1. Understanding Functions of Thesis Statements First, it tells readers an essay’s topic. Second, it presents the writer’s attitude, opinion, idea, or point about that topic.This
is often referred to as the author’s claim. 2. Write Statements, Not Announcements Remember, a thesis statement must make a point about a limited subject . For instance, “The subject of this paper will be my parents” does not make a point about the parents but merely tells the writer’s general subject. Effective thesis statements could be as follows: My parents each struggled with personal demons. 3. Avoid Statements That Are Too Broad Remember, your thesis statement should be focused enough that it can be effectively supported in a five-paragraph essay. For instance, “Disease has shaped human history “would require far more than a five-hundred-word essay. Revised thesis statements based on the topics could be as follows: In the mid-1980s, AIDS changed people’s attitudes about dating. 4.Avoid Statements That Are Too Narrow Remember, a thesis statement must be broad enough to require support in an essay. For instance, “The speed limit near my home is sixty-five miles per hour” is too narrow to be expanded into a paper. Such a statement is
sometimes called a dead-end statement: there is no place to go with it. Successful thesis statements are as follows: The speed limit near my home should be lowered to fifty-five miles per hour for several reasons. 5. Make Sure Statements Develop Only One Idea Remember, the point of an essay is to communicate a single main idea to readers. For instance, “One of the most serious problems affecting young people today is bullying, and it is time more kids learned the value of helping others” clearly has two separate ideas (“One of the most serious problems affecting young people today is bullying” and “it is time more kids learned the value of helping others”).Revised thesis statements are as follows: One of the most serious problems affecting young people today is bullying.
1. First of all, mastering the traditional essay will help make you a better writer. Becoming comfortable with the basic structure of the traditional essay, with its emphasis on a clear point and well-organized, logical support, will help with almost every kind of writing that you have to do. 2. Second, the discipline of writing an essay will strengthen your skills as a reader and listener. As a reader, you’ll become more critically aware of other writers’ ideas and the evidence they provide (or fail to provide) to support those ideas. Essay writing will also help you become a better speaker. You’ll be more prepared to develop an effective speech because of your writing experience.
3. Most important, essay writing will make you a stronger thinker. Writing a solidly reasoned traditional essay requires mental discipline and close attention to a set of logical rules.
1. The introductory paragraph of an essay should start with several sentences that attract the reader’s interest. 2. It should then advance the central idea, or thesis, that will be developed in the essay. 3. The thesis often includes a plan of development—a “preview” of the major points that will support the thesis.In some cases, however, the plan of development is omitted.
Body: Supporting Paragraphs 1. Many essays have three supporting points, developed at length over three separate paragraphs. However, more developed essays require four or more body paragraphs to support the thesis. This is very common in essays with thesis statements that omit a plan of development. 2. Each of the supporting paragraphs should begin with a topic sentence that states the point to be detailed in that paragraph. Just as a thesis provides a focus for the entire essay, the topic sentence provides a focus for a supporting paragraph.
Concluding Paragraph 1. The concluding paragraph often summarizes the essay by briefly restating the thesisand, at times, the main supporting points. 2. In addition, the writer often presents a concluding thought about the subject of the paper.
An Important Difference between Writing and Talking
1. In everyday conversation, you make all kinds of points or assertions. The people you are talking with do not always challenge you to give reasons for your statements. 2. But if you want to communicate effectively with readers, you must provide solid evidence for any point you make. An important difference, then, between writing and talking is this: In writing, any idea that you advance must be supported with specific reasons or details.
Point and Support in a Paragraph 1. A paragraph usually consists of an opening point, called a topic sentence, followed by a series of sentences that support that point. 2. The evidence that supports the point in a paper often consists of a series of reasons followed by examples and details that support the reasons. Supporting evidence in a paper can also consist of anecdotes, personal experiences, facts, studies, statistics, and the opinions of experts.
Point and Support in an Essay 1. The traditional college essay typically consists of an introductory paragraph, three or more supporting paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. 2. The central idea, or point, developed in any essay is called a thesis statement (rather than, as in a paragraph, a topic sentence). The thesis appears in the introductory paragraph, and the specific support for the thesis appears in the paragraphs that follow. The supporting paragraphs allow for a fuller treatment of the evidence that backs up the central point than would be possible in a single-paragraph paper. 3. Unlike paragraphs that are usually developed using one mode of writing, like description, essays are usually developed using several modes of writing to support the single point.
