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写作教程第二版(邹申)-unit 3 Places- Development by Space

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Unit 3 Development by Space

Arkey Works

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Unit Objectives
1. Become familiar with feature and organizational pattern of ideas based on space or spatial relationships in paragraph writing; 2. Know how to develop description according to space arrangement;

3. Be able to construct a paragraph by arranging details with linking words of location and direction
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Development by Space
? Before we begin to describe a place, whether it is a large country or a small room, we have to decide on the order in which to name the different parts or details. For this case, we should find out the space relationships between them and arrange our description accordingly.
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Group Work
What’s your overall impression of the university?
Which building or location catches your attention first? Which place do you want to describe next? And then? What do you want to describe last? What order does your description follow? Why do you choose this order?

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1. Important landmark, and describe other locations in relation to it. 2. Stress an boundaries of an area

3. Along the road
4. According to north

south or west-east
5. Outside to inside

inside to outside
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Tian’anmen Square Golden Water Bridge Great Hall Monument

Memorial Hall

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stone benches


flower bed






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? We are going to build a small garden on campus.

? The straight northward path inside the gate leads to a conventional pavilion which in front of some delicate stone benches.
? Verdant lawns are at the both sides of the path.

? There is a small pond inlays the lawn at southeast part.
? If you choose the other path goes across the garden from

west to east, then you can enjoy luxuriantly green wood besides the pavilion at northwestern part and appreciate a beautiful flower bed at northeast.

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Additional Work
1. Bath (bathtub) 2. Plug 8. Face-flannel towel 9. Nail-brush

3. Shower
4. Towel-rail

10. Razor
11. Toilet (lavatory)

5. Bath-mat
6. Shower curtain

12. Cistern
13. Flushing handle

7. Wash-basin

14. toilet-paper

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Development by Space
1. the Caspian Sea 里海
里海位于亚洲与欧洲交界,是世上最大及蓄水量最多之湖泊,面积37万1千平方公里 (143,000平方英里),体积78,200立方公里,最深处1,025米,平均深度209米,湖面海 拔负28米,最深处湖床海拔负1,054米,也是内流湖、咸水湖、海迹湖。

2. Asia Minor – Anatolia 小亚细亚
土耳其的亚洲部分被称为安纳托利亚,也称小亚细亚。安纳托利亚位于平均海拔高度10 00米的高原上,山脉环绕四周,夏季的高原到处都是种植的谷物。这里白昼炎热, 夜晚寒冷,即使在夏天也须穿御寒服。

3. Phoenicians –腓尼基人
腓尼基人是历史上一个古老的民族,自称为闪美特人,又称闪族人。生活在今天地中海东 岸相当于今天的黎巴嫩和叙利亚沿海一带,他们曾经建立过一个高度文明的古代国家。 Made by Pizza.C 公元前10世纪至公元前8世纪是腓尼基城邦的繁荣时期

Summary – Sample 2
1. It is a description of “my grandfather’s barn” 2. Deplorable – specific words and arranges these descriptive details in a natural order of their physical layout: exterior to the interior of the barn. 3. outside – from top to the bottom 4. inside – from left to the right and to the overhead 5. The reader can visualize the scene very vividly and grasp the relationships of the objects.
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Keys for Sample 3 P26
1. An athlete’s room 2. Closet / dresser / according to the spatial order / the writer presents an orderly description just as his eye might move from right to the left around the room.
Closet – to my right Cap – on the shelf Schedule – on the wall above the nightstand Desk – the left wall Medals – on the shelves

Bed – the far wall

Lamp - on the top of a nightstand to Window – next to the desk the left of the bed Dresser – between the window and the left Made by Pizza.C corner

Summary – Sample 3
? 1. Display an artistic grouping of details in space ? 2. Things are related to each other by the order in which they are placed in space ? 3. With the use of specific space signals, we are led by the writer to experience the room vividly from right to left, from larger to smaller ones as if we were actually “seeing” it.

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Linking Devices P28
Spatial signals are often used to help organize details in descriptive paragraph.

E.G. inside, in the right-hand side, outside, in the opposite end, down the center, at the end of, the left-hand
The writer organizes the paragraph in a particular order. Readers will not get lost while the description proceeds.

Question 1

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Puppies behind glass Unpleasant smell Chained birds Rows of cages

Logical arrangement Transitional devices


Dirty tub containing turtles
Stuff atmosphere Kittens in the window Sounds of caged animals Droppings and urine on newspaper

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? 4. ? sight, touch, hearing and smell. ? Through the rich perceptions the reader will gain a fuller and more vivid picture of the scene ? 5. ? Sight: black-and-white kittens piled together; a line of large wooden perches; parrots flutter their clipped wings; stagnant-looking water; motionless turtles ? Sound: clawing; shuffling sound ? Smell: unpleasant mixture of strong chemical deodorizers; urinesoaked newspapers; musty sawdust ? Touch: lick the human hands
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Words & Phrases
where, in which, under, below, beneath, down, over, above, along, through, north(en), to the left, next to , on the opposite side, to the

left (right), in back, nearby, beyond, in the
foreground, in the background…
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Summary – Sample 2
1. It is a description of “my grandfather’s barn” 2. Deplorable – specific words and arranges these descriptive details in a natural order of their physical layout: exterior to the interior of the barn. 3. outside – from top to the bottom 4. inside – from left to the right and to the overhead 5. The reader can visualize the scene very vividly and grasp the relationships of the objects.
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Review the Unit
1. Vertical order 2. Horizontal order

3. Depth order
4. Circular order

5. Center-tocircumference order
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Keys for Exercises
? P30 – 3 ? 3 6 1 4 7 5 2 ? Relationship: Primarily, the organization of the paragraph represents movement in geographical space ? P31- 4 ? 1). In , Above, In front of, under, through, Behind ? 2). The central focus is “a shocking experience”. To support the main idea, the writer uses a lot of descriptions and organizes these details according to the space relationship, and thus coherence is achieved.
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? P31 – 5 ? into, crosses, In the center of, Outside, inside, On, over, down, lined with, After the rear ? P32 – 6 ? Background information of Mount Vernon:美国弗吉尼亚州北部, 首都华盛顿南21公里处的古迹名胜,是乔治· 华盛顿总统的家乡和 坟墓所在地。

? This paragraph is developed in a circular order, i.e. from east to north and south, and then back to north. Students are encouraged to describe the house using other ways of arrangement.
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