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定语从句考点及与其他从句的区别


Chapter 4 模块一 Unit 2 单元语法集训 ——定语从句考点及与其他从句的区别
◆语法专题考点预览 1. 高考考点分析 2. 定语从句与其他从句或句型的区分 3. 定语从句与易混句型练与析 一、高考考点分析

[考点一]考查以 that 与 which 引导的定语从句 通常只能用 that 的情况 (1)当先行词是不定代词 all, few, little, much, something, anything, nothing ,everything , none 等 时。 例如:His brother did ______ she could to help him . A. all which B. all what C. all D. which (2)先行词被序数词,形容词的最高级以及被 all ; any ;every ;each ;few ;little; no ;some ;the only ;the very,the same ;the last 等修饰时。 例如:He is the only student that (who) is punished for breaking the school rules . (3)如果两个先行词一个指人,一个指物,应用关系代词 that 。 The famous writer and his works that the radio broadcast have aroused great interest among the viewers. (4)先行词是 who 时:Who that have seen him does not like him? 通常只用 which 的情况 (1)关系代词 which 引导非限定性定语从句,只能用 which。 例如:Her sister has become a lawyer, ________ she wanted to be. (05?湖北卷) A. who B. that C. what D. which (2)关系代词 which 引导非限定性定语从句,指代前面整个句子内容时,只能用 which。 例如:Jim passed the driving test, _________ surprised everybody in the office. 05?浙江卷) A. which B. that C. this D. it (3)如果句中有两个定语从句,其中一个用了 that,另一个最好用 which。 Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. (4)句中出现了 that,或先行词是 that 时:I have found that which I was looking for. (5)介词放在关系代词之前时:He built a telescope through which he could study the skies. (through which 即 through the telescope)

[考点二]考查以 who、whom 与 whose 引导的定语从句 (1)如果先行词是指人的不定代词 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody , nobody, one , ones ,those ,all (指人)等作先行词,作主语用 who,作宾语用 whom 、who 而不用 which 。 Anyone who breaks the rule will be punished

(2)在非限制性定语从句中,指人作主语用 who,作宾语用 whom 或者 who。作介词宾语时 只能用 whom ①The famous basketball star, _______ tried to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention.(02?安徽春季) A. where B. when C. which D. who ②Alec asked the policeman ____ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident.(2002 上海) A. with him B. who C. with whom D. whom (3)在定语从句中,作定语的关系代词只能用 whose ,表示某物时,它相当于 the +noun +of +which 或 of which+ the +noun ; 表示某人时, 它相当于 the +noun +of +whom 或 of whom +the +noun 。 例如:①Look out! Don?t get too close to the house ______roof is under repair. (06?福建卷) A. whose B. which C. of which D. what ②I was given three books on cooking, the first _______ I really enjoyed. (06?浙江卷) A. of that B. of which C. that D. which

[考点三]考查关系副词 where、when 与 why 引导的定语从句 它们相当于“介词+which”, 其中 where = in/at+ which; when= at/in/during+ which; why= for + which 。 (1)关系副词 Where 引导定语从句时,只能在定语从句中作地点状语,其修饰的名词必须是 表示地点的名词。 例如:We?re just trying to teach a point___both sides will sit down together and talk.(06?山东 卷) A. where B. that C. when D. which (2)关系副词 when 引导定语从句时, 只能在定语从句中作时间状语, 其修饰的名词必须是表 示时间的名词。 例如:There was ________time ________I hated to go to school. (04?湖北卷) A. a; that B. a; when C. the; that D. the ; when (3)关系副词 why 引导定语从句时,只能在定语从句中作原因状语,其修饰的名词必须是表 示原因的名词。 例如:Do you know the reason why she was put into prison ? 你知道她坐牢的原因吗?