(1) Considering purpose and audience: keep in mind that your story should deal with an event or a topic that will appeal to your audience. (2) Development through prewriting: freewriting is a helpful prewriting technique. As you think about the story you want to relate, many ideas will crowd into your mind. (3) Development through revising.
The main purpose of a descriptive essay is to make readers see or hear, taste, smell or feel—what you are writing about. Vivid details are the key to descriptive essays, enabling your audience to picture and experience what you describe. As you start to think about your own descriptive essay, choose a topic that appeals to at least one of your senses. When selecting your topic, consider how much your audience already knows about it. Once you have selected your topic, focus on the goal or purpose of your essay.
(1)Understanding the nature and length of an assignment; (2)Knowing your subject; (3)Knowing your purpose and audience; (4)Determining your point of view; (5)Using peer review; (6)Doing a personal review.
(1)Unity; (2)Support; (3)Coherence; (4)Sentence skills. If you advance a single point and stick to that point, your paper will have unity; if you support the point with specific evidence, your paper will have support; if you organize and connect the specific evidence, your paper will have coherence;
if you write clear, error-free sentences, your paper will demonstrate effective sentence skills.
When writing an essay, try to remember that your instructor is not the only member of your audience. Although the instructor is often the only person who will read the finished product, customizing a paper to his or her level of knowledge can run the risk of leaving out important information, since many instructors know more about your topic than the average reader would. In addition, omitting information that your instructor already knows can result in a weak or unbalanced paper. However, if you assume that your reader is less knowledgeable than you, you are likely to provide more details and better explanations, which usually results in a much stronger paper.
Generally speaking, the objective of describing a person is twofold: to portray the person vividly so that readers can imagine what he or she looks like, and to show how the person is significant in your life. Although your writing will reveal something about yourself and your relationship with the person, the focus should remain fixed on the person you are describing—physical appearance, typical behavior, way of speaking, specific anecdotes, etc. For example, suppose that you want to write a descriptive essay about your grandfather. You decide to write about his physical appearance and ways of living. To achieve this, you might describe his rough and gnarled4 hands, a result of his lifelong labor, but you might also describe how he would hold your hands so gently with his rough hands when having a conversation or taking a walk with you.
Proofreading means checking the final, edited draft of your paper closely for typos and other careless errors. A helpful strategy is to read your paper backward, from the last sentence to the first. This helps keep you from getting caught up in the flow of the paper and missing small mistakes.
When you write a personal narrative, the duration of the event about which you’re writing becomes a raw resource; you can use it, alter it, and control it. Of course, you could write a “straight” narrative that sticks closely to chronological time, but very few narrative topics work well this way. Think about it: you can read the body paragraphs of a 600-word essay in less than five minutes. Do you want to write your essay about a five-minute life experience? Perhaps, but searching for such a topic would truly restrict your opportunities.
