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American Modernism

.Schindler and Neutra: American Modernism..
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Both from Vienna Reading: Buildings Across Time (BAT) pp. 503-05 Photos: World Architecture: (WA) pp. 797 Further Re

ading: Modern Architecture Since 1900 pp. 232-237

Common Influences ? ? ? ? Wagner in Vienna- pivotal in the modern architecture movement Adolf Loos- pivotal in the modern architecture movement De Stijl Frank Lloyd Wright (Who was influenced by De Stijl)

Health and Wellness Body ? Outdoor Living- healthy alternative to being inside all the time o Fresh Air o People moved from the East Coast to California and their health improved from spending time outdoors (no mold or other indoor polluters) ?

Made possible by comfortable outdoor temperatures

Mental ? Outdoor Living: o Outdoor light is much brighter than indoor light o Exposure to nature as a tranquilizer

Promoted by: __Dr. Philip Lovell____________ ?

Psycho-Physiological Mental Well-Being

Aesthetic Effects Coherence ? Connection to Nature o Getting closer to where we came from is important to balance ? Light (clarity of light)

Challenges to Coherence ? ? Surrealism o Boundary ambiguity between inside and outside Gravity Neutral

Rudolf Schindler
Background He worked for FLW on the Hollyhock house (made the additions onto the house)

Additional Aesthetic Effects Coherence ? 16 inch modular- a common modular in modern construction

o Dividing things into sixteen inches ? Common building materials (bricks, concrete blocks, plywood) fit conveniently into the 16 inch module ? Prospect and Refuge- little niches to hang out in

Challenges to Coherence ? Elevating the common o Loved to take raw building materials and include them in his buildings ? Surreal o Functional ambiguity in his spaces

Schindler House 1921-22, West Hollywood
Further Reading: Modern Architecture Since 1900 pp. 232-235

? ? ? ?

His own house in West Hollywood Very influenced by Irving Gill Influenced by the Dodge house (Schindler was excited about the modern aspects of the house, the plainness) Tilt up concrete (pour slab, smooth it out, let it dry, then place more concrete on top [make sure you can separate it] then when it is dry, tilt it up to form the wall)

? ? ? ?

Courtyards and indoor/outdoor spaces o Living spaces Exterior walls are now bushes Concrete and redwood (hard and then soft with the redwood) First enter a courtyard, then enter the house o Promotes health through living outdoors

? ?

Furniture is individually designed for each house Exposed plumbing in the bathroom

Pueblo Ribera 1923, La Jolla, CA,
Further Reading: Modern Architecture Since 1900 p.



? ? ?

Concrete walls built with sea water (the sea salt is corrosive so it didn’t hold up over time) Basic modular of an apartment that is now turned in certain ways to create a courtyard Slip form concrete (different way of pouring the concrete)

Lovell Beach House, 1922-26 Newport Beach, CA
Photo : WA p. 797 Further Reading: Modern Architecture Since 1900, p. 235

? ? ?

Schindler collaborated with Lovell on this house Sleeping porches up on the third floor Differing scales

Richard Neutra
Additionally Influenced by… (In Addition to Wagner, Loos, Wright and De Stijl) ? ? ? ? Father and Brother were both doctors Freud (played with his son as a child) Mendelsohn (did the Einstein Tower) Landscape Architecture Internship

Further Design Characteristics and Aesthetic Concepts Coherence o Thermal Comfort ? De Stijl style (so flexible that you can manipulate it to be more comfortable) Challenges to Coherence o Inside/ Outside juxtaposition and Ambiguity o Machine association (Wright wouldn’t approve, but Wagner was into the machine)

Lovell Health House 1927-29, Hollywood
Drawing: WA p. 797
Further Reading: Architecture Since 1900 pp. 236-237

? ? ?

Lovell’s main living residence Main focus on bringing in lots of light, swimming, sunbathing- Vitamin D Pool is an indoor/outdoor space

? ?

Like a Victorian Mansion with well lit turrets Steel frame system- went up very quickly

Kauffman Desert House, 1946, Palm Springs,
Not in Textbook


? ? ? ? ? ?

Influenced by Falling Water Fireplace being the center of the house A lot of indoor/outdoor spaces Surreal with the boulders in the entrance The second house that Kauffman built Sliding corner windows

Garden Grove Community Church, Garden Grove, CA, c. 1960
Not Textbook

? ? ?

Neutra built the first church Outdoor sermons (like a drive in theater) Laying the stone up on the vertical face (contradictory to Frank Lloyd Wright) o Surreal- not natural for stone to be that way

Neutra Silver Lake House, 1964, Los Angeles Photos and Drawings: BAT, p. 505 WA p. 797 ? Research house built with his son ? ? ? West facing windows with airplane fins that can accommodate different sun angles De Stijl- overlapping spaces The windows up above act as a heat pump that moves hot air out of the space

Neutra’s Legacy...Psycho-Physiological Architecture ? Doctor Eve Edelstein


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