[考点四] 对“as”引导定语从句的考查 (1)先行词与 as; so; such; the same 连用时,常用关系代词或副词 as 。 例如:Children should read such books _____ will make them better and wiser . A. which B. that C. what D. as (2)在引导非限定性定语从句中,指代前面句子的内容时用 which 或 as,指代后面句子的内 容时只能用 as 。 例如:Jim passed the driving test , _______ , surprised everybody in the office. ( 05?浙江) A. which B. that C. this D. it as 引导定语从句主要用于非限制性定语从句和 the same…as,such…as,as…as 的结构中。 as 与 which 都可以引导一个非限制性定语从句,并代表前面整个句子或主句中的表语。

He married the girl,as(which)was natural. He seemed a foreigner, as(which)in fact he was. 不同的是:as 引导的定语从句可以前置,而 which 不行。 As was natural, he married the girl. 在 the same…as, such…as, as…as 结构中,same, such, as 之后应是名词或形容词+名词。 We are facing the same problems as we did years ago. Some people have no doubt that their cat understands as many words as a dog does. We hope to get such a tool as he is using. 这三种结构也可以用 which 改写。但要换结构,不能直接用 which 代替 as。 以上三句分别可以改写成: We are facing the problems which we faced years ago. Some people have no doubt that their cat understands the words which a dog understands. We hope to get the tool which he is using. the same…as 与 the same…that 引导的定语从句在意义上的区别是:前者修饰的是与原物同 样的;而后者修饰的就是先行词同样的东西。比较: This is the same watch as I lost.这和我丢失的那一只表一样。 (不是同一只) This is the same watch that I lost.这就是我丢失的那一只表。 (同一只) (3)表示“正如…..”时,只能用关系代词 as。 如:as is known to all; as we all know; as (it) often happens; as has been said before; as was expected; as is said above; as is mentioned above; as is reported 等。 例如:______ is reported in the newspapers ,talks between the two countries are making progress(04?北京卷) A. It B. As C. That D. What

[考点五]对“介词+关系代词”的考查 当关系代词作介词宾语, 且该介词不是和从句的谓语动词构成固定短语时, 介词可以提 前,这样就出现“介词+关系代词”。先行词指物,用“介词+which/whose”,指人则用“介词 +whom/whose”, 且两个关系代词均不能省略,介词的选择要遵循两个原则: (1)根据定语从句中谓语动词与先行词的搭配内容而定。 (2)根据先行词特殊用法而定。 例如:①I saw a woman running toward me in the dark. Before I could recognize who she was,she had run back in the direction __________she had come. (06?重庆卷) A. of which B. by which C. in which D. from which ②There are two buildings , _______ stands nearly a hundred feet high.(04?湖北卷) A. the larger B. the larger of them C. the larger one that D. the larger of which

[考点六] the way 作先行词时,定语从句的引导词作状语用 in which ,that 或者省 略。 例如:What surprised me was not what he said but _______ he said it.(04?湖北卷) A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which

(1)在比较正式的文体中用 in which I was struck by the beauty of the way in which she stood. It was clear that the speaker now trusted Tom from the way in which these words were said. (2)一般情况下用 that Lincoln asked the people to think of slavery in the way that these men did. Mary, there is one way that you could stop others talking about you and criticizing you. (3)in which 或 that 省去。 That's the way I looked at it. The assistant who served her did not like the way she was dressed.

[考点七] 定语从句与先行词被分割开来 定语从句一般紧接被它所修饰的先行词;但有时候它和先行词之间有可能插入其他成 分,使它与先行词分隔开来,这种定语从句叫作被分隔的定语从句,在阅读文章时会经常遇 到这种情况,在阅读是要注意识别先行词的修饰对象。 1.在定语从句加中插入语,常见的有:I think ,I suppose ,I guess ,I imagine 等。辨别的方法是: 去掉插入语后,原句句法结构仍然完整。 例如:①---Is that the small town you often refer to? --- Right, just the one ________ you know I used to work for years. (05?福建卷) A. that B. which C. where D. what ②He made another wonderful discovery ,______of importance to science . (?98 上 海卷) A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is 2.在先行词与定语从句之间插入一个状语。 例如:There are many thousands of stars in the sky that are like the sun. 乍一看,that 引导的定语从句在名词 sky 的后面,似乎应该是修饰 sky 的。但仔 细一想,不对啊, 天空怎么能象太阳呢?原来 that 引导的定语从句被 in the sky 这个地点状语分隔开来,修饰中心词 stars。 3.在先行词与定语从句之间插入一个定语。 例如:Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace? 你还记得吗,十年前的一天下午,我来到你家,找你借了一 条钻石项链? when I came to your house and borrowed a diamond necklace 实际上是修饰 afternoon 而 不是修饰 years。ten years ago 实际上是定语后置修饰 afternoon。 4.先行词与定语从句被谓语分隔开来。此时,先行词通常是句子的主语,因定语从句较长, 主句谓语较短,为使句子平衡,常将定语从句移至谓语之后。 例如:A new master will come tomorrow who will teach you German.