Why do we write about our past experiences? Perhaps out of nostalgia for the past, or perhaps to make sense of the past. When we write about significant events in our lives, we come to know ourselves better, bringing into focus what’s truly important to us and clarifying our beliefs and values. We also examine the forces—within ourselves and in our social structures—that have shaped our lives. In a word, a personal experience essay can help us explore, deepen, and complicate our perceptions of the world.
法国思想家、散文家 Montaigne 曾说：“I quote others in order the better to express my own self.”。在英语写作中，恰当地引用至理名言来证明自己文章中的观点 更具有说服力，可以使问题和观点的阐述更为深刻有力，有时会取得画龙点晴的效果。引文 一定要准确无误，与内容紧密相关，不能断章取义、牵强附会，并要正确地使用标点符号。 如果用引语来证明自己的观点，就需要通过转述动词(reporting verb) 用不同的短语和从 句把引语自然流畅地融入到自己的论点表述中。
程序描述是描写和叙述一系列导致某一特定结果的连续发生的过程，即在一段时间 内根据事情发生的先后顺序， 或者应该遵循的程序或步骤逐步描述。 这种段落扩展方法也称 为“how to paragraph”或“process paragraph”，常为科技文章所采用，主要描述实验、 生产、操作和制造等具体清晰的过程。
在使用这种方法时，应注意动词的时态和语态。程序描述由于客观性较强，多使用 被动语态。 在描述一个过程或一个步骤时， 经常用现在时的被动语态， 这是一种最基本的描述。 当报告一个过去的特定程序时，常常用过去时的被动语态。如果描述不涉及过程或步骤，常 用一般现在时的主动语态。在叙述一个过程时，偶尔也用一般过去时的主动语态。注意在描 述一个过程或报告一个程序时，次第顺序是非常重要的，信号词如 first，second，next， finally 等常用于这种类型的描述。
大部分文章都由开篇、主干、结尾三部分组成。通常开篇（引言）和结尾（结论）只需 一个段落，而主干往往需要数个段落。 开头的段落（引言）要引人入胜，要能够激起读者对文章的兴趣、关注和好奇心，或提 供必要的背景知识。撰写文章的开篇往往是最难的，作者必须想好从何处说起，向哪个方面 展开。 文章的中间部分 （即主干） 应条理清楚地摆出作者的观点和实例。 主干通常由数段组成， 段落的先后次序取决于文章的主题或类型。 如叙述文可以按照时间顺序排列， 而说明文的段 落往往按照观点的重要性来排列，把次要的放在前面，重要的放在后面，最重要的应在最后 出现。也就是说，用递进的方法使文章在高潮中结束。 结尾段落主要是重申或总结讨论过的要点，不再提出新的观点或问题。收尾部分应内容 充实，简短有力，应能画龙点睛，发人深省。开头和结尾段落最好能互相呼应，如在开头的 段落提出一个问题，在结尾的段落应给出答案。
描写文主要写的是外观和情感，记叙文写的是事件和经历。而说明文所涉及的主要是过 程和关系。 人们描述某物的外观时， 要用描写文， 但是要讲解此物是如何制作的， 如何使用， 可能如何变化时，就要用说明文了。记叙文谈论一个历史事件时，应叙述事件本身，事件发 生的时间、地点以及与事件有关的人物。说明文讨论的则是事件发生的原因及后果，其性质 和历史意义。 在动笔前应做好充分的准备。写作犹如盖房，通常建筑工人在动工前手头都有蓝图并准 备好了足够的材料。写作者在下笔前也应事先有个规划，同时要收集足够的资料。
When revising sentences in a paper so that they flow smoothly and clearly, you need to edit the paper for mistakes in grammar, punctuation, mechanics, usage, and spelling. Here are the most common methods: (1)Write complete sentences rather than fragments; (2)Do not write run-ons; (3)Use verb forms correctly; (4)Make sure that subject, verbs, and pronouns agree; (5)Eliminate faulty modifiers; (6)Use pronoun forms correctly; (7)Use capital letters where needed; (8)Use the following marks of punctuation correctly: apostrophe, quotation marks, comma, semicolon, colon, hyphen, dash, parentheses; (9)Use correct manuscript form; (10)Eliminate slang, cliché s, and pretentious words; (11)Check for possible spelling errors; (12)Eliminate careless errors.
The following are four methods you can use to revise simple sentences, making them more complex and sophisticated: (1)Add a second complete thought (coordination); (2)Add a dependent thought (subordination); (3)Begin with a special opening word or phrase; (4)Place adjectives or verbs in a series.
The following strategies will help you to revise your sentences effectively: (1)Use parallelism; (2)Use a consistent point of view; (3)Use specific words; (4)Use active verbs; (5)Use concise words;
(6)Vary your sentences.
作文和段落一样，应该具有一致性，也就是说，文中所有的事例、观点都涉及并有助于表达文章的 论题或中心思想。无关的内容，尽管有趣，也应割舍。人们在说话、做报告时可以离题插几句与主题无关 的话，但是写作时不可如此。
作文的各个段落都应该有各自的中心思想， 段落的安排顺序应该合乎逻辑， 这样文章才能成 为有机的整体。 文章如何展开取决于题材和体裁， 一个办法是按照段落表达的观点的重要性 来安排，把最重要的放在最后，文章以高潮收尾。 写文章和绘画一样，各部分的比例应协调。主要的事例、观点所占篇幅应大于次要的事例、 观点。文章中间的主干部分大约占全文篇幅的 70%~ 80%比较合适。开篇和结尾固然重 要，但须简洁。好作文应该有重要、有趣、新鲜的内容，而且语言表达清楚、准确、得体。
一个段落恰如一篇微型文章，它应该具有一致性、内容连贯并且展开得法。一致性指段落中的各句 都紧紧围绕同一个中心或主题。如有必要另辟主题则须重起一段。内容连贯要求文字条理清晰，层次结构 清楚，句与句之间有内在的逻辑关系。另外，一个展开得法的段落应运用一种或几种恰当的展开方法。要 展开一个段落，方法有多种，如通过比较和对比展开，或按过程顺序展开，等等。
首先，要定下一个主题或一个中心意思，并用一句完整的话表达出来（即主题句）； 其次，选择有助于阐述这一中心意思的细节、例子或事实； 最后，把这些细节按逻辑顺序排好。有了这个大纲，段落的初稿就完成了一半。
段落的展开有多种方式。 比如， 可以按时间顺序， 或按过程、 空间顺序来叙述； 或通过举例、 对比、 因果、分类等方式来展开段落。
When writing a paper, we try to avoid using ambiguous sentences. A paper with vague sentences will leave the reader lost and without a clear understanding of your topic. Instead, our writing should contain specific, concrete details to help the reader visualize what we are discussing and hold the reader’s attention. Using the RENNS model, developed by Lynn Quitman Troyka, can help us make our writing more specific. RENNS stands for Reasons, Examples, Names, Numbers, and Senses.
