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牛津高中英语模块5 Unit3 重点词汇讲解


词语点击 Reading Adopt [例题] 单项填空。 1. The new tax would force companies to ______ energy-saving measures. A. adopt C. adapt B. carry D. accept

2. The old couple decided to ______ a boy

and a girl though they had three of their own. A. adapt C. receive B. bring D. adopt

3. Our eyes slowly ______ to the dark. A. adopted C. fitted B. adapted D. matched

[讲解] adopt 主要有“收养”“采用”两个意思。如: 、 She adopted a child whose parents were dead. 她收养了一个父母双亡的孩子。 The government decided to adopt the plan. 政府决定采纳这个计划。 We adopted several measures to deal with the disease. 我们采取了一些措施来对付这种疾病。 [联想] adopt 的名词是 adoption,其过去分词 adopted 可以单独用作形容词,表示 “领养的,采纳的” 。如: He was pleased by the adoption of a little girl. 他对收养了一个小女孩感到高兴。 He is their adopted son. 他是他们的养子。 the adoption of new technology 新技术的采用

[拓展] adopt 和 adapt 的区别: adopt 意思是“采纳”“收养” 、 ;adapt 意思是“改编”“使适应” 、 。 通过以上讲解可知上面的例题答案为:1. A; 2. D; 3. B。 [练习] 用 adopt 或 adapt 的适当形式完成句子。 1. Our school ______ a new teaching method lately. 2. They are not my real parents; I am ______. 3. He tried hard to ______ himself to the new conditions. 4. Since the ______ of the new working method, production has gone up. 1. has adopted / adopted 3. adapt Grammar 词语点击 alternative 可用作名词和形容词。 ◆ 作名词,意为“可供选择的事物、选择余地”,是可数名词。如: They had no alternative in the matter. 在这件事上,他们没有选择的余地。 That’s the only alternative. 那是惟一的选择。 ◆ 作形容词,意为“可供选择的/替代的”。如: Please find alternative means of transport. 请找别的运输方法。 Do you have an alternative solution to the problem? 你有别的办法来解决这个问题? [拓展] 比较 alternative, choose 和 select: alternative 作名词或形容词,多指两者之间的选择,有“非此即彼”之意; choose 是动词(其名词形式是 choice) ,适用范围最广,可与 from 或 between 连 用。它一般指主观上的选择,有最终选定的含义; select 用作动词,多用于正式场合,指仔细地、审慎地精选,强调客观性,所挑 选的对象一般是相同种类的。 2. adopted 4. adoption

field 的主要意思有“田地,牧场;场地,领域”等。如: Many farmers are working in the fields. 许多农民在田里干活。 They rode through forests and fields. 他们骑马穿过森林和原野。 A football field is one hundred yards long. 足球场有一百码长。 He has become very famous in his own field. 他在自己的领域里已经非常有名了。 ◆ field 前的介词: 在 field 前通常用介词 in 或 into,但在 sports field 和 battle field 前常用 on。如: Don’t walk in the tomato field. 不要在番茄地里走。 Why do you want to go into this field again? 你为何还想进入这个领域? He was killed on the battle field. 他在战场上丧生。 ◆ field 的数: field 作“田地”讲时通常用复数形式,除非仅指一块田地。如: The fields are all white when it snows. 下雪的时候大地全白了。

involve v. 包含,需要;牵涉,牵连;参加,加入。后面常接名词和 V-ing 形式。 如: This lesson involves a lot of work. 这一课需要做的工作有很多。 The test will involve answering questions about a photograph. 考试将包括回答一些关于一张照片的问题。 Don’t involve other people in your trouble. 别把别人牵涉进你的麻烦中去。 He was involved in a boring discussion. 他卷入了无聊的讨论中。

[联想] involved adj. 被涉及的,有关联的 involvement n. 卷入,参与,加入 [拓展] get / be / become involved in 被卷入……;包含在……;与……有关,专心 地做…… involve sb in sth. / in doing sth. be involved with 使参与

与……有牵连,与……有关

project Favour [例题] 单项填空。 1. May I ask a favour ______ you? A. of B. for C. to D. on

2. The decision was ______ his favour. A. of B. for C. in D. to

3. Could you do me ______ favour and help me carry that heavy suitcase? A. a B. the C. / D. an

4. I was ______ him. In other words, I agreed with what he had just said. A. in favour of C. in face of B. in honor of D. in point of

[讲解] favour 可作名词和动词。 ★ 作名词意为“帮助,恩惠;赞同,支持;偏袒,偏爱”等。如: Could you do me a favour and pick up Tom from school tomorrow? 明天你能帮我个忙去学校接汤姆吗? The suggestion of closing the factory has found favour with many local people. 关闭这个工厂的建议已经得到许多当地人的支持。 As a mother, she showed no favour to any child. 作为母亲,她没有偏袒任何一个孩子。 ★ 作动词意为“较喜欢,选择;优惠,特别照顾,偏袒;有助于,有利于” 。如: Our teacher favours Mary.

