have been caught in a sandstorm was a terrible experience. be caught in sth. 被困在…中 to have been caught in a sandstorm 是不定 式的完成时作主语
erday they were caught in a heavy rain. He had been caught in a traffic jam.
句式分析 本句是不定式的完成式在句中作主语。不定 式短语在句中作主语，相当于名词或代词， 通常特指一次性的、具体的动作。 To master a foreign language calls for a great deal of memory work. 掌握一门外语需要大量的记忆。 To be invited to the palace ball was really an honour. 被邀请参加宫廷舞会的确是一项荣誉。
归纳拓展 动名词短语也可以在句中充当主语，泛指 经常性、抽象的动作。 Being careless is not a good habit, whatever you do. 不管你做什么事情，粗心不是一个好习 惯。
活学活用 C to sunlight for too much time will do ____ harm to one’s skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed
解析 本题考查动名词短语在句中作主语， 表示经常性的行为。句意为：暴露于阳光中 的时间过长对人的皮肤有害。
was the most frightening and the most dangerous situation I’ve ever been in. I’ve ever been in 为定语从句，修饰 situation。
in China appear to have increased in recent years as a result of “desertification”. appear to 似乎；好像 He appears to be upset today. as a result of 由……产生的结果(= because of) He could not work as a result of his illness.
归纳拓展 as a result是一个习惯短语，意为“因此； 结果”。如： He defeated all the competitors and won the scholarship as a result. He worked hard at his study. As a result, he passed the exam easily.
活学活用 As a result of his father’s sickness, he left _____________ school. As a result, he has lost He runs every day. __________ weight. As a result of exercise, he has built up his ___________ health. The flight was delayed ___________ as a result of typhoon.
is a process that happens when land becomes desert because of climate changes and because people cut down trees and dig up grass. cut down 削减；击倒 Do not cut down the tree that gives you shade. He has to cut down on the consumption of meat.
归纳拓展 cut in 插嘴
cut off 切断，停止
cut out 切下，剪下
cut open 切开
cut through 抄近路穿过；刺穿；剪断
cut up 切碎，剁碎
cut ... into halves 把……切成两半
have one’s hair cut 理发
I was just talking to Margaret when Jackson A ____. A. cut in B. cut down
C. cut out
D. cut up
解析：cut in插话, 打断别人的话; cut down 砍倒; cut out剪掉, 剪下; cut up剁碎, 砍碎。
dig up 挖出; 采掘 Newspapers love to dig up scandal.
We dug up the rose bushes and planted some cabbages.
wake up to an orange sky and strong winds that cover the city in a thick, brown-yellow dust. wake up to 意识到；发觉 He didn’t wake up to the importance of study until he joined in the work. He didn’t wake up to the seriousness of the situation.
storms sometimes continue all day and traffic moves very slowly because the thick dust makes it difficult to see. 本句中的traffic意思为“交通”； makes it difficult to see 中的to see为真正宾语， it是形式宾语。
The heavy rain made it impossible for us to get there on time. This book makes it easier for us to understand this question.
..., but the strength of the storm sometimes surprises people … 但是，风暴的力量有时令人吃惊。 strength n. 力量；力气
He hasn’t got enough strength to lift the box
She was hired on the strength of her computer skills. 基于她的计算机能力，她被录用了。
归纳拓展 have the strength of ... 有做……的力气/ 意志力 with all one’s strength 尽力 on the strength of 基于；凭借 strengthen v. 加强
易混辨异 strength / force / power / energy （1) strength常指固定潜在的力量。指人时, 着重强调“力气，长处（和weakness相 对）”; 指物时，着重强调“潜力”。 （2）force主要指非自然界的力量、暴力、 法律,道德或感情的力量;其复数形式表示 “兵力,军队”。 （3）power指“能力，权力”。 （4）energy既可以指“能量，能”，也可 以指人的“精力，活力”。
活学活用 —— 用strength, force, power, energy填空 energy (1) Old as he is, he is full of _______. (2) The boy lifted the stone with all his strength _________. (3) The release of the hostages (人质) could not be achieved without the use of force _________. power (4) As we all know, knowledge is _____. strength in his (5) He lost some of the _________ muscles when he stopped exercising.
concerned adj. 担心的；关心的；有关的 （不用于名词前） I’ m concerned about my wife’s health.
Prime Minister Li Keqiang has been concerned with the growth of the younger generation.
As far as I am concerned, the whole idea is crazy.
归纳拓展 be concerned with / in 涉及, 牵涉到; 关心 be concerned about / over / for 关心; 挂念 so / as far as ...be concerned 就……而言/来 说 concerning prep. 关于 concern n. 担忧; 关注的事情 vt. 涉及; 关系到 ; 关心; 关注; 使担忧
as concerns 关于… concern oneself with / in / about sth. 忙于(某事)；关心(某事) give no concern about ... 对……不关切 / 冷淡 express / show / feel concern about ... 对……表示关心/担心 have no concern for ... 对……毫不关心 have no concern with ... 和……毫无关系
活学活用 The speech which was ___ C with the project inspired me greatly. A. satisfied B. angry C. concerned D. pleased 解析 句意为: 和这项工程有关的演讲极大 地鼓舞了我。be concerned with ... 和…… 有关, 涉及到。
What is the most urgent problem of all? urgent adj. 紧急的; 迫切的; 非常重要的 Mark the message “urgent”, please. It is urgent that food and clothing (should) be sent to the sufferers.