To show more than tell is to write in a manner that allows the reader to experience the story through a character’s action, words, thoughts, senses, and feelings rather than through the narrator’s summarization. When applying “show more than tell,” the writer unveils the character by what that character says and does. It can be done by writing scenes, describing characters’ actions, revealing character through dialogue, and using the five senses whenever possible. If we say, “Mary had a broken leg,” readers cannot feel anything, but if we describe a bare bone sticking through pale skin, readers experience the pain along with the character. We all know the saying that actions speak louder than words, especially telling words. When done well, showing reveals character and enables readers to feel as if they are part of the event.
Here are common methods of conclusion: (1) End with a summary and final thought; (2) Include a thought-provoking question or short series of questions, such as: A. B. C. D. Why the subject of your paper is important; What might happen in the future; What should be done about the subject; Which choice should be made
(3) End with a prediction or recommendation.
(1) Your resume, along with your letter of application, is your introduction to a potential employer. First impressions count, so make the resume neat! a. Type the resume on good-quality letter paper; b. Proofread very carefully for sentence skills and spelling mistakes; c. Be brief and to the point; d. Use a model format; e. Start with your most recent education or employment.
(2) Your resume should point up strengths, not weaknesses;
(3) You can list the names of your references directly on the resume. Be sure to get the permission of people you cite before listing their names.
Another way to escape from fixed ways of thinking is track switching. Similar to changing the entry point, track switching is changing from one track or pathway of thinking to another, which can be anything from a reversal to merely a changed entry point, or both. More specifically, you follow one track of thinking and then deliberately let your brain switch directions by changing the track or the entry point. Try to switch tracks as often as you can in problem-solving processes.
The reversal method in creative thinking is about generating ideas in the opposite direction, and no one says it better than de Bono (1970): “In the reversal method one takes things as they are and then turns them round, inside out, upside down, back to front. Then one sees what happens. It is a provocative rearrangement of information. You make water run uphill instead of downhill. Instead of driving a car the car leads you.”
How to write a report: (1) a summary of the work a. Identify the author and title of the work and include in parentheses the publisher and publication date. b. Write an informative summary of the materials: condense the content of the work by highlighting its main points and key supporting points. (2) you reaction to the work a. How is the assigned work related to ideas and concerns discussed in the course?
b. How is the work related to problems in our present-day world? c. How is the work related to your life, experiences, feelings and ideas? d. Evaluate the merit of the work: the importance of its points; its accuracy, completeness and organization.
How to summarize an article: (1) Take a few minutes to preview the work, including the title, the subtitle, first and last several paragraphs and other items; (2) Read the article for all you can understand the first time through. Do not slow down or turn back. Check or mark main points and key supporting details; (3) Go back and reread more carefully the areas you have identified as most important; (4) Take notes on the materials. Concentrating on getting down the main ideas and the key supporting points; (5) Prepare the first draft of you summary.
句型多样化对好文章来说是不可缺少的。好几句长短相同、结构相似、且用同一个名词或代 词作主语的句子连在一起，必然会显得极其单调。为多样化起见，短句和长句，简单句、并 列句和复合句，圆周句和松散句都应交叉使用；也可偶尔用一个问句、祈使句或感叹句。
句中不应有任何不必要的词。只要意思充分表达了，用词越少越好。用词过多只会 使意思模糊，而不是更明晰。人们常常用多余的词，所以最好在写完一篇文章后，仔细检查 一两遍，看看有没有一些词可删去而又不影响意思的表达。 Wordy: It was blue in color. It was small in size. Mary is a quiet and careful woman. He returned in the early part of the month of August.
Concise: It was blue. It was small. Mary is quiet and careful. He returned in early August.
