unit 4 单元测试题
第一部分：听力 (满分 30 分)。 做题时，先将答案划在试卷上。录音结束后，你有两分钟的时间将答案转涂到答 题卡上。 第一节（共 5 小题；每小题 1．5 分，满分 7．5 分） 听下面 5 段对话，每段对话后有一个小题，从题中所给的 A、B, C 三个选项中选 出最佳选项，并标在试卷的相应位置听完每段对话后，你都有 l0 秒钟的时间来 回答
有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 1．What can we learn from the dialogue？ A．The final score was zero-four． B．England team lost the football match． C. The man felt disappointed． 2．Where is this conversation probably taking place? A．On the bus. B．At the library．C. At the cinema. 3．What drink does the woman prefer？ A．Coffee．B．Cold water. C. Tea.
4．What’s the mall interested in during his free time？ A．Playing chess. B. Collecting stamps. C. Nothing but play.
5．What do the two speakers do immediately? A．Have a cup of coffee． B．Take a taxi to the woman’s place． C．Make an early start． 第二节（共 15 小题; 每小题 1．5 分，满分 22. 5 分） 听下面 5 段对话或独自。每段对话或独自后有几个小题，从每题所给的 A、 B、C 三个选项中选出最佳选项，并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前， 你将有时间阅读各个小题，每小题 5 秒钟；听完后，各小题将给出 5 秒钟的作答 时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。 听第 6 段材料，回答第 6 至 8 题。 6．How long has Bill been looking for a new position？
A．For several weeks. B. For some day. 7．How did Bill feel about the interview？ A．He was sure lie could get the new job．
C. For quite a long time.
B．He was uncertain if lie could get the new job． C．He didn’t think the interview was difficult． 8． What can we know from the talk? A．Bill’s wife had a wonderful time． B. Bill’s wife didn’t know the news. C. Bill’s wife was satisfied with their life. 听第 7 段材料，回答第 9 至 11 题。 9．Why did Li Ming go to Hainan Island? A. On business． B. For a holiday． C．To see his friends．
10．What did Li Ming do there? A. He went hiking in the mountains and swam in the sea. B．He sometimes went shopping in the town． C．He sometimes had a picnic in the mountains． 11．Why is it quite wet on Hainan Island? A．Because the wind there often comes from the warm sea． B．Because it is the southern part of China． C．Both A and B． 听第 8 段材料，回答第 12 至 14 题。 12．What’s the possible relationship between the two speakers？ A. Husband and wife. B. Friends. C. Neighbours.
13．What can we learn about the football match? A．It will begin at one o’clock tomorrow morning. B. It is between British arid the USA．
C．It will be a boring one． 14．Why did the woman decide not to watch the match? A. She was afraid that she would be late for work．
B．She was not interested in it． C．It took a long tine for leer to fall asleep． 听第 9 段材料，回答第 15 至 16 题。 15．Why did the woman have NOT seen the man for some times? A．He had been oil vacation． B．He was catching up on things at home. C．He had been sick． 16. What can we learn about the woman from the dialogue？ A．She was taking care of her mother who had the flu． B．She had been sick． C．She didn’t have the flu． 听第 10 段材料，用恰当的词填空，完成第 17 至 20 题。 Nowadays, Americans are more and more as many as 70 million Americans are exercise machines, populized. 第二部分 语言知识及应用（共两节，满分 40 分） 第一节 完形填空 (共 10 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 20 分) 阅读下面短文，掌握其大意，然后从 21-30 各题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中， 选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 In the 1930s a young traveler was exploring the French Alps. He came upon a vast stretch of land 21 accident. It was desolate 荒凉） disappointing and （ , 22 . and 19 . 18 . 17 with their weight. Perhaps
Dieters spend money on diet pills, 20 new diets are
It was the kind of place you hurry away from. Then, suddenly, the young traveler 23 . In the middle of this vast wasteland was
a bent-over old man. On his back was a sack （大袋） acorns 橡子） In his hand of （ . was a four-foot length of iron pipe（管）. The man was 24 the iron pipe to dig holes in the ground. Then from the 25 . The old man told the
sack he would take an acorn and put it in the
traveler, “I’ve planted over 100,000 acorns. Perhaps only a tenth of them will 26 .” The old man’s wife and son had died, and this was how he chose to spend
his final years. “I want to do something meaningful,” he said.
to make the rest of my life
Twenty-five years later the now-not-so-young
returned to the same 29 his own eyes. The
desolate area. What he saw amazed him. He could not land was covered 30
a beautiful forest two miles wide and five miles long.