归纳拓展 urgency n. 紧急；迫切 urge vt. 推进；极力主张；催促；激励 urge sb. to do ... 敦促某人做…… urge sb. into doing ... 敦促某人做…… urge sb. against 强烈反对 urge sb. on sth. 激励；为……加油 be in urgent need of 急需 It is urgent that-clause (从句中用should + 动词原形的虚拟语气) urge + that-clause 极力主张；强烈要求(从 句中用should + 动原形的虚拟语气)
A an X-ray test, and then, he The doctor ____
could make a conclusion.
A. urged me to have B. urged me having
C. urged against
D. urged on me
解析 由句意可知,此处指“敦促”我去进行 X光检查 (urge sb. to do sth.)，故选A项。C、 D两项不合题意。
complain v. 抱怨；发牢骚；投诉
She is always complaining about something. He complained to me about the food.
At present, the young always complain that their parents don’t take their view seriously.
归纳拓展 complain to sb. about sth. 某人抱怨某事 complain about / of 抱怨 … complain of doing sth. 抱怨做某事 注意 若complain后接名词作宾语, 则complain 后需要加上介词of或about；但是complain 后可以直接跟that从句。 complaint n. 抱怨；牢骚 make a complaint 提出投诉；发牢骚
活学活用 He complained to the police of the boys ___ D his apples. A. to steal C. stolen B. stole D. stealing
解析 分析句子知the boys 和steal间是主谓 关系，又根据介词of知steal应用其-ing形式。
Trees take in carbon dioxide and give out oxygen.
take in 吸收；欺骗；包含；理解；改小； 收留 This kind of fish takes in water and pumps it out to go forward. Don’t be taken in by products claiming to help you lose weight in a week. I found it easy to take in what the teacher had taught.
归纳拓展 take along take away take back take down take off take on take out take over take up
带……一起去 拿走 收回(诺言等)；同意收回（退货） 记下 除去；脱掉；起飞；成功，成名 呈现；雇用 拿出去；拔掉 接管；占领 拿起；占空间；开始从事；继续
活学活用 After studying in a medical college for five C her job as a doctor in the years, Jane ___ countryside. A. set out C. took up B. took over D. set up
解析 考查动词短语辨析。take up为“从 事/做……”的意思。set out动身；take over接管；set up建立。
give out 分发；发表；公布；放出；用完， 用尽 The teacher has given out our exam papers. Our food supplies are giving out / running out. The flowers give out a sweet smell, which makes us relaxed.
归纳拓展 give away 捐赠；让掉；分发；颁发(奖 品)；泄露(秘密)；露出马脚 give back 归还；后退 give forth 发出(气味、声音等)；发表 give in (to) 屈服；交上；宣布 give sth. off 放出(烟、气味等) give up 放弃 give way to 让路于，让位于 given good health 假若健康情况良好 at any given time 在任何指定时间内
注意 give out在表示“分发, 分配; 发表, 公布；放出, 发出(声音、气味等)”时是 及物动词短语。在表示“用尽, 用完” 时, give out与run out是不及物动词短 语，而use up, run out of是及物动词短 语，有被动语态，主语往往是人。
活学活用 If a person has not had enough sleep, his actions will give him A ____ during the day. A. away B. up C. in D. back
解析 句意为:如果一个人没有睡够觉的话, 那么在白天他的行为就会表露出来。give away赠送；泄露;表露；give up放弃； give in屈服；让步；give back返还；归还。
The garbage is then taken away and, if possible, recycled. 句式分析 句中的if possible用了省略形式, 相当于if it is possible如果可能的话。 在if, when, once等引导的主系表从句中, 如果主 从句主语一致或主语为it, 从句谓语动词中含有 be动词，有时为了句子简洁, 则将从句的主语和 系动词省略。在被动语态中有时也采用这种省 略现象。如果从句中含有there be句型，可以省 去there be。
The little car will change its direction, if (it is) necessary. 如果需要的话，小车会改变方向。 I don’t suppose there will be more than a dozen left, if (there are) any. 我认为即使还有的话也不会超过十二个。
归纳拓展 if引导时，省略的情况通常有下列几种： if any 如果有的话 if necessary 需要的话 if so 如果是这样的话 if ever 如果曾经有的话 if not 不这样的话
活学活用 _____, C I will go with you. A. When it necessary B. When is necessary C. When necessary D. When this is necessary 解析 when necessary = when it is necessary。
Some of you may have finished Unit One. ____, D you can go on to Unit Two.（江西高考） A. If you may C. If not B. If you do D. If so
解析 句意为：你们当中可能有些人已经结束 了第一单元，如果这样的话你们可以开始第二 单元。so代替前句意思的肯定情况，而not代 替前面意思的否定情况。
The little girl who got lost decided to remain A she was and wait for her mother. ____ （山东高考） A. where B. what C. how D. who 解析 remain在此意为“留下，逗留”, where she was在句中作地点状语。句意为： 这个迷路的小女孩决定待在她原来的地方等 待她妈妈。
I like this house with a beautiful garden in front, but I don’t have enough money to B . buy ____ （四川高考） A. one B. it
解析 代替前面提到的事物用it; one泛指一 类中的任何一个。此时it代替前面的this house。
—What is the price of petrol these days? B sharply since last month. —Oh, it ____ （江西高考） A. is raised B. has risen C. has arisen D. is increased 解析 由since last month可知应该用现 在完成时, 首先排除A、D。再根据句意 可知应该选B。rise是不及物动词，意为 “上升”，符合题意。arise意为“站立， 出现”，不符合语境。
____, B you need to give all you have and try your best. （辽宁高考） A. Being a winner B. To be a winner C. Be a winner D. Having been a winner 解析 句意为：为了成为赢家，你要付出 你的所有并全力以赴。所以空格部分在句 中应作目的状语，故要用动词不定式。
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