连贯性是指句子各部分之间具有清楚、合理的联系。句子中的词语和各部分应恰当地衔接， 它们之间的关系应十分清楚。不连贯的句子通常有以下几种毛病：平行结构使用有误；代词 指代不清楚；修饰语和被修饰语的关系不明确；在人称、数、语态、时态或语气上有混乱之 处。
Specific details are valuable in two key ways. First, details excite the reader’s interest. They make writing a pleasure to read, for we all enjoy learning particulars about people, places, and things. Second, details serve to explain a writer’s point. They give the evidence needed for us to see and understand general ideas. The body paragraphs in essays contain only vague generalities, rather than the specific supporting details that are needed to engage and convince a reader.
Tips for writing good thesis statements: (1) Write statements, not announcements: a thesis statement must make a point about a limited subject; (2) Avoid statements that are too broad: the thesis statement should be focused enough that it can be effectively supported in a five-paragraph essay; (3) Avoid statements that are too narrow: a thesis statement must be broad enough to require support in an essay; (4) Make sure statements develop only one idea: the point of an essay is to communicate a single main idea to readers.
When writing thesis statements, people often make mistakes that undermine their chances of producing and effective essay. One mistake is to simply announce the subject rather than state a true thesis. A second mistake is to write a thesis that is too broad, and a third is to write a thesis that is too narrow. A forth error is to write a thesis containing more than one idea.
Here are some quick hints that can help make revision easier. First, set your first draft aside for a while. You can then come back to the draft with a fresh, more objective point of view. Second, work from typed or printed text. You’ll be able to see the paper more impartially in this way than if you were just looking at your own familiar handwriting. Next, read your draft aloud. Hearing how your writing sounds will help you pick up problems with meaning as well as with style. Finally, as you do all these things, add your thoughts and changes above the lines or in the margins of your paper. Your written comments can serve as a guide when you work on the next draft.
Techniques for prewriting: (1) Freewriting: to write whatever comes into your mind; (2) Questioning: to generate ideas and details by asking questions about your subject, such as why? When? Where? Who? and How? (3) Making a list: to brainstorm and collect ideas and details that relate to your subject; (4) Clustering: diagramming or mapping, to use lines, boxes, arrows, and circles to show relationships among the idea and details that occur to you; (5) Preparing a scratch outline: to think carefully about the point you are making, the supporting items for that point, and the order in which you will arrange those items.
Freewriting means jotting down in rough sentences or phrases everything that comes to mind about a possible topic. See if you can write nonstop for ten minutes or more. Do not worry about spelling or punctuating correctly, about erasing mistakes, about organizing materials, or about finding exact words. Indeed, explore an idea by putting down whatever pops into your head. If you get stuck for words, repeat yourself until more words come. There is no need to feel inhibited, since mistakes do no count and you do not have to hand in your Freewriting.
It is imperative that creative thinkers overcome emotional blocks. To do that, as de Bono (1970) points out, is to suspend judgment. First, we need to be aware of the difference between being right and being effective: “Being right means being right all the time. Being effective means being right only at the end.” Second, creative thinking is about being effective: we are allowed to be wrong on the way as long as we are right in the end. De Bono says “judgment is suspended during the generative stage of thinking in order to be applied during the selective stage. The nature of the system is such that a wrong idea at some stage can lead to a right one later on.”
常用的词可分为三类：正式的、一般的、非正式的。正式的词也可称作学术性的词、文雅的 词或“大”词。这类词主要用于正式文体，如学术性或理论性著作、政治和法律文件，以及 正式的演讲或报告；一般词汇是人们常用的，并在多种文体中出现的；非正式词主要用于非 正式的、不讲究客套的谈话，很少出现于正式文章中。在文学作品中它们主要用来记述人们 的想法和对话。这类词一般很短，只有一两个音节。
保持段落连贯性的两种方法：第一，用转承词语或称转承信号词 (transition sig-nals) 表 明一个意思是怎样与另一个意思相连的；第二，按照一定的逻辑顺序排列句子，采用何种逻 辑顺序应取决于文章的主题和写作目的。 最常用的逻辑顺序是时间顺序、 空间顺序和主次顺 序。在同一个段落写作中，可以把不同的逻辑顺序有机地结合起来。
从修辞的角度看，句子有松散句、圆周句和对偶句之分。松散句把主要意思放在次要意 思之前，先说最重要的事情，因而读者在看到最初几个词后就知道这句话的主要内容了。圆 周句的安排则相反： 把最重要的意思放到最后面或靠后的位置上， 并且句子的结构直到最后 一个词时才完整。对偶句会给人留下深刻的印象，因为它包含相反的意思，而且因节奏和谐 而悦耳。对偶句主要用于说明文、辩论文及演说等正式文体中。