Birds were singing, animals were playing, and wild flowers gave off a pleasant smell. 21. A. by 22. A. pretty 23. A. walked 24. A. taking 25. A. sand 26. A. grow 27. A. strange 28. A. guide 29. A. keep 30. A. at B. at B. ugly B. ran B. dissolving B. hole B. plant B. funny B. traveler B. control B. on C. of C. beautiful C. stopped C. making C. soil C. change C. careful C. stranger C. believe C. of D. on D. interesting D. screamed D. using D. ground D. exit D. useful D. farmer D. open D. with
第二节 语法填空 （共 10 小题; 每小题 2 分，满分 20 分） 阅读下面短文，按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求，在空格处填入一 个适当的词或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空， 并将答案填写在答题卡标号为 31-40 的相应位置上。 There’s a story about the California gold rush 31 tells of two brothers who 32
sold all they had and went hunting for gold. After experiencing a lot of
(difficult), they finally discovered some shining material. After they bought the land, they started to get down to the serious business of material out of the mine. All went well at first, but then 33 34 (get) the gold strange thing
happened. The gold material disappeared! The brothers continued to pick away, but 35 success. Finally, they gave up in despair (绝望). (take) 37
They sold their equipment and the land for a few hundred dollars, and 36 the train back home. A few years passed, and then another businessman
(buy) the place and hired an engineer to examine the rocks in the mine. The engineer 38 (advise) him to continue digging in the same spot where the 39 （deep） the new owner struck ,
former owners had left off. And three feet gold.
With a little more persistence (坚持), the two brothers would have been millionaires 40 . So if you keep trying, you will eventually succeed.
第三部分 阅读（共两节，满分 40 分） 第一节 阅读理解 （共 15 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 30 分） 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A、B、C 和 D 项中，选出最佳选项，并在答题 卡上将该项涂黑。 A Elias and his grandpa had spent the day on the tractor. They were getting their fields ready for planting. Now they were having a rest in the yard. Elias looked up. A silver moon was shining over the farm. Elias wished his father were with him to enjoy the clear night, but he had been away on business for a whole month. “Hey, Grandpa, what’s that bright star?” Grandpa looked up. “That’s not a star. I think it might be the planet Jupiter (木 星),” Grandpa said. “I just want to get something.” A moment later, Grandpa brought out an old telescope from the house. He set it up in the yard. He aimed the telescope at the light, and then asked Elias to take a look. Grandpa said, “It’s Jupiter, all right. Here, look at the four tiny dots in a row next to the big dot. Those are some of Jupiter’s moons.” Elias looked through the telescope. It took him a moment to find Jupiter and its moons. “How do you know so much about the stars?” he asked his grandfather. “I’ve always loved the stars and planets,” Grandpa answered. “When your dad was a boy, I taught him what I had learned, and he also read every book he could find on the subject. We spent hours out here with this telescope almost every night.” “I never knew Dad was interested in the stars,” Elias said.
