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Lesson 3简单句的五种基本结构 导学案


Lesson 3 简单句的五种基本结构
*学习目标 1、能够掌握简单句的五种基本结构; 2、能够熟练运用简单句进行书面写作 *学习方法 合作、探究、讨论、归纳 *学习重难点 1、识别不同的结构简单句 2、判断句子成分是否完整与正确 *学习过程

导学案(3)

Period1 第一节课
导语:英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成

五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。 掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。

一、英语五种基本句型结构如下:

vi.

主语 谓语

vt.

① 宾语 ② 宾语(间)宾语(直) ③ 宾语 宾语补足语 ④ ⑤

link.v.

表语

用符号表示为: ① ② ③ ④ ⑤ S S S S S V V V V V (主+谓) O (主+谓+宾) o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) P (主+系+表)

基本句型 一:S V (主+谓)
这类句子的谓语动词都是不及物动词,都不带宾语,但可以带状语,常见的不 及物动词有: act, come, go, work, last, fall, cry, disappear, appear, smile, rise,

ring, live, look, listen, laugh, hurry, talk, sleep, retire, graduate, die, care, agree, jump, fail, wait, succeed, stay, sit, lie, shine, happen, take place, rain, snow, ect.
如: It is raining now. (S V) We've worked for 5 hours. (S V) The meeting lasted half an hour. (S V) Time flies. (S V)

Exercise 1 分析下列句子成分,并在后面括号内标明属于五种基本句型中的哪一种

1. Dark clouds hung overhead. (

) )

2. Gradually a smile appeared on her face. ( 3. He is smiling all over his face. ( 4. I did well in English. ( ) )

5. He talked loudly in the classroom yesterday. (

)

基本句型 二: S V P (主+系+表)
系动词主要是 be. 但还有一些动词有些时候也可作系动词,有人称之为半系动词。 I. 如何辨别系动词
有些动词既可作连系动词,又可以作实义动词。如何来辨别呢?有一个最简便的方法, 即用连系 动词be替换句子中的这些动词,句子仍然成立就是连系动词;反之,不能替换的,就是行 为动词。如: ① She looks beautiful. (looks变为is之后,她是美丽的,句意没有大的变化,looks是系动词)。 Look at the picture.(look不能换为be, look为实义动词。) ② He felt the book with his right hand.(feel是“摸”的意思,不能换为was, 是实义动词)。 The silk feels soft.(这种丝绸摸起来很柔软,feels换为is之后,句意变化不大,因此是系动词。) Practice 3 辨别下列粗体动词是系动词还是实义动词 1. The door stays open at night. 2. He tasted the food, and the food tasted delicious. II. 常见的系动词 ① 状态系动词 ——用来表示主语状态,只有be一词,例如: He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。 ② 持续系动词 ——用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand, He kept silent at the meeting. 他开会时保持沉默。 This matter remains a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。 The food stays fresh in the fridge.食物在冰箱里仍然很新鲜。 The house stood empty for years.房子空了数年。 He lies awake in bed.他躺在床上,醒着。 ③ 表“像”系动词——用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如: Something seems wrong. 好像出差了。 He appears young. 他看起来很年轻。 ④ 感官系动词——主要有look看起来,feel摸起来, smell闻起来, sound听起来, taste尝起来: This kind of cloth feels very soft. 这种布手感很软。 This flower smells very sweet. 这朵花闻起来很香。 ⑤ 变化系动词——表示主语变成什么样,主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run. He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。 3. The book still lies open on the desk. 4. What he said proved true.. 5. He can’t proved his theory(理论).

She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。 He fell ill yesterday.他昨天病了。 Eggs go bad easily in spring.鸡蛋夏天容易变坏。 His face went red.他的脸变红了。 What he had dreamt of came true.他的梦想实现了。 Still waters run deep.静水流深。 ⑥ 终止系动词——表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, turn out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。 His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。 (turn out表终止性结果) What he predicted turned out (to be) wrong.他预言的结果是错的。 Exercise 4 用下划线划出下列句中的系动词。 1. His advice proved right. 2. The shop stays open till 8 o’clock. 3. The machine went wrong. 4. All these efforts seem in vain. 5. These words sound reasonable. III. 系动词不能单独作谓语,要和表语一起作谓语 He is a student. (S V P) IV. 在一个英语单句中,一般情况要有谓语动词。 Your idea sounds great. (S V P) 6. The room soon became crowded. 7. The days are getting longer and longer. 8. He fell ill yesterday. 9. Trees turn green in spring. 10. What you said sounds great.

要注意:介词短语和形容词不能单独做谓语,要和系动词一起做谓语。
改错: ①Our school very beautiful and we like it very much. ②Your book on the desk.

基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾)
此结构是由“主语+及物动词(词组)+宾语”构成。宾语可以是名词、代词、数词,动名词、动 词不定式或词组、the +形容词、分词以及从句等。如, She likes English. We planted a lot of trees on the farm yesterday. Exercise 1 用下划线划出下列句中的宾语。 1. People all over the world speak English. 2. Jim cannot dress himself. 3. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 4. He did not know what to say. 5. He just wanted to stay at home. 6. He practices speaking English every day.

