一、被动语态的构成形式 1. 被动语态的基本时态变化 被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由 be＋过去分词构成，be 随时 态的变化而变化。以 do 为例，各种时态的被动语态形式为： 1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时 例 Visitors are requested not to touch the exhi
bits. 2） has /have been done 现在完成时 例 All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start. 3） am/is /are being done 现在进行时 例 A new cinema is being built here． 4） was/were done 一般过去时 例 I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer. 5） had been done 过去完成时 例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing. 6） was/were being done 过去进行时 例 A meeting was being held when I was there. 7） shall/will be done/ be going to be done/ be about to be done/ be to be to done 一般将来时 例 Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes. 8） should/would be done/ was\were going to be done/ was\were about to be done/was\were to be to done 一般将来时 例 The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived. 9） shall/will have been done 将来完成时（少用） 例 The project will have been completed before July. 10） should/would have been done 过去将来完成时（少用） 例 He told me that his new clothes would have been made very soon. 2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式 1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为：情态动词＋be＋过去分词。 例 The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter. 2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语，在用于被动结构时，可以把主动结构中的一个宾 语变为主语， 另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。 例 His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday. 3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时，将宾语变为被动结构中的 主语，其余不动。 例 Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为 The boy was caught smoking a cigarette. 4） 在使役动词 have, make, get 以及感官动词 see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe 等后面不定式作宾语补语时，在主动结构中不定式 to 要省略，但变为被动结构时， 要加 to。 例 Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为 A stranger was seen to walk into the building.
5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组，如“动词＋介词”，“动词＋副词”等，也可 以用于被动结构，但要把它们看作一个整体，不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省 略。 例 The meeting is to be put off till Friday. 3. 非谓语动词的被动语态 v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。 例 I don't like being laughed at in the public. 二、 It is said that+从句及其他类似句型 一些表示“据说”或“相信”的动词如 believe, consider, expect, report, say, suppose, think 等可以用于句型“It＋be＋过去分词＋that 从句”或“主语＋be＋过去分词＋to do sth.”。有： It is said that… 据说,It is reported that…据报道， is believed that…大家相信， is It It hoped that…大家希望，It is well known that…众所周知，It is thought that…大家认为， It is suggested that…据建议。 例 It is said that the boy has passed the national exam. （＝The boy is said to have passed the national exam. ） 三、谓语动词的主动形式表示被动意义 1.英语中有很多动词如 break，catch，clean，drive，lock，open，sell，read， write，wash 等，当它们被用作不及物动词来描述主语特征时，常用其主动形式 表 达被动意义,主语通常是物。 例 This kind of cloth washes well. 注意：主动语态表被动强调的是主语的特征，而被动语态则强调外界作用造成的 影响。 试比较：The door won't lock． （指门本身有毛病） The door won't be locked． （指不会有人来锁门, 指“门没有锁”是人的原因） 2. 表示“发生、 进行”的不及物动词和短语， happen, last, take place, break out, 如： come out, come about, come true, run out, give out, turn out 等以主动形式表示被动 意义。 例 How do the newspapers come out? 这些报纸是如何引出来的呢？ 3. 系动词没有被动形式, 但有些表示感受、感官的连系动词 feel, sound, taste, book, feel 等在主系表结构中常以主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Your reason sounds reasonable. 四、非谓语动词的主动形式表被动意义 在某些句型中可用动名词和不定式的主动形式表被动意义 。 1． 在 need，want，require, bear 等词的后面，动名词用主动形式表示被动意 义， 其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。 house needs repairing to be repaired） 这 The （ ． 房子需要修理。 2． 形容词 worth 后面跟动名词的主动形式表示被动含义， 但不能跟动词不定式； 而 worthy 后面跟动词不定式的被动形式。 例 The picture-book is well worth reading． （＝The picture-book is very worthy to be read． ） 3. 动词不定式在名词后面作定语，不定式和名词之间有动宾关系时，又和句中 另一名词或代词构成主谓关系, 不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。 例 I have a lot of things to do this afternoon． (to do 与 things 是动宾关系，与 I 是主