“Well, that was a long time ago,” Grandpa said. “I even forgot I had this old thing until you asked about that bright star.” Elias smiled as he thought about his father. “Can you show me how to find the other stars and planets?” he asked. “Then I can surprise Dad when he comes back home.” 41. Elias and his grandfather had spent the day ______. A. looking at the stars and planets C. working in the fields B. talking about Elias’s father
D. learning to drive a tractor
42. What do we know about Elias’s grandfather? A. He wanted to share his love of the stars and planets with Elias. B. All he knew about the stars and planets came from books. C. He knew more about the planet Jupiter than other stars. D. He preferred studying the stars and planets to working on the farm. 43. Why did Elias want to learn more about the stars and planets? A. He planned to write an article on the subject. B. Looking at the stars and planets was his hobby. C. He wanted to remind his grandpa of the old days. D. He wanted to give his father a surprise. 44. What can we infer from the passage? A. That Elias liked the stars and planets was affected by his father. B. When Elias’s father returns, he will probably look at the stars and planets with Elias. C. Elias’s father spent more time on business than with Elias. D. Elias wanted to exchange his grandpa’s old telescope for a new one. 45. When does the story probably happen, according to the passage? A. On a winter morning. C. On a summer morning. B. On an autumn noon. D. On a spring night. B I’m a computer science graduate. Before the war, I was working in an Iraqi software company located in Baghdad. Every day, I would go to the little office which I shared with one female colleague and two men, start up my computer and
spend hours staring at little numbers and letters on the screen. It was boring, it was tiring, it was difficult and it was ... wonderful. When I needed a break, I’d go visit my favorite sites on the Internet, bother my colleagues or talk about “impossible bosses” and “improbable deadlines (期限) of the job”. I loved my job. I was “good” at my job. I came and went to work on my own. At 8 am I’d walk in with a backpack filled with enough CDs, notebooks, pens and documents. I made as much money as my two male colleagues and got an equal amount of respect from the manager. I thought that was probably because he didn’t know how to deal with the difficulties in his job, so anyone who could do it was worthy of respect, including a girl. What I’m trying to say is that no matter what people have heard, females in Iraq were a lot better off than females in other parts of the Arab world, including some parts of the Western world because we had equal salaries! We made up over 50% of the workforce. We were doctors, lawyers, nurses, teachers, professors, architects, and more. We came and went as we pleased. We wore what we wanted within the limit of the rules of a conservative (保守的) society. 46. How many workers were there in the author’s office? A. Two. B. Three. C. Four. D. Five.
47. From the third paragraph we learn that ______. A. the author could do the job better than the manager B. the author was the best worker in her office C. the manager respected the author because she is a woman D. the manager was not satisfied with the author’s work 48. What have other people in the world heard about the women in Iraq? A. Women in Iraq did much better in the computer industry. B. Women in Iraq were the most conservative in the Arab world. C. Women got less respect from the society in Iraq. D. Women worked harder than men in their companies. 49. Why does the author think that the condition of women in Iraq is much better
than that in some other countries? A. They get equal respect as men. B. They do as much work as men.
C. They earn as much money as men. D. They are free to do anything. 50. The author wrote this passage in order to show us that ______. A. she did quite well in her job when she was in Iraq B. many women were suffering in Iraq during the war C. women were not treated equally in Iraq D. the condition of women in Iraq was better than what other people thought C Orbiting (环绕) the earth on a ship with no washing machine, what do astronauts do with their dirty underwear (内衣)? How much underwear would three astronauts need for six months? If they need to have a clean pair every day, that will be at least 540 pairs! There’s no room for those on the space station. Astronauts don’t have a clean pair for each day. They change their underwear once every three or four days. That’s not too bad. Clothes don’t get dirty as quickly there as they do on Earth. Ships that are sent up to the ISS — International Space Station — can only be used one time. They take what the crew (工作人员) needs. The crew takes the supplies off the ship. Then, they put their trash and dirty clothes on it. When it is full, the ship is sent back to Earth. It burns up in the air over the Pacific Ocean. Dirty underwear can also be used to grow plants. Pettit, an astronaut, wanted to try to grow some plant seeds, but there’s no soil on the ISS. He decided to use an old pair of underwear. He folded the underwear. Then he sewed them together. He used space toilet paper for the outside! It worked great! The seeds started growing in two days! Russian scientists also got an idea to use bacteria 细菌） eat the astronauts’ （ to cotton and paper underwear, but this idea can’t be used right now. 51. What does the underlined word “trash” mean in the third paragraph? A. Supply. B. Rubbish. C. Rag. D. Underwear.
52. The passage above was probably written to ______. A. introduce how astronauts deal with their dirty underwear
B. let readers know how astronauts wash their underwear astronauts live in space D. tell why astronauts have so many pairs of underwear 53. What will the crew take off the ships? A. Some plants. B. Dirty clothes. C. The supplies.
C. let readers know how
D. Space toilet paper.
54. Which of the following statements is TRUE, according to the passage? A. The Russians use the ships again and again for transportation. B. There is a great deal of soil on the ISS, as everybody can see. C. Clothes don’t get dirty easily on the ISS, as they do on the earth. D. There are a few washers on the space station right now. 55 How many ways do the astronauts use to deal with their dirty underwear? A. Two. B. Three. C. Four. D. Five.