按结构划分，句子有简单句、并列句、复合句和并列复合句四种。 简单句中有一个主语和一个谓语动词，但可以有几个宾语、定语或状语。有两个以 上主语或谓语动词的句子，即像 He and his brother went to town and bought a pile of books 这样的句子，在有的语法书上算简单句，但在有的书上算并列句。短的简单句往 往强劲有力，意思尤为清楚，和长句子一起用还会使句式富于变化。 并列句包含两个或更多的独立从句（或简单句）。这些意思相关的独立从句用并列 连词（and，but，or 等）连接起来，也可以不用连词而用分号连接。意思相关的各从句不 应相互矛盾，应大致具有同等重要性，并按一定顺序排列。 复合句包含一个主句和一个或更多的从句， 主句与从句间用连词来显示它们的关系。 从句可以当全句的主语、宾语、表语、定语或状语。一般说来，主句表述主要的意思，从句 表述次要的意思。 并列复合句包含至少两个主句和一个从句——即并列句和复合句的组合。
To write an effective exam essay, follow these five steps: (1) anticipate ten probable questions
预测 10 个可能考到的问题 (2) Prepare and memorize an informal outline answer for each question 写下每个问题的答案要点并加以记忆
Look at the exam carefully and do several things
仔细阅卷，牢记几点注意事项 (4) Prepare a brief, informal outline before writing your essay answer 正式作答之前，先写一份简略的回答提纲 (5) Write a clear, well-organized essay
Because argumentation assumes controversy, you have to work especially hard to convince readers of the validity of your position. Here are five strategies to help win over readers whose viewpoint may differ from yours: (1) Use tactful, courteous language: You are attempting to persuade readers to accept your viewpoint. It is important not to anger them by referring to them or their opinions in rude or belittling terms. Keep the focus on the issue you are discussing, not on the people involved in the debate. (2) Point out common ground: Another way to persuade readers to consider your opinion is to point out common ground— opinions that you share. Find points on which people on all sides of the argument can agree. Readers will be more receptive to your idea once they have considered the ways in which you and they think alike. (3) Acknowledge differing viewpoints: The earlier you acknowledge the better. Ideally in the introduction. By quickly establishing that you recognize the other side’s position, you get your readers “on board” with you, ready to hear what else you have to say. One effective technique is to cite the opposing viewpoint in your thesis statement. In the first part of the thesis, you acknowledge the other side’s point; in the second, you state your opinion, suggesting that yours is the stronger viewpoint.
Another effective technique is to use one or two sentences in the introduction to acknowledge the alternative position. (4) When appropriate, grant the merits of differing viewpoints: Sometimes an opposing argument contains a point whose validity you cannot deny. Then, the strongest strategy is to admit that the point is a good one. You will lose credibility if you argue against something that clearly makes sense. Admit the merit of one aspect of the other argument while making it clear that you still believe your argument to be stronger overall. (5) Rebut differing viewpoints: To rebut means to point out problems with an opposing view, to show where an opponent’s argument breaks down.
Developing a division or classification essay: When writing a division or classification essay, your purpose is to present your audience with your own unique way of dividing and classifying a particular topic. In order to write a successful essay, you will need to first choose a topic that interests readers and lends itself to being divided and classified. Once you’ve selected your topic and figured out how to divide it, you will need to provide specific details so that readers fully understand the categories you made. Whatever division you make, be sure to include enough details to make your division-classification method clear to your readers. And always keep your audience in mind, so that you can write an essay appealing to them.
段落写作要遵循一致性或整体性 (unity) 原则。 Uni—是拉丁语的一个前缀， 意思是“one”。 段落的一致性是指文章基于一个统一的主题，段落内容应保持一致, 每个段落只能阐述一个
中心思想， 每一个句子都应与主题句密切相关， 那些与主题无关和不能展开论证主题思想的 句子应删除，从而形成一个严谨的段落结构。
主题句的位置比较灵活，通常位于段首, 其优点是开门见山，一目了然。用演绎 法 (deduction)写的段落也称“扩张法”，就是以概述主题开首，随之辅以细说，即用具 体细节或事例来演绎展开主题句中的主题思想。用归纳法 (induction) 写段落也称作“收 拢法”，从细节出发，最后归纳到段落的中心论点。用此种方法写作时，主题句一般位于段 落的末尾，它是依据上文的细节推出的论点，起到画龙点睛的作用。 主题句有时也位于段落的中间。 这种写作方法常用来比较或对比不同的对象。 段中主题 句起承上启下、使上下文平衡的作用。 为了强化主题， 写作时可采用演绎法与归纳法相结合的方法。 有时主题句可能会出现在 段首而又在段落最后一句重述，前后呼应，两次点题可更加突出段落的主题。这就是所谓的 “三明治式结构”(sandwich-style)。如果段落很长，运用这种结构可以给人更深刻的印 象，并有助于读者对主题思想的理解。 在有的段落中， 主题句甚至不直接写出来， 而是通过细节的陈述含蓄地表达出段落的主 题思想 (implied topic sentence)。实际上它是客观存在的，只是隐含在字里行间，需由 读者意会。
Writing is seldom an easy, one-step journey in which a finished paper comes out in a first draft. The truth is that writing is a process of discovery involving a series of steps, and those steps are very often a zigzag journey. Very often, writers do not discover just what they want to write about until they explore their thought in writing.
