Anger, happiness, excitement, surprise, puzzle,
embarrassment

guilty; sorrow

disappointment

(2) Expression:
Words and expressions: 词语与词组 expressions: phrases

8. Your whole appearance communicates things.
Appearance: the way someone or something looks 外貌;出现
Appear: v. 出现 It was the president’s second public appearance to date.这是迄今该总统的第二次公开露面。

造句:我们不应该以貌取人. We should not judge people by their appearance.

9. The way you look at people doesn’t give them a good impression.

Impression: the feeling that one gives to others 印象
造句:你给人留下的第一印象是 很重要的

The first impression you make on others is very important.

Mr. Yang came and remarked: “You made a good impression on her”.
Make/leave/create a good/bad impression on sb. 给某人留下好/坏印 象 Messi made a deep impression on all the audience in the final match of 2014 World Cup held in Brazil.

面试的时候给考官留下好印象是很重 要的。

Making a good impression on the judger in an interview is important. It is important to make a good impression on the interviewer.

impress: v. 给……留下印象 A impress B =A make a deep impression on B 造句:她的勇气给我留下了深刻的印 象。 Her courage makes/leaves a deep impression on me./Her courage impresses me.

impressive adj. 令人难忘的;感人的
造句:《当幸福来敲门》是部令人难忘的 电影。

The Pursuit of Happiness is an impressive movie.

10. You often rest your head on your hand.
11. She is holding her head

up.

12. That is why they go to her for assistance. ask sb. for assistance=ask for help assist sb. to do sth. assistant: n. 助手

13. Without hesitation she went to Simon and gave him a smile.
without hesitation 毫不犹豫 He accepted the invitation without hesitation. hesitate v. 犹豫, 不情愿 hesitate to do sth. 当有困难的时候,尽管来找我帮忙。 Do not hesitate to ask me for assistance when you are trouble.

14. Mr. Yang came over at once and remarked: “…”.
Remark: n./v.: to comment on , to make a brief statement 评论 remark that … remark on sth.
李老师评论说简在课堂上很活跃。 Miss Li remarked that Jane was very active in class. 评论别人的外貌是不礼貌的。 It is not polite to remark on others’ appearance.

15. She wanted to remind me that tomorrow is her birthday.
(1)remind sb. (2)remind sb. that …

(3)remind sb. to do sth.
about sth. 提醒某人某事 (4)Remind sb. of sth. 提醒某人想起(过去曾相识的 人或曾发生的事)

1. I must pay the gas bill tomorrow, please remind me about it. 2. That beautiful song reminds me of the wonderful holiday spent in Europe. 3. 妈妈提醒我外出旅行的时候不要吃不健康的 食物。 My mother reminds me not to eat unhealthy food while travelling.

4. 我们应该提醒乘客飞行期间不得吸烟。
We should remind the passages that smoking is not allowed during flight.

Grammar
Aspect Time Present Past Future Past future

★Tenses:
Simple
Continuous
am/is/are + doing was/were + doing will be + doing

Perfect
have/has + done

do

did
will +do
would/ should + do

had done
will have + done

Grammar
aspect Time

★Tenses:
Perfect Simple Continuous Perfect continuous do
am/is/are + doing have/has + done have/has + been doing

Present
Past Future Past future

did
will +do
would/ should + do

was/were + doing
will be + doing

had done
will have + done

had been doing
will have been doing

would be would have would have been + doing + done + doing

Simple present
1. When a person _________ under unusual stress he should be careful to have a wellbalanced diet. A.is B. were C.be D. was Things we do often
every…, sometimes, often, usually, on Sunday

2. The sun ________ in the east.

A. rise B. rises C. rose D. is rising Galileo proved that the earth ________ (run) around the sun. runs

Things which are always true

Extension Simple present: time in the

future

1. I’ll participate in the game if it doesn’t rain. I’ll let him know as soon as he comes.
用在以(if , unless, before, as soon as , when , once)引导的时 间和条件状语从句中,表示将 来时

2. Make sure (that) all the windows are

closed before you leave. Be sure (that) you finish it today. See to it (that) the door is locked before you go out. Make sure, be sure, make certain, see to + that从句

Present continuous
1. Don’t disturb him. He_____ to the weather forecast. A. listens C. is listening B. is being listened D. has listened

Things which are happening now, at this moment

2. He is leaving for Shanghai tonight. She is coming home on Tuesday. Future plans

Come, go, leave, have, arrive, get, sleep, spend, start, stay, work, see, wear, meet, return

3. You are always changing your

mind. My wife is forever criticizing me.
与always, constantly, forever, continually 等词连用,表示反复发 生的动作或持续存在的状态;带有说 话人的主观色彩

Note

present continuous

simple present

Verbs of the senses: hear, see, smell, taste, sound, feel, look
Verbs of thinking: believe, know, mean, realize, remember, think, forget, recognize, understand, satisfy Verbs of linking: dislike, fear, hate, like, love, want, surprise, prefer Verbs of possession: belong, have, own, possess

Get it ready. Here comes a bus. Look ! There flies a kite in the sky.