第二节 信息匹配 （共 5 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 10 分） 请阅读下列应用文及相关信息，并按照要求匹配信息。请在答题卡上将对应题 号的相应选项字母涂黑。 首先，请阅读下列旅游景点的信息： A. Literature Camp: A group of famous writers will be present at the camp, offering studies in the development of Chinese literature from 1919 to 1949.You will visit seven museums relating to contemporary (当代的) literature. B. Exciting Holiday Camp: You can enjoy yourself climbing, sailing and swimming taught by trained adults in a camp near a lake. All meals are provided. The camp is open throughout June, July and August, and each session lasts for two weeks. It is aimed at boys and girls aged 9 — 14. C. Seagull (海鸥) Sailing Holidays: Suitable for all ages. You can learn to sail in three weeks. We offer teaching from qualified staff. Flats or apartments are provided in a beautiful, quiet fishing village. Breakfast, dinner and a packed lunch are included in the price of the holiday. D. Grace Island Hotel: Short stays (3 — 4 days) available. Famous for its excellent cooking, the hotel provides opportunities to relax and enjoy the heated swimming pool, beautiful music and top class bars and restaurants, with entertainment every
night. All rooms have a sea view. E. Students’Working Holidays: A really cheap but healthy holiday. You can enjoy picking fruit in the heart of France. Accommodation (住宿) provided in farmhouses. All meals included. Free transportation is also provided. Why not write for further details? F. History Tours: We offer tours to Egypt with guides. The tour includes lectures about the history of Egypt and visits to museums. Travel by coach or riverboat. Accommodation in top hotels. Tours last 2 — 3 weeks. 请阅读以下旅游者的信息，然后匹配他/她拟要选择的旅游景点： 56. Mike and Susan are university students. They want to take a holiday this summer, but they don’t have much money. They are dreaming of going to France. 57. Bill Smith is a businessman. He is tired and needs a rest, but he does not have much time for a holiday. He wants to get away from city life and stay somewhere near the sea. He is interested in cooking. 58. Susan has three weeks to spend on holiday. She doesn’t like sports, and she doesn’t like relaxing on the beach either. She enjoys sightseeing and learning about foreign countries’ history. 59. Kelly studies Chinese in Beijing. She is interested in Chinese literature. She has some free time and would like to attend some kind of activity to learn about Chinese modern literature. 60. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson and their three sons like outdoor holidays. They have never tried sailing, but they would like to learn. During their three-week holiday, they want to enjoy themselves in a beautiful, quiet fishing village. 第四部分 写作 （共两节，满分 40 分） 第一节 基础写作 （共 1 小题; 满分 15 分） [写作内容] 在“世界地球日”即将来临之际,你校英语沙龙要求同学们以“保护环境”为主 题 ,进行英文手抄报比赛,假设你是英语沙龙的一员，请按照以下提供的信息， 写一篇文章参赛。
呼吁拯救地球 1. 植树造林，减少
70%的水，30%的 自身发展的支持 陆地 系统逐渐被人类 的发展所破坏
污染； 2. 节约能源消耗， 减 少资源浪费
[写作要求] a) 只能使用 5 个句子表达全部的内容； b) 开头和结尾已经给出，不计入总词数。 [评分标准] 句子结构的准确性，信息内容的完整性和连贯性。 The astronauts said that the earth is the most beautiful planet that they have ever seen. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ The beauty of the earth is unique, and we have no choice but to protect it. 第二节 读写任务 (共 1 小题；满分 25 分) 阅读下面的短文，然后按照要求写一篇 150 词左右的英语短文。 It’s hard to say whether in the future we will live on another planet. The earth provides for us the right balance of necessary conditions so that we can live in reasonable comfort without artificial (人造的) aid. Through advances in technology, we certainly might be able to create an environment in which we could live on almost any other planet. But whether another planet in space has conditions similar enough to the earth that we would need little or no “artificial environment” is unknown. We might think that such a planet ought to exist, but that doesn’t mean that it necessarily does. The role of science is to take us from what we think “might” be true to what really is true and possible. In order to live on another planet, we must first find other planets (this is an active field of research that astronomers are now making great progress in), determine whether they are suitable for us, and
