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必修三unit 1情态动词


情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
情态动词表示说话人的语气和情态。如需要、可能、愿意、怀疑等。情态动词有一定的词义, 但不完整,必须和主要动词的原型一起构成谓语。常用的情态动词有:can, could, may, might, must, have to, ought to, need, dare, shall, will, should, would, be abl

e to,及半情态动词 be to do, had better 等。 情态动词的基本用法: (一)can“能够” 1.表示体力或脑力方面的能力,或根据客观规律能做某事的能力。如: He can speak English. I can go there now. 注意 (1)can 表“能够”时,既可指现在也可指将来。 (2)can 与 be able to 的区别: ① 表“能力”时二者同义 No one can / is able to do it. ② be able to 常侧重经过努力有能力做到,有多种时态。can 侧重自身的能力,只有一般现在 时和一般过去时。 ③ was / were able to do 表示通过努力克服困难或在一定的条件下成功地做了某事,侧重结果, 相当于 managed to do 或 succeeded in doing...。could 仅表自身的能力或本领,但未必成功做到。 With the help of the firemen, they were able to leave the burning house. He was able to swim across the river. In the end, we were able to rescue the workers trapped in the fire. 2.表示“许可,允许” 。在疑问句中表示请求,许可;否定句中表示“不许” 。此时常与 may 通用: May/Can I do it? This sort of thing can't go on! 这类事情不能再继续了! 注意 can not 有时可以表示“禁止”相当于 mustn't: You can't(mustn't,are not allowed to)play football in the street.你不可以在大街上踢球。 3.表示推测,强调客观可能性: “可能、会” 。主要用于疑问句和否定句。表示推测、估计时,后边 可根据不同情况用动词原形、进行式、完成式。 Who can he be? She can't be waiting for you. He can't have gone there alone. 4.表惊讶、疑虑。

1 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
How can it be that he was late for the opening ceremony? 他咋会连开幕式都迟到? Can it be late? 会不会晚了? (二)could 1.表“能力” “可能性” “许可” ,为 can 的过去式。 He said he could go. 2. could 用于一般现在时中表委婉、 客气地提出问题或陈述看法。 (此时不是 can 的过去式, 要用 can 回答以显得爽快。此时 can 和 could 没有时间的差别,只是 could 语气更客气些。 ) -Could I borrow your pen? - Yes, you can. (三)may, might (may 的过去式为 might) 1.表示许可,有“可以”的意思,询问或说明一件事可不可以做,有时可以用 can 互换。 You may go now. 否定式 may not 表示“不可以、禁止、阻止”等,常用 must not(=mustn't)代替。may 用于疑 问句中时,回答多避免用 may,以免显得太严肃或不客气。 -May I watch TV tonight? -Yes, you can.(No, you mustn't/you'd better not) -May I smoke here? -Yes, please.(No, please don't.) 2.表推测: “或许、可能” 。表示一件事或许会发生,只用 在陈述句中。 It may rain tomorrow. 3. may 可以表祝愿,一般放在句首构成倒装句式: May you succeed! =I hope you may succeed.祝您成功! May that day come soon! 希望这一天早日来到! May you be happy, healthy and wealthy! 祝你快乐,健康,富有。 4. might 是 may 的过去式,表可以做的事或可能发生的事。 She suggested a few books which I might buy. 5. might 用于一般现在时比 may 委婉,或表示现实的可能性更小一些。 He might come soon. I wonder if I might borrow some coffee?

2 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
6. may (just) as well, might as well.“不妨?” (可以用来提出建议) 。它们比 had better 显得谦逊或不 那么有把握, 所以 had better 通常是不用于长者或上司的。 同时, had better 有时带有威胁口吻。 (may well 为“完全能;满可以;很可能”,表示有可能或有充分理由做某事。well 是 may 的程度副词) I needn't wait; I may as well tell you now. 我不必等,我不妨现在就告诉你。 Since it's a fine day, we might as well walk. 既然是好天气,我们一不妨走走。 You may well say so.你完全有理由这么说。 It may well be that the question is still under discussion. 那很可能是该问题仍在讨论中。 ●had better 是固定词组, 亦可说 had best, 用来表示一种很有把握的建议和劝告, 意思是 “最好?” 。 ①现代英语中常用 better 代替 had better, 有时省主语: You had better be careful. = You better be careful. = Better be careful. ②had better 后接 be doing 结构时,表示立即做某事。 I think I'd better be going.我想我最好马上走。 ③had better 接完成式表示对过去本该做而没做的事的遗憾。 You'd better have come earlier.你本该早点来。 7. may, may not, might + be doing 也表猜测,译为“可能,正在或可能不在干?” She may not be doing such silly things. He may be doing his work. (四)must 1.表示必须要做的事,意为“必须” ,否定式 mustn't 表示不准、不许、禁止等。在回答带有 must 的问句时,不用 mustn't,而用 needn't 或 don't have to。 I must go now. We mustn't waste our time. Must I go home? No,you needn't. / Yes, you must. 2. must 在表“必须”时与 have to 相近,have to 强调客观需要,must 着重主观看法。另外 must 不 像 have to 能有更多的时态。 You must be back by ten.(命令或叮嘱) You have to be back by ten.(客观需要) 3.表推测,暗含很大的可能性,意为“一定、肯定” ,只用于“肯定句”中。此时其否定式为 can't, “绝非” 。