二、定语从句与其他从句或句型的区分

定语从句与并列句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整与正确。 ①Mr. Li has three daughters,none of _____ is an engineer. ②Mr. Li has three daughters,but none of _____ is a dancer. ③Mr. Li has three daughters; _____ are doctors. 解析:定语从句与并列句的主要区别在于:并列句有像 等并列连词 或两个句子用分号连接,这时就不能再用引导定语从句的关系词了。从结构上看,①小 题是 ,故填 ;②小题有并列连词 but,是 ,故填代词 ;③ 小题是两个并列分句,无需连接词,缺少 ,故填 none 或 they。

定语从句与状语从句 ①This is the place where we used to live a few years ago. 这是几年前我们居住的地方。 ( 从句,先行词为 ) ② Let?s go where we can find a better job. 我们到能找到更好的工作的地方去吧。 ( 从句) ③Do you know the time when the class is over? 你知道下课的时间吗?( 从句) ④It was already five o?clock when the class was over. =When the class was over, it was already five o?clock. 当下 课时 己经是 5 点了 。 ( 从句) ⑤This is the factory in which (where) his father once worked. 这就是他的父亲曾经在那里工作过的那个工厂。 ( 从句) ⑥Put back the book where it was. 把书放回原处。 ( 从句)

定语从句与同位语从句 ①This is the place that / which we visited yesterday . 这就是昨天我们参观过的地方。 ( 从句) ②We don?t know the reason why they didn?t attend the meeting. 我们不知道他们(为什么)没有参加会议的原因。 ( 从句) ③The text tells us a fact that smoking does great harm to people?s health . 这篇课文又告诉我们一个事实,吸烟对健康危害很大。( 从句) ④ I had no idea when the sports meet will take place. 我不知道运动会何时举行。 ( 从句) ⑤The news that she had passed the exam made her parents very happy. 她考试及格的消息使她父母很高兴。 ( 从句) ⑥The news that he told us interested all of us. 他告诉我们的消息使大家都感兴趣。 ( 从句) ⑦I?ll never forget the day when I saw the Great Wall. 我永远不会忘记我见到长城的那一天。 ( , 作从句状语)

⑧The fact that(which)we talked about is very important. 我们所谈论的那个事实很重要。 ( 从句, 在从句中作 的宾语) ⑨The fact that he succeeded in the experiment pleased everybody. 他实验成功这个事实使我们大家很高兴。 ( 从句, 只起连接作用)

定语从句与强调句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整与正确。 ①It is on the morning of May 1st _____ I met Liang Wei at the airport. ②It is the factory _____ Mr. Wang works. 解 析 : 定 语 从 句 与 强 调 句 的 主 要 区 别 在 于 : 强 调 句 的 结 构 为 “ ” 。 被强调部分可以是除谓语以外的任何成分, 当被强调部分是人时, 还可用 who 代替 that。 这一句型中,一定不能因为被强调部分是表时间或地点的词就用 when 或 where 代替 that。 从结构上看,①小题是 ,故填 。此种情况检测的标准是:先把强调句中 的 It is/was 去掉,再把被强调部分还原,在不增加或减少任何单词的情况下,如句子 仍然成立则为强调句,否则为定语从句。 将第①小题改为:I met Liang Wei on the morning of May 1st at the airport.显然,这句话 是正确的,故为强调句。 ②小题则是 , 用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前差个介词 in, 故填 。

定语从句与习惯句型 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整与正确。 ①It is the first time _____ she has been in Shanghai. ②It was the time _____ Chinese people had a hard life. 解析: 这里①小题是一个习惯句型, 其结构为: It is/was the first/second . . . time + that 从句。故①填 ,其意为:这是她第一次在上海。②小题 是先行词, 其后是表示时间的 ,故填 。