then travel to them. All of these require significant advances in our knowledge and technology. This is not to say that it is beyond our capabilities, but we must consider what would need to be done to do it. It is a question worth considering, and by thinking about it we can certainly learn many exciting things along the way. [写作内容] 1.概括短文的内容要点，该部分的字数大约 30 左右； 2.就“太空技术的发展给人们的生活带来的好处”这个主题发表你的看法，至 少包含以下的内容要点，该部分的字数大约 120 左右: a) 丰富的矿产资源，提高农作物产量； b) 太空旅行，移居外星球等宏伟计划变为可能； c) 有利于增强一个国家的综合实力。 [写作要求] a) 可以使用实例或其他论述方法支持你的论点，也可以参照阅读材料的内容， 但不得直接引用原文中的句子； b) 标题自定。 [评分标准] 概括准确、语言规范、内容合适，篇章连贯。
参考答案： 1 一 5 CACAB 6 一 10 CBBBA 11 一 15 CAAAC 16 一 20 CCBCC 17．concerned 18．on a diet 19. jogging suits 20. dozens of 21-25 ABCDB 26-30 ADBCD 31. that / which 32. difficulty 33. getting 34. a 35. without 36. took 37. bought
38. advised 39. deeper
41-45 CADBD 46-50 CACCD 51-55 BACCA 第一节 基础写作 One possible version： The astronauts said that the earth is the most beautiful planet that they have ever seen. Seen from space, the earth on which we live looks light blue and very beautiful. 70% of its surface is covered with water and 30% land, making a good place for all the living things on it. However, our development is constantly destroying, little by little, the system that supports us. It is high time that we protected our only home from further damage. We should plant more trees to reduce pollution, and save energy to reduce waste. The beauty of the earth is unique, and we have no choice but to protect it. 第二节 读写任务 One possible version: Our Benefits from Space Technology Development Whether or not it is possible for humans to live on other planets is a topic that has been discussed a lot recently. The main question is whether we can find or create an environment, which is suitable for life. There is no doubt that exploring space is of great value to us. First of all, the environment of other planets could possibly improve crop production, which would prevent people worldwide from lack of food supply. Second, traveling through space
and setting up new cities in other plants has long been a dream of ours. It could allow people to explore the mystery of universe. The last but not the least, space exploration might improve our cooperation with other countries in the development of Astronomy and strength of our country against others. No matter when it happens, space exploration will be beneficial to all people. 重点解析 21. A。by accident 是固定搭配，表示“偶然地” 。 22. B。既然是荒凉、令人失望的地方，它一定是丑的。 24. D。那位老人使用铁管在地上挖洞。use sth. to do sth. 表示“用??做??” 。 28. B。根据“now-not-so-young”这个合成词的提示可知，此处指原来的那位旅 行者旧地重游。 30. D。be covered with 表示“覆盖有??” 。 42. A。推断题。通读全文，尤其是文章第二段和第四段可知 Elias 的祖父只是想 和他的孙子分享一下他的爱好。 43. D。根据文章最后一段中的“Then I can surprise Dad when he comes back home.”可知答案为 D。 46. C。细节理解题。根据第一段第二句话“... I would go to the little office which I shared with one female colleague and two men ...”可知作者跟一个女同事和两个男 同事同处一个办公室，因此选 C。 49. C。细节理解题。根据第四段第一句“... because we had equal salaries!”可知 选 C。 50. D。本文通过写作者对工作的态度和在工作中所获得的报酬和尊敬，以及文 章最后一段讲伊拉克妇女现在的生活工作的状态， 可以看出伊拉克妇女的地位并 不像别人所认为的那样。 51. B。词义猜测题。由“put their trash and dirty clothes on it”知道，应选 B 项。 52. A。主旨大意题。根据文章的第一段可知，本文旨在向读者介绍宇航员处理 内衣的方法。 53. C。细节理解题。由第三段 “The crew takes the supplies off the ship.” 可知 应选 C。
54. C。 细节加推断的综合题。 “Clothes don’ get dirty as quickly there as they do 由 t on Earth.” 可知 C 为正确选项。 55. A。第三，四段各介绍了一种方法，故选 A 项。
听力录音原稿： Text 1 W：I am from CNN．Please tell our audience about the football match with England． M：Well，it was terrible．We lost，and the score was zero-fourteen． Text 2 M：Miss，will we soon arrive at the city library？ W：Yes，get off at the next stop and you’11 find it across the street． Text 3 W：I prefer tea to coffee，but whenever we visit John，he always gives us coffee． M：I don’t like coffee，either. All I really want to drink is a glass of cold water． Text 4 M：What are your hobbies？ W：Oh．I collect stamps．What about you？ M：I don’t really have any hobbies．I just like to play chess in my spare time． Text 5 M：Let’s drop in here for a cup of coffee． W：Well，I’d love to，but as a matter of fact，I’ve got to make rather an early start tomorrow． M：Oh，I see．Well，in that case I suggest we take a taxi straight back to your place． Text 6 M：Hi，Jane.