基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾)
有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give 给,pass 递,bring 带,show 显示。这两个宾语通常一个指人, 为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。 如:He gave me a cup of tea. (S V o O)

强调间接宾语顺序为: 动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如:
Show this house to Mr. Smith.

若直接宾语为人称代词:动词+ 代词直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。
如:Bring it to me, please. (不能说 Bring me it, please。) 常跟双宾语的及物动词有: (需借助 to 的)allow, bring, deny, give, grant, hand, leave, lend, offer, owe, pass, pay, permit, promise, read, refuse, sell, send, show, teach, tell,wish, write 等 (需借助 for 的) buy, choose, fetch, get, make, order, paint, play(演奏),save, sing, spare 等 『一般用 to 多些,用 for 的记住常用的三个就行:get, buy, make』 He sent me an English-Chinese Dictionary. = He sent an English-Chinese Dictionary to me. She bought John a book.= She bought a book for John. Exercise 1 分析下列句子成分,口头说出间接宾语和直接宾语。 1. She ordered herself a new dress. 2. She cooked her husband a delicious meal. 3. He brought you a dictionary. 4. He denies her nothing. 5. I showed him my pictures. 6. I gave my car a wash. 7. I told him that the bus was late. 8. He showed me how to run the machine.

基本句型 五:SVOC (主+谓+宾+宾补)
此句型的句子的特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完

整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。
宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语做出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓关 系,它们一起构成复合宾语。 1. The war made him a soldier.(SVOC他成为一个士兵,构成逻辑上的主谓关系) 2. New methods make the job easy. (SVOC)

3. I often find him at work. (SVOC) 4. The teacher asked the students to close the windows. (SVOC) 5. I saw a cat running across the road.

Exercise 1 分析下列句子划分成分,在后面括号内标明是什么充当句子的宾语 补足语
1. They appointed him manager. ( 2. They painted the door green. ( 3. He pushed the door open. ( 4. They found the house deserted. ( 5. What makes him think so? ( 6. We saw him out. ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

7. He asked me to come back soon. ( 8. I saw them getting on the bus. (

9. We all think it a pity that she didn’t come here. ( 10. I’ll have my bike repaired. ( 11. We elected him monitor. ( 12. Don’t keep the lights burning. ( 补充:there be 句型 ) ) )

此句型是由 there + be + 主语 + 状语 构成,用以表达某地存在有,它其实是

倒装的一种情况,主语位于谓语动词 be 之后,there 仅为引导词,并无实际 意义。
1. be 与其后的主语在人称和数上一致,有时态和数的变化。 现在时 there is / are … 过去时 there was / were… 将来时 there will be…/ there is / are going to be... 完成时 there has / have been… 可能有 there might be... 肯定有 there must be …/ there must have been... 过去曾经有 there used to be …

似乎有 there seems / seem / seemed to be … 碰巧有 there happen / happens / happened to be … 2. 可用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等词代替 be 动词。 (了解) 此时还表示存在有,但表意要更具体一些。 Eg. There lived an old man at the foot of the mountain. There came a shout for "help". There exists no air on the moon. There lies a book on the desk. There stands a tree on the hill. 1. a certain doubt among the students as to the necessity of the work. A. It existed B. There existed C. They had D. There had D. There stands;

2. ___ a beautiful palace ___ the foot of the hill. A. There stand; at B. There stands; under C. Stands there; under at 写作专练1. 注意频度副词的位置

1. 我永远不会忘记他那天对我讲的话。 (will, forget, what he told me, never) 2. 我经常去那家超市。 (frequently, the supermarket) 3. 他总是帮助别人。 help others, always) ( 4. 我们什么时候都不能那样对待老人。 treat an old man like that) ( 5. 活到老,学到老。 (never, too old to learn)

写作专练2.

不要忘了使用系动词

1. 那食物很可口,我吃了很多。 (the food, delicious) 2. 那个电影好极了。 (the movie, fantastic) 3. 不过呢,一些人反对这个计划。 (however, against, the plan) 4. 他们的意见如下。 (their opinion, as follows) 5. 就我而言,我赞成这个主意。 (as far as I’m concerned, in favor of)

写作专练3.

用活双宾语句式

用两种方法翻译下列句子:

1. 他给我提供一些建议。 (offer, some advice) 2. 我欠他很多钱。 (owe) 3. 在我生日那天,母亲给我买了一件很特别的礼物。 (buy, a special gift) 4. 他给我做了一个纸飞机。 (make, paper plane) 5. 他给我们读了一个有趣的故事。 (read, an interesting story) 6. 他的叔叔留给他很多钱。 (leave, a lot of money) 7. 他让我们看了一张世界地图。 (show) 8. 9. 请把熊猫的照片寄给我一张。 (send, a photo of the panda)

写作专练4.

正确运用两个“有” there be 与 have

1. 我有许多好朋友。 2. 今天晚上将有一场电影。 3. 公园内有许多人。 4. 树上有许多小鸟。 5. 一条狗有四条腿和一个尾巴。


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