定语从句与简单句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整与正确。 ①The mother told the lazy boy to work,_____ didn't help. ②The mother told the lazy boy to work._____ didn't help. 解析:含有定语从句的复合句与两个单句的主要区别在于:前者有 ,有 ,必 须有 ;而后者则是两个单独的 ,不需要任何 。①小题两个句子用逗号 连接且没有并列连词,显然应是主从句关系,因此需用关系词 ,前面整个句子 作 ;②小题则填 ,代替前面的整个句子。解题时,注意标点符号的运用。 三、定语从句与易混句型练与析 定语从句是历年高考试题中的考查热点之一,虽然其难度并不大,但许多考生对这一语 法内容掌握得并不好,失分较多。做这一类题的关键是要能正确地分析出其结构来,即首先

认出它是否为定语从句,然后再确定使用哪个连接词。定语从句易与其他句型混淆,需要仔 细区分。现在我们来看看下列句型结构,请大家选择恰当的词填空(有的小题正确答案不止 一个) 。

A.whom B.them C.they D. who 1.Mr. Smith has three sons,none of _____ is a computer expert. 2.He has three sisters,_____ are doctors. 3.She has three CDs,but none of is interesting. 4.I have many friends,and all of_____ are nice and friendly. 5.Miss Yang has some relatives here;_____ like her very much.

A.where B.which C.in which D.that 1.Rice grows well _____ there is enough water. 2.I know the university _____ my parents worked ten years ago. 3. After the war, a new school building was put up _____ there had once been a theatre. 4.The hospital _____ Mr. Li was operated on in has taken on a new look.

A.that B.when C.where D.who 1.It is on a summer afternoon _____ he met Liang Wei from Shanghai. 2.Is it on the farm _____ Mr. Wang lives? 3.It is the farm _____ Mr. Wang lives. 4.Is it Lang Weiwei _____ is speaking to a foreigner?

A.that B.as C.who D.which 1.Nobody in our school has the same camera _____ you have. 2.She is such a good girl _____ does well in French. 3.She is such a good girl _____ all of us like to make friends with her.

A.that B.which 1.The news _____ 2.The news _____ he told me sounds reasonable. China has joined the WTO excites all the Chinese.

A.that B.when C.which 1.It is the first time _____ 2.It was the time _____ 四、真题演练 I have been here. we had a hard life.

1. (2013·安徽卷·T29)Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012 , made one of the Chinese people?s long-held dreams come true. A. it B. that C. what D. which 2.(2013·江苏卷·T32)The president of the World Bank says he has a passion for China, ______ he remembers starting as early as his childhood. A. where B. which C. what D. when 3. (2013·山东卷·T31)There is no simple answer, _______ is often the case in science. A. as B. that C. when D. where 4. (20 13·山东卷·T35)Finally he reached a lonely island was completely cut off from the outside world. A. when B. where C. which D. whom 5. (2013·浙江卷·T5)The children, had played the whole day long, were worn out. A. all of what B. all of which C. all of them D. all of whom 6. (2013·浙江卷·T13)The museum will open in the spring with an exhibition and a viewing platform visitors can watch the big glasshouses being built. A. what B. where C. when D. why 7. (2013·四川卷·T9)Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment_______ they live. A. what B. which C. when D. where 8. (2013·重庆卷·T24)John invited about 40 people to his wedding, most of______ are family members. A. them B. that C. which D. whom 9. (2013·辽宁卷·T34)He may win the competition, he is likely to get into the national team. A. in which case B. in that case C. in what case D. in whose case 10. (2013·天津卷·T6)We have launched another man-made satellite, ______ is announced in today?s newspaper. A. that B. which C. who D. what 11. (2013·福建卷·T27)The book tells stories of the earthquake through the eyes of those ____lives were affected. A. whose B. that C. who D. which 12. (2013 北京 T27)Many countries are now setting up national parks_____ animals and plants can be protected. A. when B. which C. whose D. where 13. (2013 湖南卷 T21)Happiness and success often come to those____are good at recognizing their own strengths. A. whom B. who C. what D. which 14. (2013 江西卷 T33)He wrote a letter he explained what had happened in the accident. A. what B. which C. where D. how 15. (2013 新课标全国卷ⅠT33)“You can?t judge a book by its cover,”______ . A. as the saying goes old B. goes as the o ld saying C. as the old saying goes D. goes as old the saying 16. (2013 新课标全国卷ⅡT4) (2013· 大纲版全国卷· T24)When I arrived, Bryan took me to see the house I would be staying. A. what B . when C. where D. which