W：Hi，Bill. M：Today is a very good day for me． W：Anything lucky for you，Bill？ M：Yes，I’ve got a new job．It wasn’t easy for me to get a new job．I’ve been looking for one for quite a long time． W：You’re lucky．Was the interview difficult？ M： Several men were interviewed for this job， and I didn’t know if I could get it．This morning someone from the company called and asked to see me at 2 o’clock． W：Did you go there？ M: Yes, I’ve just been there. When I came into the office, he told me that I was hired. I am feeling so happy. W: How about the pay? M: I’ll be paid well and my work will be very interesting. I’m sure I can manage it. W: I believe that. Where are you going now? M: I’m going right home to tell my wife the good news, and take her out for dinner. W: That’s fine. She must have had a worrying time, I suppose. When will you begin work? M: I’11 begin work on Monday. I still have two days to prepare for it. Goodbye. Text 7 W: Hi, Li Ming, where did you go for your holiday? M: I went to Hainan Island for a week. W: Hainan Island, wonderful! What did you do there? M: We sometimes went hiking in the mountains and sometimes spent the days by the sea swimming. W: What’s the weather like there?
M: Well, the weather in Hainan Island is warmer and wetter than that in other places of China. This is because Hainan Island is in the southern part of the country and the wind often comes from the warm sea. The wind picks up the water from the sea. When this wind hits the mountains of Hainan Island, the air rises and the rain falls. W: I wish someday I could go there for a visit too. Text 8 W: There will be a wonderful football game on TV this evening. M: Yes, I know. It’s between Britain and Germany. W: But the match won’t begin until one o’clock early tomorrow morning. I don’t think I can stay up so late. M: If you are really interested in it, you can go to bed first. I will wake you up when the match begins. W: Well, I will have to go to work early tomorrow morning. I’d better not watch it, or I will be late. M: It doesn’t matter much to me. I think I can wake up at the proper time and I won’t be late for work. W: Well, enjoy the match by yourself. Text 9 W: Doug, I didn’t see you around last week! Everything OK? M: Thanks, Sarah. I was down with the flu. W: Oh, sorry to hear it. How are you doing now? M：Much better，thanks．Still a little weak and have a sore throat，but I’m finally up and about． W： Clad to bear it． Well， didn’t miss much． you Things have been pretty slow. We are reviewing Unit 10． You can copy my notes， you want to． If you need any if help catching up， just let me know. M： Thanks， appreciate it． I Take care of yourself. I’ve heard quite a few people have had the flu．
W：I will．In fact my mother was down with it a couple of weeks ago．I’ve been exposed， so far l seem to be OK． keep on taking vitamin C and getting but I’11 plenty of sleep．Nice to see you back at school． Text 10 These days Americans are more and more concerned with their weight．Perhaps as many as 70 million Americans are on a diet．American supermarkets sell a variety of diet foods such as diet soft drinks，diet candy，and diet salad dressings．Dieters also spend money on diet pills，exercise machines， and jogging suits．Each year dozens of new diets are popularized．They have such names as the Miracle Diet，the Nine Day Wonder Diet，and the Easy 24 Hours Diet．There is even one called the Ice Cream Diet，which advises the dieters to eat only ice cream for lunch and dinner！For dieters who cannot lose weight on their own，there are many well-organized diet groups，which offer help and encouragement．
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