分词做状语 和 独立主格结构
可表时间、原因、方式、结果、条件、 让步、伴随或陪衬等含义, 相当于一个对应的状语从句所表达的 意思.
1. _______（walk）in the street, I came across an old
friend. When…. 2. ______(be) ill, he didn’t go to school. Because… 3. ______(use) your head, you will find a way. If…
? We were sitting by the window, _______(talk) about what happened yesterday.(伴随） His parents died, _________(leave) him an orphan.
? Having met him for many times, she decided to help him out. After she had met him for many times,…
1.v-ing形式作状语时，若它所表示的动作发 生在主句谓语动作之前，需用having done, 被动形式 having been done 2. v-ing形式作状语时，其逻辑主语必须和主 句主语保持一致；3. 否定式直接在分词前加 not
Not knowing her address, we had to get in touch with her. __________(finish) the class, she went home. ___________(catch) on the spot, the thief had to admit his crime.
? 1.过去分词作状语，表示时间、条件、原因、 让步、伴随情况等。 ? 过去分词的逻辑主语是主句的主语
______(see) from space, the earth looks blue. When it is… _______(keep )in refrigerator, these vegetables will remain fresh. If they are… Deeply ________(move) by the story, the children began to cry.
? 1.定义：在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发 生或完成了的动作，即“过去的过去”。 ? 2. 结构：had done 被动：had been done I had finished reading the novel by nine o‘clock last night。 I thought I had seen him before.
After she had finished the office work, she came to the sitting room and relaxed.
Having finished the office work, she …
? 1. _______ from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine with him wherever he goes. A. Suffered B. Suffering
C. Having suffered D. Being suffered
? 2. He sent me an e-mail, ________ to get further information. A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope
? 3. While building a tunnel through the mountain, _______. ? A. an underground lake was discovered B. there was an underground lake discovered C. a lake was discovered underground D. the workers discovered an underground lake
4. Suddenly, a tall man driving a golden carriage ________ the girl and took her away, ________ into the woods. A. seizing; disappeared B. seized; disappeared C. seizing; disappearing D. seized; disappearing
5. _______ in the queue for half an hour, Tom suddenly realized that he had left his wallet at home. A. To wait B. Have waited C. Having waited D. To have waited
6. If ___ the same treatment again, he’s
sure to get well.
A. giving C. given B. give D. being given
7. Unless ___ to speak, you should remain silent at the conference. A. invited C. being invited B. inviting D. having invited
7. _____ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States. A. Being founded B. It was founded C. Founded D. Founding
? 1.由名词或代词加上分词或分词短语构成的 一种独立结构，用于修饰整个句子。
2. 特点 1）独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不 同，它独立存在。 2）名词或代词与后面的分词，形容词，副词， 不定 式，介词等是主谓关系。 3）独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。
3. 结构 名词/主格代词+现在分词/过去分词/不定式 /形容词/副词/介词短语
There being +名词/代词 It being +名词/代词
? The girl _______(stare) at him (= As the girl stared at him), he didn‘t know what to say. ? Time _______(permit) (= If time permits), we will go for an outing tomorrow. ? The problems______ (solve) (= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved.
当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不同 时，可用独立主格结构取代状语从句， 但不再保留连词。 After class was over，the students soon left the classroom.
Class being over / Class over
? He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help. His mother （being） ill, he had to stay home to look after her. ? The meeting（being） over, they all went home.
being（或having been） 不能省略的情形 (1) 独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时。 It being Sunday, we went to church. (2)在There being＋名词/代词的结构中。 There being no bus, we had to go home on foot.
? Our English teacher came into the classroom, book in hand. ? n/pron+介词短语结构中，n/pron前不可用 冠词或形容词性物主代词（his，her， our…）
1.The cave ________ very dark, he lit some candles ________ light. A. was; given B. was; to give C. being; given D. being; to give
2. The soldier rushed into the cave, his right hand ________ a gun and his face ________ with sweat. A held; covered B. holding; covering C. holding; covered D. held; covering 3. The girl in the snapshot（快照） was smiling sweetly, her long hair _________. A. flowed in the breeze B. was flowing in the breeze C. were flowing in the breeze D. flowing in the breeze
4. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _________ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished
5.____,we went home. A. Our homework had been finished B.Our homework having been finished C. Our homework finishing D. Our homework been finished 6.The meeting____, he went back to his company. A. Over B. had over C. was over D. have been over
7. ____,he put on his coat. A. It being cold B. It cold C. Being cold D. It having been cold 8.Time ____,we shall visit the zoo. A. been permitting B. permitting C. permitted D. having been permitted
9. _______, we have to get down to business right away． A. There was no time left B. There is no time left C. There being no time left D. There to be no time left
10. She stood there, _______ from her cheeks. A. tears' rolling down B. tears rolled down C. with tears rolled down D. tears rolling down
11. The boy stood before the roasted duck, his eyes _______ on it and his mouth _______. A. were fixed, was watered B. fixed, watering C. fixed,watered D. were fixing, was watering
12. _______ Sunday, the library is closed. A. Being B. It being C. There being D. It is
Do more exercises to consolidate absolute structure and participles as adverbials.
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