The traditional college essay is a paper of about five hundred words that typically consists of an introductory paragraph, two to four supporting paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph. The central idea, or point, developed in any essay is called a thesis statement. The thesis appears in the introductory
paragraph, and the specific support for the thesis appears in the paragraphs that follow. The supporting paragraphs allow for a fuller treatment of the evidence that backs up the central point than would be possible in a single-paragraph paper.
在英语中，当一个名词同时带有几个修饰词语时，修饰词语的位置大体可按下列顺序排列： 限定词（包括冠词、物主代词、指示代词、不定代词等）→数词→一般描绘性形容词（短词 语在前，长词语在后）→表示大小、长短、高低的形容词→表示形状的形容词→表示年龄、 新旧的形容词→表示颜色的形容词→表示国籍、地区、出处的形容词→表示物质、材料的形 容词→表示用途、类别的形容词→名词中心词。 例如：A tall intelligent young Chinese debater’s eloquent speech particularly attracted the audience’s attention.
把两个意思有联系但并不同等重要的简单句用某种手段连接起来， 使一个句子从属于另一个 句子，就构成复合句。我们把这一扩展句子的方法称为从属法。从属法可以更准确地表达作 者的意图，使句子的表达形式多样化。从属法扩句有三种主要方式：用名词从句扩展用形容 词从句扩展和用副词从句扩展。
避免残缺句的最好办法是注意区别句子和句子的一部分。 句子的最基本特点是在语法和逻辑 上是一个完整的意义表达单位。 它至少具有一个主语和谓语。 动词的非限定形式不能在句中 作为谓语单独使用，除非是在简短的问句中，如 Where to go tonight?
The main purpose of a cause-and-effect is to explain to your audience (1) the cause of a particular event or situation; (2) the effects of an event or a situation, or more rarely, (3) a combination of both.
Methods of developing a comparison or contrast essay: (1) one side at a time:
The first half of the passage should fully explain one side of the contrast, and the second half deals entirely with the other side. When you use this method, be sure to follow the same order of points of contrast for each side. (2) point by point:
e.g. Thesis: Studying is something I do differently in college than in high school. 1. Keeping up with reading assignments a. high school b. college 2. Concentration while reading a. high school b. college
In a written definition, we make clear in a more complete and formal way our own personal understanding of a term. Such a definition typically starts with one meaning of a term. The meaning is then illustrated with a series of details. When you write a definition essay, your main purpose is to explain to readers your understanding of a key term or concept, while your secondary purpose is to persuade them that your definition is legitimate one. Keep in mind that a definition essay does not simply repeat a word’s dictionary meaning. Instead, it conveys what a particular term means to you.
按照英语构句规则，充当定语或状语的词、短语或从句必须尽可能地靠近所修饰的成分。如 果忽视了这个规则，就会破坏语言表达的科学性和规范性。请看下面句子： Misplaced Modifiers ● Please give the book to the boy with the blue cover. ● That cat belongs to my neighbor with five kittens. ● George couldn’t drive to work in his small sports car with a broker leg. 以上的例子表明了句中的修饰语就是所谓的误置修饰语，它使句子意思混淆，引起误解，甚 至荒谬可笑。
具体词汇有助于使文章清楚、准确、生动和鲜明，因为与一般词汇相比，具体词汇的信息量 更大，表达力更强。 General It is often windy and dusty here in spring. Specific In spring there is often a very strong northwest wind. It carries so much fine dust with it that sometimes the sun becomes obscure. There is no escape from the fine dust; it gets into your eyes, your ears, your nostrils, and your hair. It goes through the cracks of closed windows and covers your desks and chairs.
