当前位置:首页 >> 高中作文 >> 雅思写作讲义2

雅思写作讲义2


我的授课简要内容: 第一节:介绍雅思写作,结合雅思四大评分标准,第六代和剑桥考官范文讲解线图和饼图 第二节:结合第六代和剑桥考官范文讲解柱状图和表格 第三节:结合剑桥考官范文、第六代及 2010 年真题介绍流程图、地图等 第四节:结合雅思四大评分标准、第六代、剑桥考官的范文及 2006-2010 年考试真题讲解大 作文的四大主要模式及结构、审题、论证方法和结尾段方法 第五节:结合

雅思 2006-2010 年考试真题讲解教育和语言核心话题 第六节:结合雅思 2006-2010 年考试真题讲解科技话题和环境话题 第七节:结合雅思 2006-2010 年考试真题讲解国际合作与交流、媒体与广告核心话题 第八节: 结合雅思 2006-2010 年考试真题讲解政府职能及其它社会现 象 与问题 第九节:介绍找分论点的 15 个原则, 词汇及句型 NEW CHANNEL INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION GROUP LIMITED 第一节介绍和讲解线图和饼图 教学目标:了解雅思写作考试的相关细节,掌握雅思四大评分标准,第六代和学写线图和饼 图 总体安排:课时—2.5 小时 教学内容:讲解大小作文的细节,结合雅思四大评分标准和剑桥考官范文讲解线图和饼图 教学方法:讲解课件,剑桥考官范文与复印材料 教学重点:结合雅思四大评分标准掌握线图和饼图的写作方法 教学难点:短期掌握线图和饼图的固定句型及写作技巧,并改掉作文中重复的语法与标点 错误 教学亮点:小作文考试的快速突破技巧及核心固定句型 Overall,/In general, /On the whole, it is evident/obvious/clear( to note)/notable (from the fihures/information provided by the graph)that…,while/ whilst/ whereas …; Provided is the line chart revealing ….; The following ten years witnessed a considerable/three-fold rise in…; There was a significant growth in the following…, hitting the highest point at…in…; (Likewise,)A substantial increase was (also) found/ seen in…/ came/ occured to… (over the same period); The number of… suffered a huge decline between…and…, then dipping to…in…; Thereafter, however,…lost the favour of…, dropping from…in…to…in…; Next came …, at…, doubling/tripling…; …—the second favoured…ranked/listed/ involved/in question/in the rankings—constituted…; …enjoined the same popularity as …, equaling…; …, by contrast, is shown to fall steadily in the same period to…from…; When it comes to…, however, the reverse is true 等 课后作业:熟悉写作考试话题,小作文考试类型与结构,做第六代中的 P70,82,83,86 练习,阅读及背诵剑桥雅思考试考官的线图(C5T1)和饼图(G7T4)范文各一篇,及摘抄出描 述趋势、比较和总结的句型、 并各模写(G6T2, 指定)一篇