3 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
He must be over sixty. There must be a mistake. 4.偏偏、硬要、干嘛(指做令人不快的事) The car must break down just when we were about to start off. 我们正要出发的时候偏偏车坏了。 Must you shout so loudly? 你干嘛这么大声喊? (五)shall 1.表示命令、履行义务、意愿、许诺、警告、强制、威胁、决心等,一般用于二、三人称中,并用 于陈述句。 You shall have my answer tomorrow.(允诺) You shall be sorry for it one day, I tell you.(警告) You shall do as I tell you.(命令或吩咐) We shall go, whatever may happen.(决心) I shan’t speak with her.(决心) You shall clean the classroom this afternoon.(义务) He shall give you your own money.(威胁) ※2. shall 表示愿意,用在疑问句中,用于二人称表示征询听话人是否愿意,但多用 will。 Shall you go with me? 3.征求听话人意见和指示,用在一、三人称的疑问句中。 Shall I turn on the light? Shall he come to see you? =Do you want him to see you? (六)should should 是 shall 的过去式,但它同时又是一个有单独意义的情态动词。 1.表达职责、义务,作“应当”讲,常与 ought to 互换。但 ought to 侧重反映客观情况,should 侧 重表示主观看法。 2.表示预测可能性,并译作“可能, (按道理)应该” 。 They should come here now. 3.用于委婉、谦逊地提出意见或建议。 I should think you are right.我以为你是对的。 4. should 用于某些从句中表虚拟语气: ①用于表示建议、 命令的动词的宾语从句中。 表示建议、 命令的动词有 suggest (表“建议”时) , advise (忠告), recommend(推荐), order(命令), demand(要求)urge(力劝),require(要求), request(请 求),desire(渴望), ask / insist(表“坚决要求”含义时)等词的宾语从句的谓语应由“should+动词

4 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
原形”构成,此时 should 可省略。 He suggested that I(should)do the Job. ②用于①项中动词的名词形式以及 wish, instruction, order, plan, idea 等的表语从句或同位语从句中。 It is my wish that you(should)do so. ③用于某些主语从句中。 It is demanded we(should)get everything ready by the end of the week. 另外还有 It's desired / insisted / ordered / suggested / necessary / important that · · ·should do· · ·. ④should 表惊奇、怀疑、不满、意外等,常用于“Why/How should...”句型和 expect, think, imagine, believe 等词的宾语从句中作“竟,竟然”解。 It's a pity that he (should) be so careless. 真可惜他竟然如此粗心。 Why should I invite him? How should I know? You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman should be so rude to a lady. 真难想象,一位循规蹈 矩的绅士竟会对女士那么粗鲁! I never expect that you should have come here. 我从没想到你竟会来这儿。 ⑤在 if, lest, for hear that, in case 引起的从句中, 谓语用 should +动词原形, 把可能性减弱。 (译作 “万 一” , “要是真的” ) 。 He cleans the glass with care for fear that he should break it. 他小心擦杯子唯恐打破了。 If it should rain tomorrow, I will still come. 要是明天真的要下雨,我还是要来。 If you should decide to accept, please phone me. =Should you decide to accept, please phone me. 万一 你决定接受,请打电话给我。 ⑥should (ought to)+ have done 表“过去该做某事,却没做” ,含有“责备、内疚”意。 She should (ought to) have helped you a lot. ⑦shouldn't (ought not to) + have done. 表做了不该做的事情,含有责备、后悔意。 You shouldn't have kept him waiting for a long time. (七)ought to 1. ought to 表示“应该” ,语气比 should 强。 We ought to help each other in our work.