我们的老师偏爱玛丽。 Fortune favours the brave. 幸运眷顾勇者。 The warm climate favours many types of tropical plants. 温暖的气候对多种热带植物有利。 [拓展] in favour (of sth. / sb. ) 支持,赞同 in sb.’s favour 对某人有利 ask a favour of sb. 请某人帮个忙 do sb. a favour 帮某人一个忙 通过以上讲解可知上面例题的答案为:1-4 ACAA。 [联想] favourable adj. 有利的;给人印象好的;赞同的,支持的;优惠的 favourite adj. 特别受喜爱的 n. 特别喜爱的人或事;得到偏爱的人 [练习] 用 favour 的适当形式翻译下列各句。 1. 你偏爱哪个颜色? 2. 学生赞成改革。 3. 他将这视为极大的恩惠。 4. 谁是你特别喜欢的作家? favour 1. Which colour do you favour? / What is your favourite colour? 2. The students were in favour of reform. 3. He regards this as a very favour. 4. Who is your favourite writer?

majority 是名词,意思是“大多数”,“大部分”,“多数票”等。如: The majority were / was against the plan. 多数人不赞成这个计划。 The resolution was passed by a large majority.

这个决议以多数票通过。 [拓展] 1. 一般可以说: the majority of the books / eggs / people 等, 不可以说: majority the of the milk / land / time 等; 2. majority 作主语时,若强调整体,谓语动词用单数;若强调团体中的个体,谓 语动词用复数;majority 构成的 the majority of 短语后面可以接单数或复数名词, 其谓语与该名词的数保持一致。如: The majority of criminals are young people. 大部分的罪犯是年轻人。 3. the majority of 与 a majority of 的区别:the majority of sb. / sth.指多数人/物,大 部分人/物。如:the majority of the woman / people。a majority of 指(投票时的)多 数。如:The party I support has won by a majority of 264 votes (投票). / The bill (议 案) was carried by a majority of 34 (301 to 267). [联想] 1. majority 的反义词是 minority (n. 少数); 2. major 可作形容词、名词和动词,意为“主要的,重要的,大的(adj.)”;“主修课 程,专业课(n.)”;“主修(v.)”; 3. majority 与 most 比较:majority 一般修饰可数名词,most 修饰可数和不可数均 可。 Most(= The majority of) students are not interested in maths.

Urge [例题] 单项填空。 They urged that the Science Museum ______ open during the vacation. A. was kept C. be kept B. were kept D. will be kept

[讲解] urge 可用作名词和及物动词。 ★ 作名词时,意为“迫切的要求,强烈的欲望、冲动”等,常与不定冠词 an 连 用,常用搭配为 have / feel an urge to do sth.,表示“很想做某事” 。如: I was afraid of the boy and I had an urge to run away from him.

我害怕那个男孩,很想跑开。 He has an urge to become a lawyer. 他很想成为一名律师。 ★ 作及物动词时,意为“要求;敦促,催促,力劝”等,后跟带不定式的复合 结构、名词或 that 从句等。注意 that 从句中要用“should + 动词原形”结构。如: The people in that country urged freedom. 那个国家的人民要求自由。 He urged me to join their company. 他敦促我尽快加入他们公司。 My friends urged that I (should) apply for the job. 朋友们力劝我申请那份工作。 通过以上讲解可知,上面例题的正确答案为 C。 [拓展] urge for 要求做出

urge on 督促工作,促使加劲干 urge to 促使采取 [练习] 翻译下列各句。 1. 暑假快要到了,我很想外出旅行。 2. 他极力劝我上大学。 3. 她督促她的学生努力学习。 4. 他们要求他陈述他的观点。

urge 1. Summer holiday is coming and I have an urge to travel. 2. He urged that I (should) go to college. 3. She urged her students to work hard. 4. They urged him for a statement of his views.


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