一. 介绍(10mins) 1. 进考场应该弄清楚的四个问题 1)雅思作文开头段就要表明自己的观点吗? 2)被动语态更容易拿高分吗? 3)雅思作文可以采用缩写吗? 4)雅思作文到底多久会重复一次? 2. 评分标准 任务的完成;结构的完整性和逻辑的连贯性;语言表达的准确性和流 畅性;论证能力(主要是 Task2) 中国人作文得分很低的原因:不明白英汉两种语言的差别 英语的句子是化零为整,中文是化整为零。 英语的句子是建楼房,中文是流水记事法。 英 语的句子是一颗大树,中文的句子是竹子的节, 方法:多找些材料,合为一句。 翻译技巧:破句重组,把意思翻译过来,同时尊重对方的习惯。 注意: 英语是形式语言,用形式把它们联系起来。英语必须有关联词。在雅思考试市场中,任何作 文题是考你的作文能力,而不是只考你的 idea。 词汇和句子结构: 词汇:词汇的宽度、词汇的难度 方法:把自己文章中可替代的词都挑出来,一个意思写几次。 句子结构:精确度、复杂性 5 分:被虫咬了孔的树干。 6-7 分:被虫咬了孔,带有树枝的树干。 7-8 分:有树干和树枝,树枝上还有绿叶(修饰词、副词等)。 什么是好作文: 1、清晰的观点 2、有分支观点 3、词汇和句子结构复杂性: Task 1:一般十句,复杂句约为 6 句。 Task 2:13-18 句,分支观点,点到为止,用开放式结尾,见好就收。复杂句 6-9 句即可。 文 章若没有复杂句,不能上 7 分。作文中不能用硬记的词语,后者只会得 5 分。国外作文能力 最重要,要写很多作业和 paper。 从 8 个方面看一篇作文: 1、 同义表达 2、 词的伙伴关系 3、 短语、 词组 4、 惯用句型 5、 句子的开头 6、 复杂句 7、 衔接手段 8、从宏观的角度看文章的结构 训练时,可以自己按题目要求先写,写完后对照范文,比较两篇文章的好坏。然后分析文章 的用词、句子结构和逻辑顺序,将好的词汇、句子记下来,作为以后的参考。 3. 写作要求- 齐头越行式 1)IELTS 写作测验答题不用写题目,也不用重写问题在答案上方; 2)左右必须留下约一寸的间格; 3)应用尽每一行,由左到右的空间都应用尽,除非最后一个字太长会超过右面留空的间隔; 4)写大概 10 至 12 个字一行, 这样可限制自己字体不会太大, 字与字之间的空位也不会太大. 切记不要分字; 4. 雅思写作你最不该犯得错误是什么

给大家总结出了雅思写作中的 9 大禁忌,请同学们着力避免。 1)离题万里 有很多学生不注意审题,导致了跑题的严重后果,大多数的得分是 5 分或 5 分以下。下面用 两个例子来说明这个问题: (1)International tourism has become one of the biggest industries in the world. Some people think it causes more tension than understanding between people from different cultures. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 分析:本题很多同学认为是谈论国际旅行的利弊,思如泉涌,谈了很多却跑了题。本题实际 要点是 does international tourism cause more tension or understanding? 题目要求角度很具体, 没有让我们泛泛谈论国际旅行的利弊。 (2)In countries where there is high unemployment most pupils should be offered only primary education; there is no point in offering secondary education to those who will have no hope of finding a job. 分析:首先是了解教育有三个层次:primary education, secondary education, higher education, 其次要把握本题的具体要求: 既然失业率很高了, 那学生上完小学后就不用让找工作无望的 人继续上中学了。应对的思路可以是:失业率高的原因很大程度上是人们素质不高,教育不 好,那就更得好好上学;教育的目的并不仅仅是让学生就业,还有更重要的意义。 2)“挂一漏万‖ 主要是指有些题目包含两个或两个以上的问题,但有些同学在比较紧张的情况下容易忽略 其一。 (1) Economic development is an important factor to measure a country‘s success. But some people think there should be some other factors to be sonsidered. What are these factors? And among them, which one is more important than others? (2) Some patents send their children to study abroad. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages. And when do you think should be the suitable age for children to be sent abrod? 分析:以上两道题目都有两句,不能只回答一个问题而将另一个弃之不理哦!否则 task response 的评分可能是 5。 3)抄袭范文 有些同学认为写作无非是提前背诵一些优秀范文,到考试的时候能套就套、能扯就扯,分数 应该就不错了。有些同学的高考作文或四六级考试作文就是靠这种方式―快速提高‖的。那你 一定要注意了:雅思考试中抄袭范文一律 0 分! 那如何对待优秀范文呢?应该要―批判式阅读,创造性使用‖(可做笔记和対译) (1)词汇和短语。主要是里面的动词,非实物的名词,形容词,副词。 (2)句型。 (3)段落内部的连贯与衔接。 (4)段落的写作方法。想如何引入?如何展开? 应用事实,数据,或说理?等。 4)“万能模板” 比抄袭更为普遍的一个误区是使用网络上或某些老师总结的―万能模板‖。 很多同学使用的模 板总结下来甚至有一百来字, 然后考试时再添枝加叶整篇作文就算完事, 这总比全篇默写结 果好点。 这种做法的问题在于:第一,生搬硬套极易造成跑题;第二,―模板‖与添加的东西不能很好 地连贯与衔接,不论在内容还是语言上;第三,―模板‖内容太多,也是一种抄袭。 那应该如何正确对待―模板‖呢?(见大作文详细讲解四段式、五段式、原因∕结果建议式) 5)字数不够 由于考试时间有限,某些同学写作速度较慢,或临场思路枯竭,有些时候作文的字数不够。