谓关系。) 试比较：I’ll go to the post office. Do you have a letter to be posted? ( 此处用不定式 的被动语态作定语表明 you 不是 post 动作的执行者。) 4. 在某些“形容词＋不定式”做表语或宾语补足语的结构中，句子的主语或宾语 又是动词不定式的逻辑宾语时，这时常用不定式的主动形式表达被动意义。这些形容 词有 nice，easy，fit，hard，difficult，important，impossible，pleasant，interesting 等。 例 This problem is difficult to work out .（可看作 to work out 省略了 for me）. 5． 在 too… to…结构中，不定式前面可加逻辑主语，所以应用主动形式表示被 动意义。 例 This book is too expensive (for me) to buy. 6. 在 there be…句型中，当动词不定式修饰名词作定语时，不定式用主动式作定 语，重点在人，用被动形式作定语，重点在物。 例 There is no time to lose to be lost） 用 to lose 可看成 for us to lose； to be lost， （ （ ． 用 谁 lost time 不明确。 ） 7. 在 be to do 结构中的一些不定式通常应用主动表主动, 被动表被动。然而,由 于古英语的影响,下列动词 rent,blame,let 等仍用不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。 例 Who is to blame for starting the fire? 五、介词 in, on, under 等+名词构成介词短语表被动意义 表示方位的介词与含动作意义的名词合用，含被动之义，其意义相当于该名词相 应动词的被动形式，名词前一般不用冠词。 1. “under +名词”结构，表示“某事在进行中”。常见的有：under control（受控 制）, under treatment（在治疗中）, under repair（在修理中）, under discussion（在 讨论中）, under construction（在施工中） 。 例 The building is under construction( is being constructed). 2．“beyond+名词”结构，“出乎……胜过……、范围、限度”。常见的有：beyond belief (令人难以置信)， beyond one’s reach（鞭长莫及） ，beyond one’s control（无 法控制） ，beyond our hope． 我们的成功始料不及。 例 The rumour is beyond belief（=can’t be believed） ． 3.“above+名词”结构, 表示“(品质、行为、能力等) 超过……、高于……”。 例 His honest character is above all praise．=His honest character cannot be praised enough． 4．“for+名词”结构，表示 “适于……、 为着……”。如：for sale(出售), for rent （出租）等。 例 That house is for sale. (= That house is to be sold). 5．“in+名词”结构 ，表示“在……过程中或范围内”常见的有：in print（在印刷 中） ，in sight(在视野范围内)，等。 例 The book is not yet in print．(=is not yet printed) 6．“on+名词”结构, 表示“在从事…… 中”。常见的有：on sale(出售)，on show （展出）, on trial（受审） 。 例 Today some treasures are on show in the museum (= are being showed). 7．“out of+名词”结构 ； 表示 “超出…… 之外“，常见的有：out of control (控 制不了)，out of sight （超出视线之外） ，out of one’s reach(够不着), out of fashion(不 流行)等。
例 The plane was out of control (can’t be controlled)． 。 8．“within+名词”结构，“在……内、不超过……”。 例 He took two days off within the teacher's permission． 六、被动语态与系表结构的区别 当“be+过去分词”作被动语态时表示主语承受的动作；作系表结构时表示主语的 特点或所处的状态时，be 后面的过去分词是表语，相当于形容词。其区分办法如下： 1．如果强调动作或句中有介词 by 引导出动作的执行者，该句一般为被动语态， 否则为系表结构。 例 The glass is broken． （系表结构） The glass was broken by the boy． （被动语态） 2．如果句中有地点、频率或时间状语时，一般为被动语态。 例 The door is locked． （系表结构） The door hasalready/just been locked． （被动语态） 3．被动语态除用于一般时态和完成时态外，还可以用于其他各种时态，而系表 结构中的系动词 be 只有一般时态和完成时态。 例 The machine is being repaired． 七、被动语态与高考试题赏析 1． 高考对谓语动词语态的考查例析 1). In some parts of the world, tea ___ with milk and sugar. (NMET1993) A. is serving B. is served C. serves D. served 解析 B 因为 serve 是及物动词， 其动作承受者 tea 作主语， 表示经常发生的情况， 故用一般现在时的被动语态。 2). This is Ted’s phone. We miss him a lot. He ___ trying to save a child in the earthquake.(NMET2002) A. killed B. is killed C. was killed D. was killing 解析 C Ted 是 kill 的承受者，用被动语态，且 Ted 救人发生在过去，所以用一般 过去时的被动语态。 3). ---- Have you moved into the new house? ---- Not yet, the rooms _____. (NMET1991) A. are being painted B. are painting C. are painted D. are being painting 解析 A “house”和“paint”应该是被动的关系，排除 B，D。后者未搬进新居的原因 是房子正在油漆，所以要用现在进行时的被动语态。不能用一般现在时表示习惯性动 作，排除 C。 4). When and where to go for the on-salary holiday ___ yet. （上海春 2003） A. are not decided B. have not been decided C. is not being decided D. has not been decided 解析 D decide 是及物动词，动作的发出者通常是人，句中的主语是动作的承受 者，所以 decide 要用被动语态。从题干的语境和关键词 yet，可判断用现在完成时， 不定式做主语用单数，故用现在完成时的被动语态。 5). The manager entered the office and was happy to learn that four-fifths of the tickets ___.（上海春 2001） A. was booked B. had been booked C. were booked D. have been booked
解析 B 句中 tickets 是 book(订票)的承受者，主谓为被动关系，又因票已被订出 应发生在 entered the office 这个过去动作之前，所以要用过去完成时的被动语态。 2．高考对非谓语动词语态的考查 当非谓语动词的逻辑主语为动作的承受者时, 须用被动式。弄清非谓语动词与其 逻辑主语之间的执行与承受关系是掌握非谓语动词语态的关键。 1). Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains ___ whether they will enjoy it. (NMET2002) A. to see B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen 解析 B 根据题意，那对老夫妇是否到国外旅行是将来的动作，应使用不定式， 故排除掉 C、D 两项；又因 remains 的逻辑主语 it 是动词 see 说表示动作的承受者， 即“到国外旅行”这件事，这件事有待于“被决定”，应使用动词不定式的被动形式。 2). While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ___ into buying something they don’t really need. （上海 1996） A. to persuaded B. persuading C. being persuaded D. be persuaded 解析 C can’t help doing “禁不住做某事”， 排除 A 和 D； 顾客应是“被劝说”购物的， 要用动名词的被动语态。 