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11.Advertising


Advertising American businesses spend about $30 billion per year for advertising of all types. This large advertising industry offers a wide variety of jobs for college graduates, including s

uch positions as advertising managers, layout specialists, artists, copywriters, account executives, media directors, and sales specialists. The special challenge that advertising presents can be illustrated by a statement made by the president of a major advertising agency in New York. In concluding a lecture to a large group of business owners, this executive said: “We know that American businesses spent almost $30 billion last year for advertising. We know that half of that amount was wasted. But, unfortunately, we don’t know which half.” In designing an advertising program, an individual firm or its hired advertising experts must somehow balance the necessity of advertising against the likelihood that some expenditure will be wasted. Individual advertising expenditures vary from more than $200,000 for a one-minute nation-wide television commercial during the World Series(世界职业棒球锦标赛) or Super Bowl(超级杯赛) to the small cost of printing and distributing 100 announcements to promote a sale or service in a neighborhood. All advertising has the final goal of increasing sales for the business firm, either in the short run or in the long run. A definition of advertising Advertising can be defined as non-personal commercial messages to the public designed to inform both established and potential customers. Advertising is paid for. As such, it differs from other forms of sales promotion. Types of advertising Traditionally, all advertising was classified either as direct action advertising (designed to sell a firm’s products or services) or as institutional advertising (designed to promote a firm’s name). Thus, the statement “Raincoats are on sale today as $ 9.95” is an example of direct-action advertising, and the claim “Our employees subscribe to the United Fund 100 percent” is an example of institutional advertising. Modern business practices have further divided these two types of advertising into distinct approaches. For instance, primary demand advertising seeks to increase the total demand for certain products without distinguishing specific brands. Examples include the current advertising campaigns promoting the merits of cotton as a basic garment material and milk as a natural food. Usually, this type of advertising is sponsored by a particular trade association or marketing cooperative, not by individual retailers or manufacturers. Another distinct type of advertising is brand advertising, which promotes the use of a particular brand among competing products. This type of advertising is used most often today. In addition, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) has recently encouraged the use of comparative advertising, which points to the advantages of the advertiser’s product over competing products. This type of advertising has become very popular for headache remedies, credit cards and even automobiles. In comparative advertising, competing products are named and shown, rather than using
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the old idea of comparing unnamed products X and Y. Institutional advertising also can take a wide variety of forms. For example, when a large corporation sponsors a symphony concert or underwrites a program for educational television, it basically is using institutional advertising. Thus, the “Bell Telephone Hour” combines fine music with commercial messages, and the major oil companies and many other firms sponsor programs dealing with the arts and other subjects of public interest. Advertising media In planning an advertising program, individual manufacturers, wholesalers, or retailers can choose from a large assortment of media. Here is a list of the main advertising media: 1. Television; 2. Radio; 3. Newspapers; 4. Magazines; 5. Outdoor billboards; 6. Specialty advertising (calendars, matchbooks, telephone pads, and so on); 7. Public transportation vehicles; 8. Yellow pages of telephone directory; 9. Direct mail; 10. Internet; 11. All others (catalogs, samples, leaflets, and so on). Considerations in choosing media It obviously doesn’t pay for a local, one-unit department store to advertise on national television. Likewise, it usually is not practical for a neighborhood variety store to advertise in a large metropolitan newspaper. In deciding which media to use, advertisers must consider these questions: 1. Does the advertising medium cover the market? 2. What is the cost per reader or listener in the market? Advertising firms have been more effective in answering these questions than many business owners have been. For instance, newspapers raise their advertising rates when their circulation increases. Similarly, television-advertising rates are based on audience ratings. And magazine advertising rates are also based on total circulation. All these mass media are expensive advertising methods because they reach so many people. In considering these basic questions, we can see why Ford, General Motors, and Chrysler can afford the huge costs of national television advertising. We can also see that local department stores cannot benefit proportionately from national television advertising to justify the expense. Even so, the growth of suburban shopping centers and the establishment of branch outlets by department stores and other retailers have brought local television advertising within the range of many smaller retailers. Newspapers, too, have attempted to make advertising more attractive to small firms
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by offering special full-page advertisements featuring the messages of several different firms. Since the time that television came into its prime as an advertising medium, radio advertising has made a substantial comeback in terms of numbers of listeners. Radio advertising often serves local merchants effectively---and at costs that more firms can afford. The yellow pages of the telephone directory are another effective way to promote shopping goods and special items or services for which customers prefer to check sources by telephone first. And advertising on public transportation vehicles is also effective, when it can be geared to the advertiser’s market. Direct-mail advertising has been so overdone, especially by smaller firms, that its effectiveness has been impaired. Such promotion must be well prepared or it will be tossed into the nearest wastebasket. Still, direct mail offers the advantages of being selective in coverage, relatively inexpensive, and more flexible. Choose the best answer. 1. The passage mainly discusses all of the following EXCEPT ____. A. types of advertising B. advertising media C. considerations in choosing media D. measuring the effectiveness of advertising 2. If you advertise a product, your main purpose of doing so is to ___. A. earn more money for the advertising agency B. promote sales of that product C. compete with other firms that produce the same kind of product D. introduce that producer to the public 3. In advertising, commercial messages are often delivered to the public ___. A. personally B. impersonally C. directly D. indirectly 4. Primary-demand advertising is designed to ____. A. sell a particular brand of product B. promote a firm’s name C. increase sales for certain products without giving information about particular brands D. increase the demand for important advertising 5. Primary-demand advertising is usually financed by ______. A. individual retailers B. individual manufacturers C. a particular advertising agent D. a particular marketing cooperative

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6. Which of the following does NOT belong to direct-action advertising? A. “This is Nestle Coffee Music Hour.” B. “Our product is more durable than Whirlpool’s.” C. “Ours is sugar-free!” D. “Cotton is a better material than nylon for T shirts.” 7. According to the passage, which of the following is true? A. Brand advertising and comparative advertising are different types of institutional advertising. B. Comparative advertising compares unnamed products. C. It’s not wise for a local department store to advertise on nation-wide television. D. Manufacturers and advertising agents are equally capable of answering technical questions involved in advertising. 8. We might safely infer that local merchants and small firms do not often use national television advertising simply because ____. A. they can’t afford the huge costs B. it will not bring them the profit in proportion to their advertising expense C. it does not cover the whole market D. radio advertising can reach to a wider audience 9. The word “impaired” is closest in meaning to ___. A. repaired B. harmed C. prepared D. shared 10. From the passage we know that the most effective way to advertise is ___. A. to balance the expense of advertising against the profit it may bring B. to use radio advertising C. to use newspaper and magazine advertising D. to use nation-wide television advertising to reach as wide a public as possible

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