5 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
2. ought to 表示因责任、义务等该做的事,具客观性。 should 多表示某件事宜于做,带有一定的主观意见。 You're my father. You ought to look after me. 3. ought to 表根据事实非常可能的事,意为“理应...” 。 He is her neighbor, so he ought to know her address. 4. ought (not) to have done =should (not) have done。 (八)will ①表示意愿、意志和决心,用于各种人称。 I'll do my best. ②表示各种倾向或习惯动作。 Fish will die out of water. -Who can close the door? -I will(I'll do it)我来吧! 本句难点是:不能用 I'm going to do it .或 I'm to do it.而只能用 will,因为本句话表反射性动作,不 表计划、打算。 ③表示一种揣想,用于二、三人称。 They will have arrived by now.他们大概已经到了。 ④用于疑问句中,表邀请、请求。 Will you give me a piece of paper? ⑤will 在表示经常性、习惯性的含义时,有时可理解为“难免;总是” 。 These things will happen.这种事难免要发生。 Boys will be boys.男孩毕竟是男孩。 Accidents will happen.事故难免会发生。 ⑥表猜测时,表“想必?” ,would 的可能性要比 will 小。 (九)would would 是 will 的过去式,would + v.构成过去将来时。除此之外,它还是单独的情态动词。 ①表示过去时间的“意志” 、 “愿望”和“决心” 。 I told him that I would go along with him. ②委婉提出请求、建议或看法, 比 will 委婉。肯定答语用 will。 Would you help him? Yes, I will. ③表示过去的习惯动作和过去某种倾向。 When he was a child he would(used to)play football.

6 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
would 与 used to 的区别 ①used to 主要用于今昔习惯的对比,表明过去如何而现在已不再如此。而 would 只表示过去习惯, 不暗示现在。 ②used to 用于表过去的习惯动作或过去一贯存在的情况、状态,would 则表过去习惯或倾向性的动 作,不能表情况或状态。故 used to 接动作动词(work,stay 等)也可接非动作动词(like, have 等) , would 只接动作动词。 There used to be a house here. ③used to 可不接时间状语,而 would 只谈过去与现在无关,因此句中常有 always, every day 等时间 状语,或表示时间的上下文。 ④would 用于固定习语中 would like sth. would like to do sth. would rather +动词原形(than + v 原形) I would rather do it myself. I would like to help you. Would you like something to eat? He'd rather die than let me think he was a failure. 他宁愿死也不愿让我认为他是个失败者。 ●would rather?than? a.若 than 后与 would rather 后的动词相同,than 后的动词可以省。 I would rather visit Spain than Italy. b. would rather?than?也可写成 would ?rather than? I would stay here rather than go home. c.表强调语气时,可将 rather than 置于句首。 Rather than go home, I would stay here. ⑤would 用于虚拟语气。 (详见虚拟语气) (十)need 需要, need 既可做实义动作,又可作情态动词。 1. need 作情态动词主要用于疑问句、否定句,否定式为 needn't.没有过去式形式,表达过去意义时 仍用 need。 Need you go soon? We needn't hurry. Need I come? No, you needn't (don't have to)/Yes, you must.

7 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
注意 need 问句的肯定回答用 must,否定回答用 needn't 或 don't have to. 2.用在有否定意思的句子中。 (带有 no, hardly 等否定词的句子) 。 I hardly need say how much I missed you. 3. need 作实义动词有人称、数、时态的变化。肯定式:need to do。否定式:don't need to do。 注意 need doing = need to be done Does he need to know it? The windows need cleaning. 4. needn't have done 表示“本不必做?(却做了) ” 。 I needn't have bought the book. You needn't have told them about it. 【didn’t need to do 本不必做,也没有做】 (十一)dare “敢” ,既是实义动词,又是情态动词,用法如下: 1. dare 作情态动词主要用于疑问、否定及条件句中,后接动词原形。没有人称和数的变化,但有时 态变化,过去式为 dared。 Dare you go home alone? He dare not tell the truth. 2. dare 作实义动词时,后跟不定式,用于肯定、否定、疑问等各种结构。有人称、数、时态变化, 过去式为 dared。 ▲现代英语中作实义动词的 dare 后的不定式同样可省 to, 从而出现情态动词和实义动词混用现象。 但无论如何,dare 作情态动词时后边始终接动词原形。以下说法都是正确的,注意分析规律: He didn't dare (to) go home. I don't dare (to) speak to him. He dares (to) speak loud. Do we dare (to) tell him the truth? I daren't / don't dare / didn't dare quarrel with them. 3.用于固定习语: “I dare say”意思是“我敢说,我认为” 。 I dare say you are my friend. 情态动词表推测的用法归纳