3）. I feel it is your husband who ___ for the spoiled child. （上海 2002） A. is to blame B. is going to blame C. is to be blamed D. should blame 解析 A feel 的宾语从句为强调句型，在 be to do 结构中，在某些场合可用不定式 的主动语态表示被动语态，如 to blame， to let 等。 【强化训练】 1. If city noises ____ from increasing，people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner． A． are not kept；will have to B． are not kept；have C． do not keep；will have to D． do not keep；have to 2. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, are ____and perfected now. A. developed B. have developed C. are being developed D. will have been developed 3. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off． --- Yes，it all depends on the weather． A． I've been told B． I've told C． I'm told D． I told 4. I need one more stamp before my collection ___. A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D. is completed 5. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future.
A. cut B. are cut C. are being cut D. had been cut 6. The new suspension bridge ___ by the end of last month. A. has been designed B. had been designed C. was designed D. would be designed 7. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____. A. breaks B. has broken C. was broken D. had been broken 8. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___. A. have been taken place; have been set up B. have taken place; have been set up C. have taken place; have set up D. were taken place; were set up 9. That suit __ over 60 dollars. A. had costed B. costed C. is costed D. cost 10. --- Look! Everything here is under construction. --- What’s the pretty small house that __ for? A. is being built B. has been built C. is built D. is building 11.--- Do you like the material? --- Yes, it ___ very soft. A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt 12. It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese． A． write B． to write C． to be written D． written 13. I have no more letters ____ ，thank you． A． to type B． typing C． to be typed D． typed 14. Take care! Don’t drop the ink on your shirt, for it __ easily. A. won’t wash out B. won’t be washed out C. isn’t washed out D. isn’t washing out 15. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ___. A. be put up B. give in C. be turned on D. go out 16. The computers on the table ___ Professor Smith. A. belongs B. are belonged to C. belongs to D. belong to 17. --- What do you think of the book? ---Oh, excellent. It’s worth ___ a second time. A. to read B. to be read C. reading D. being read 18. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___. A. catching B. to be caught
C. being caught D. to catch 19. This page needed ___ again. A. being checked B. checked C. to check D. to be checked 20. ___ many times, the boy still didn’t know how to do the exercises A. Having taught B. Having been taught C. taught D. Teaching key 1--5 ACADC 6--10 BCBDA 11--15 CBCAD 16--20 DCCDB 被动语态基础练习选择题 1.Our house_____, A . is getting paint B . is getting painted C . is got painted D . has got to paint 2.He arrived in Beijing,where he_____his friend . A . was met by B . was met C . was meeting D . met by 3.The war_____in 1937 A . was broken out B . had been broken out C . has broken out D . broke out 4.The mistakes in the exercises will_____the teacher. A . cross B . be crossing C . be crossed by D . cross by 5.My brother and I have __________her birthday party. A . been invited B . been invited for C . invited to D . been invited to 6.It_______this way A . is had to do B . is had to be done C . had to be done D . has to do 7.It__this way. A used to do B . used to be done C . is used to do D . is used to doing 8._____Chaplin. A . The child's name was called B . The child's name calls C . The child calls D . The child is named 9.The sports meeting____ . A . is put off B . is to put off C . is to be put off D . puts off 10.Mary realized she_________ A . was making fun of B . was made fun C . was being made fun of D . was being made fun 11.______to say a thing in that way A . It is considers wrong B . It is considered wrong C . It is considered it's wrong D . It is consiedring wrong 12.He ordered that the books_______at once. A . would be printed B . would print C . be printed D . print 13.The story______in ChinA . A . was taken place B . was happened C . took place D . has been taken place 14.The house_____my parents A . is belong to B . belong to C . belongs to D . is belonged to 15.He_______by his teacher. A . happened to see B . was happened to see C . happened to be seen D . was