17. (2013 陕西卷 T16) doctor arrived. A. It B. That

is often the case with children, Amy was better by the time the C. What D. As

五、课后作业巩固 Ⅰ. 单项填空 1.(2013· 济宁模拟)There were several messages from people,most of __________ I didn?t know,on my answering machine when I got home. A.those B.which C.whom D.them 2. (2012· 高考江西卷)By 16∶3 0, ________ was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold. A.which B.When C.what D.that 3.(2013· 泰安一轮质量检测)In the UK,what impressed me most was the Student Activity, __________ I got lots of information outside. A.where B.that C.which D. when 4.(2012· 高考安微卷)A lot of language learning,________has been discovered, is happening in the first year of life, so parents should talk much to their children during that period. A.as B.it C.which D.this 5.(2012· 高考福建卷)The air quality in the city, ________ is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months. A.that B.it C.as D.what 6.The engineers made two big plans for the dam,__________ was never put in force. A.one of them B.which C.one of which D.both of which 7.The English song calls up the happy days __________ we spent together in our youth. A.which B.when C.on which D.what 8.The beaver chews down tress to get food and material________ to build its home. A.with which B.of which C.to which D.for which 9.Remember that there is still one point __________ we must make clear at the conference tomorrow. A.where B.why C.when D .that 10.Last week,we watched Beijing Opera,__________ style was unfamiliar to most of us. A.what B.which C.where D.whose Ⅱ. 用适当的关系代词或副词填空 1.The first blog site __________ makes users register with their real name opened in China on Monday. 2. Another new year is coming. It?s up to all of us to fill it with things _______ promise progress and happiness. 3.Can Starbucks(星巴克)find a place in China,________tea has been the preferred drink for hundreds of years? 4.The World Wide Fund for wildlife is an organization __________ aim is to protect wildlife. 5.The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point __________ he can walk correctly and safely. 6.This is Mr. Smith,__________ I think has something interesting to tell you.

7.—I can?t find Mr. Smith. Where did you meet him this morning? —It was in the hotel __________ he stayed. 8.The students are talking about the strange stories and persons __________ they met in the adventure. 9.Many young people end up in a job __________ they?re not interested in. 10.A computer is so useful a machine __________ we can use everywhere. Ⅲ. 阅读下面短文,在空格处填入一个适当的关系词,使短文合理、连贯 So many of us hold on to little resentments(怨恨)1. ____________ may have stemmed from an argument, a misunderstanding, or some other painful event. Stubbornly, we wait for someone else to reach out to us—believing this is the only way 2. ____________ we can forgive or rekindle(重新激起)a friendship or family relationship. A friend of mine,3. ____________ health isn?t very good,recently told me that she hasn?t spoken to her son in almost three years. She said that she and her son had a disagreement about his wife and that she wouldn?t speak to him again 4. ____________ he called first. When I suggested that she be the one to reach out, she resisted that he should have been the one 5. ____________ should apologize. After a little gentle encouragement,she decided to be the first one to reach out. 6.____________ is usually the case when someone takes the chance and reaches out, everyone wins. Whenever we hold on to our anger,we turn “small stuff” into really “big stuff” in our minds. We start to believe that our positions are more important than our happiness,7. ____________ is not true. The way to be happy is to let go,and reach out. Let other people be right. This doesn?t mean that you?re wrong. You?ll also notice that,as you reach out and let others be “right”,they might even reach back. 8. ____________,if for some reason they don?t, that?s okay too. You will have the inner satisfaction of knowing that you have done your part and certainly you?ll be more peaceful yourself.


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