8 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
1.“情态动词+动词原形”表示对通常或现在的行为或情况的推测。 He must know you.他一定了解你。 She may live here.她可能住在这里。 2.“情态动词 + be doing”用于对可能正在发生的动作的推测, “应当正在?,可能正在...” He can't be reading. They must be waiting for you. ①此结构间或可表示“即将,将要”这类意思。 I must be leaving now. ②间或表示老是在做某事,含称赞或批评语气。 Why must you always be finding fault with that girl? 你为什么总是和这姑娘过不去? 3.“情态动词 + have done”结构表示对已经发生的事情的推测、责怪、后悔、遗憾等。 ①must have done,表示对过去事情把握极大的推测,意为“必定已经” ; “may(might) have done” 为把握不大的猜测“可能已经” 。 注意 must 表示推测时,通常只用肯定句中。 否定句为 can't(couldn't)have done 疑问句 can (could)... have done... ? I didn't hear the telephone, so I must have been asleep. He can't have studied English before. ②may (might) have done 还可表责备, “本来可以…” 。 could have done 表示 “本能够做某事而没做” , 指能力因素或可能性,可表示站在现在角度看过去(较委婉)也可指站在过去角度看过去的过去。 can have done 只表示站在现在角度看过去,表可能性。 He might have given you more help, even though he was very busy. 他本应可以给你更多帮助,尽管他非常忙。 He could have walked to the station, it was so near. 我们本可以走着去火车站,这么近。 ③should (ought to) have done 表示“本该做某事,但实际上没做” should not(ought not to) have done 表示“本不该做某事却做了” The plant is dead. I should have given it more water. (本该多浇水,而实际没有)

9 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词

情 态 动 词 和 虚 拟 语 气
Tom ought not to have told me your secret. 汤姆本不该把你的秘密告诉我(但他告诉了) 。 ④needn't have done.本不必做?(但实际却做了) (didn't need to do 表示本不必做而实际上也没有 做) 。 I needn't have watered the flowers, for it's going to rain. ⑤will/would have done 可表示推测,也可表示与过去事实相反。 They will have arrived by now. 他们大概已经到了。 The car would have been out of control if he had not reacted quickly. 要不是他反应快,车子就会失控。 4.“情态动词+have been doing ”表推测,有“应当一直在?”等含义。 They can't have been working for that long last night. 昨晚他们不可能工作那么久。 Your mother must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。

10 语气:语气是动词的一中形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 语气的种类: (1)陈述语气表示动作或状态是现实的,确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句,疑问句和某些感叹句。如 We are ready. What a fine day it is! (2)祈使语气 表示说话人的建议,请求,邀请,命令等。如 Open the door, Please. 应注意以下几点: 主语通常是第二人称 you,但多不出现,动词用原形,否定用 do not 或者 don’t 加动词原形(或 be) 如 Be careful next time. Don’t smoke here. 有时为了强调,主语也可以出现,而且可以是第三人称,谓语动词不加-s 或者-es 如 You be quiet. He stand up. 祈使语气可以用 do 加强语气 如 Do come to see this Sunday. 在 Let’s 的祈使句后,疑问部分通常用 shall we;在 Let us 后,疑问部分用 will you 如 Let’s go out for a walk after supper,shall we? /Let us clean our classroom, will you? 祈使句与连词 and 连用时相当于一个条件句,而 and 之后则是表示结果。如 Think hard and you will have a good idea. (3)虚拟语气 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望,假设或推测等。如 If I were you, I should study English. 一.虚拟语气在条件从句的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句;一类是非真实条件句,也就是虚拟条件句。 如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句,谓语要用陈述语气。如 If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go to the park. 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如 If he had seen you yesterday, he would have asked you about it. 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚 拟语气,列表如下: 从句(条件句) 主句(结果句)

与现在事实相反的假设 动词过去式 Be 一般用 were Should Would +动词原形 Could Might 与过去事实相反的假设 Had +分词 Should Would + have+ 过去分词


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新课标必修三Unit 1 情态... 28页 2下载券B​o​o​k​3​u​...一.分类 情态动词有四类: ①只做情态动词:must,can(could),may(might), ②...
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