happened to be seen 16.Great changes_____in our province.Many tall buildings. A . have been taken place, have been set up B . have taken place, have been set up C . have been taken place, have been set up D . were taken place, were set up 17.The hall's____but it's not yet____with lamps. A . furnished, finished B . been finished, been furnished C . being finished, being furnished D . set up, full 18.The new hall is the tallest building in this town._____from here? A . Can it see B . Can it be seen C . Can it seen D . Can see 19.As soon as we got to the airport,we found that the plane_____. A . had already taken off B . already took off C . was already taking off D . was already taken off 20. Some of the hotels in my hometown_________. A . have now been rebuilding B . are now rebuilding C . are now being rebuilt D . are rebuilt now 21. If city noises ____ from increasing，people ____ shout to be heard even at dinner． A . are not kept；will have to B . are not kept；have C . do not keep；will have to D . do not keep；have to 22. The fifth generation computers, with artificial intelligence, are ____and perfected now. A . developed B . have developed C . are being developed D . will have been developed 23. --- ____ the sports meet might be put off． --- Yes，it all depends on the weather． A . I've been told B . I've told C . I'm told D . I told 24. I need one more stamp before my collection ___. A . has completed B . completes C . has been completed D . is completed 25. Rainforests ___ and burned at such a speed that they will disappear from the earth in the near future. A . cut B . are cut C . are being cut D . had been cut 26. The new suspension bridge ___ by the end of last month. A . has been designed B . had been designed C . was designed D . would be designed 27.When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ____. A . breaks B . has broken C . was broken D . had been broken 28. Great changes ___ in the city, and a lot of factories ___. A . have been taken place; have been set up B . have taken place; have been set up C . have taken place; have set up D . were taken place; were set up 29. That suit __ over 60 dollars. A . had costed B . costed C . is costed D . cost 30. --- Look! Everything here is under construction. --- What's the pretty small house that __ for? A . is being built B . has been built C . is built D . is building
31.--- Do you like the material? --- Yes, it ___ very soft. A . is feeling B . felt C . feels D . is felt 32. It is difficult for a foreigner ____ Chinese． A . write B . to write C . to be written D . written 33. I have no more letters ____ ，thank you． A . to type B . typing C . to be typed D . typed 34. Take care! Don't drop the ink on your shirt, for it __ easily. A . won't wash out B . won't be washed out C . isn't washed out D . isn't washing out 35. Nobody noticed the thief slip into the house because the lights happened to ___. A . be put up B . give in C . be turned on D . go out 36. The computers on the table ___ Professor Smith. A . belongs B . are belonged to C . belongs to D . belong to 37. --- What do you think of the book? ---Oh, excellent. It's worth ___ a second time. A . to read B . to be read C . reading D . being read 38. The squirrel was lucky that it just missed ___. A . catching B . to be caught C . being caught D . to catch 39. This page needed ___ again. A . being checked B . checked C . to check D . to be checked 40. ___ many times, the boy still didn't know how to do the exercises A . Having taught B . Having been taught C . taught D . Teaching Keys： 1 B2 A3 D 4 C5 D6 C7 B8 D9 A10 C11 B12 C13 C14 C15 C16 B17 B18 B19 A20 C 21 A22 C23 A24 D25 C26 B27 C28 B29 D30 A31 C32 B33 C34 A35 D36 D37 C38 C 39 D40 B
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