习语是有特殊意思的固定短语，其意思和组成这个习语的各个词的意思大不相同。 习语常用于发言和文章中，使得语言自然、地道。外国学生在使用习语时应注意两点： 1） 大多数习语用于非正式或口语化文体，谈话时可用；但少数是俚语，应慎用，如 all balled up（使??变得紊乱/一团糟），to cough up（勉强说出或供出）；2）很多习语由于用 得太多而不再新鲜有趣，如 armed to the teeth，as good as gold，因而以少用为宜。
词可以有两种使用法：一是按本来的意思使用；一是按引申的意思使用。后一种用法也可说 是比喻的或形象的用法，目的在于激发读者或听众的想象。在 a colorful garden 这个短 语里，colorful 是按词的本来意思使用的；但在 a colorful life 和 a colorful career 这两 个短语里，colorful 就是比喻的用法了。
1）明喻 明喻用 like，as 或其他词指出两个截然不同的事物之间相似之处的手法叫明喻。 O my love’s like a red, red rose. —Robert Burns That man can’t be trusted. He’s as slippery as an eel. The old man’s hair is as white as snow. 2）隐喻
用一个词来指代与该词本来所指事物有相似特点的另一个事物的手法叫隐喻。 这 也是一种比较。不过这个比较是暗含的，而不用 as 或 like 点明。假如彭斯把上 面引的那个诗句写成 O my love’s a red, red rose， 省去原有的 like 这个词， 他便是 用隐喻而不是明喻了。
3）拟人 把事物或概念当作人或具备人的特质的手法，叫拟人。拟人在诗歌中很常见： Youth is hot and bold, Age is weak and cold, Youth is wild, and Age is tame. —William Shakespeare 4）换喻 用某一事物的名称代替与之密切相关的另一事物名称的手法叫换喻。例如 crown 可以代替 king，the White House 可以代替美国总统或政府，the bottle 可以代 替 wine 或 alcohol，the bar 可以代替 the legal profession 等。换喻用得好，则可产 生简明生动的效果： Sword and cross in hand, the European conquerors fell upon the Americans. When the war was over, he laid down the sword and took up the pen. His purse would not allow him that luxury. 5）提喻 指用部分代表整体，或用整体代表部分： The farms were short of hands during the harvest season. He had to earn his daily bread by doing odd jobs. Germany beat Argentina 2 to 1 in this exciting football match.
The poor creature could no longer endure her sufferings. 在上面的例句中，hands 代表人，bread 代表食物或生活费，两个国家名字代表两 个球队，creature 代表女人。 换喻和提喻有相似之处：二者都是一种替换，有时它们与隐喻不易区分，因为后 者在一定程度上也是一种替换。
6）婉言 即用温和或模糊的表达法替换生硬的或令人不快的表达法，例如： to die to pass away, to leave us; one’s heart has stopped beating old people senior citizens mad emotionally disturbed dustman sanitation worker lavatory bathroom, men’s/women’s room invasion, raid military action driving inhabitants away pacification 7）反语 这是指与真正的意思明显相反的词，用它的目的在于产生特殊的效果。假定你准 备郊游，并且期待天气会很好，但是那天却下大雨。如果你不说天气糟透了，而 说 What fine weather for an outing! 那就是用反语了。把野蛮的行为称 作 civilized 或 cultural，也是反语。
8）夸大和缩小 前者是把事情说得过分；后者是把分量或程度压低。两者的目的相同，都在于使 陈述或描写鲜明、有趣。 She is dying to know what job has been assigned her.
On hearing that he had been admitted to that famous university, he whispered to himself, “I’mthe luckiest man in the world.” It took a few dollars to build this indoor swimming pool. “He is really strange,” his friends said when they heard he had divorced his pretty and loving wife. 9）移位修饰 把修饰语从它本应修饰的名词之前移到与该名词有关的词之前的手法， 叫移位修 饰。当某人说 I’ve had a busy day 时，他就用了这个修辞手段，因为 busy 本应修 饰人，现在却用来修饰 day。
10）矛盾修饰 意思矛盾的词有时可用在一起，以达到加深印象的目的： The coach had to be cruel to be kind to his trainees. When the news of the failure came, all his friends said that it was a victorious defeat. The president was conspicuously absent on that occasion. 11）头韵 两个或更多的词以相同的辅音字母开始，便构成头韵，如 proud as a peacock 和 blind as a bat。头韵常用于诗中来突出意思上有联系的词： Wherefore feed, and clothe, and save, From the cradle to the grave, Those ungrateful drones who would Drain your sweat—nay, drink your blood?
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