以 here 或 there 开头的句 子,谓语动词不用现在进行 时,而用一般现在时。

Simple future
1. The football match _______(start) in a minute.
I _____ (be) in this office this afternoon.

Predictions; things happening in the future

2.

be going to do be to do be about to do

Present perfect
构成: have (has) + Past Participle(过去分词)

1) I have already finished my homework.
IPhone 6 has just come to the market. An action which happened in the past but still has an effect on the present
不明确指出具 体时间的状语: already, yet, just, recently, lately, still, ever, so far, never 等

2) I have been a student for 15 years. So far, she has won three world championships. It has been three years since I came to Nanjing.
表示动作或状态自过去某一 时间开始,持续到现在,常 与since, for, so far, up till now, in/during/for the past(last) few years 等连用。

用于现在完成时的句型

1)在“最高级+名词”或者It/This is the first / second + 名词+ that…, that从句要用现在完成 时 It is the first time that I have visited the city. It is the third time that the boy has been late. 2)This/It is the best/only + 名词+ that…,that 从句要用现在完成时. This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. It is the only detective novel that he has 、 ever read.

Simple past
1)I stayed up last night, for I had a lot of homework to do.
An action that happened in the past and is now finished
yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982…

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。
When I was a child, I often played football in the street. Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

3)有时过去的时间隐含在情景里
I hardly recognized you, Marry.

I didn’t know you were coming .
I didn’t notice it. I forgot to tell you that I had seen this movie before.

4) 用在一些 特殊句型里:

It is time you went to bed. I'd rather you came tomorrow. It is (high) time (that)… I wish I were a bird.
句型中
Would rather, might as well, would prefer后面的 从句中,表达对现在或将 来的愿望

Past continuous
1. I _____ my breakfast when the morning post came. A. had B. had been having C. have been having D. was having
An action happening at a certain time in the past 2. The students were talking when the teacher entered the classroom this morning.

典型例题: -----“Sorry to have interrupt you , please go on.” -------Where was I ? C ------“You _________you didn’t like your father’s job.” A. had said B. said C. were saying D. had been saying
注意: 与always , constantly 等频度副词连用表达在过去一个临时 的时间段内反复进行的事情或表达某种感情色彩。

例如:During the period of recent terrorist activities, people ____ B not to touch any unattended bag (09 上海) A had always been warned B. were always being warned C. were always warning D. always warned

Past perfect
构成: had + Past participle (过去分词)
had finished (finish) the book, I _______ switched off (switch 1) After I _______

off) the light.

arrived When the police _______(arrive), the thieves ______ had run (run) away.

went to (go) the had left The train ________ (leave) before I ______ station.

An action taking place before a certain time in the past

2) before, by the time, by the end of, when + 过去时

间+句子(用过去完成时).

He said that he had learned some French before.
The new school had been built by the end of last month. 注意: no sooner… than…; hardly….when… “一… 就…” He had hardly arrived at the station when the telephone rang. No sooner had he bought Iphone 5s than Iphone 6 came to public.

3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect,

think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完 成时表示“原本…,未能…“,表示过去未能 实现的愿望或意愿 1. I _______ to come, but something happened. A. mean B. meant meaning C. had meant D.

2. He had hoped to participate in the match, but his leg was injured.

Simple future
1) be going to do He is going to give up smoking.

I am going to clean the house this afternoon.
Listen to the loud crash thunder; it is going to rain. 2) be about to do: 正要,即将,眼下即将发生的事 I am about to leave when you knock on the door. -“When is the concert supposed to start?”

- “It ____ now.”
A. is about start B. has been about to start

后面一般不接表 示将来的时间状 语

C. is about to start D. has about to start

3)be to do:预定,按照原计划、安排进行,还
可以表示责任、意向、命令或者嘱咐等

You are not to stay too late at night. You are to deliver flowers before 9 o’clock.

Past future
■ would/should+ do
表示过去某一时刻以后将发生的动作和状 态,常用在宾语从句中。如: Yesterday we decided that we should go to Shanghai next week. She said she would wait for me at the school gate.

2)过去将来时的其他表达方法

a. He met her in the doorway just as she ________ go away. A. will B. was about to C. was going to

D. would
b. I was told that the press conference was to be held the next day.


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