考试要求 task1 至少为 150 字,建议同学们写 170—180 字左右,最好不要写太多;task2 至 少为 250 字,建议同学们写 280 字左右,上下浮动 20 字即可。 如果字数严重不足,会直接失分。纵观剑桥 2—6 中给出的 4 分作文,绝大多数都有一个 共同的问题,就是字数不足。当然,也不能一味多写,尤其是 task1。 6)时间分配不合理 (1)两篇作文应该花多长时间? 首先,我们需要知道雅思考试的写作成绩主要是由 task2 的分数决定的,并且考官建议考生 ―should spend about 20 minutes on task 1 and 40 minutes on task 2‖。我们一定要遵循这个时间 比例关系 1:2。如果在 task 1 上投入过多时间,肯定会影响 task 2 的表现,这就是舍本逐末。 Task 1 最好可以花少于 20 分钟的时间,如果你按照的核心技能,很多同学 15 分钟左右可能 就足以完成 task 1 了,这样你会有更多的时间来写好 Task 2。 (2)先写 task 1 还是先写 task 2 ? 两者皆可。如果 task 1 较难(比如出现了复杂的流程图) ,可以选择先写 task 2,按照前面我 们说的时间分配最后写 task 1,但是绝对不能不写 task 1,否则总分也会缩水。如果 task 2 较 难(比如一时没有思路) ,可先写 task 1,但是绝对不能因此就打破了前面我们说的时间分 配原则——task 2 在写作总得分方面起着举足轻重的作用! 7)一团乱麻 指的是思维混乱,文章组织结构不好,或论证缺乏逻辑性。对于语言平平有一定问题的同 学来说,文章的组织论证、逻辑连贯应该是得分最容易的一个方面,如果这个都有了问题, 这篇作文的胜算就可能很渺茫了。 如何解决这一问题呢? 第一 按照写作技巧来布局谋篇、进行段落扩展; (老师) 第二 跟同伴讨论, 互改作文, 这样可以很好地调整思路与逻辑。 自己直接修改的效果不好, 正所谓“敝帚自珍”。 下面是一篇学生作文,请找出其中的逻辑问题。 Topic: In some countries, young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting universtiy studies. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this. Sample answer: Nevertheless, some might argue that educational institutions should focus on delivering academic knowledge to the students, and it seems not beneficial for promoting employment. This age is a very important period of academic studies. If these young people don‘t persist in studies, they will find that it is difficult to catch up with others when they go back to the university. 点评: 下划线部分存在逻辑混乱问题,跟本题不直接相关。 8)标点混乱 有些同学写作时不注意标点符号,这是学术写作的大忌。比如,有 的同学一个段落一―逗‖到底,有的同学则是句(号)逗(号)不分,有的同学还使用了汉语 独有的顿号……正确的使用标点符号及大小写是语法的重要平分内容,决不能一闪而过。 请重点掌握逗号、破折分号等 6 个常用标点符号的用法,避免一些常见错误。 逗号 (1)用于修饰名词的多个形容词之间,如 a small,fancy car.; 现代英语中一般在两个形容词之间不用 and,而用逗号

(2)用于连接两个较长的独立子句,而且主语不同,如 the consumption on pizza was on the increase, but the reverse was true on/for cakes.(句之间一定不要忘了连词如 and, but, or 等。) (3)连接关联的主从句之间,如 Now that there is an immense reduction in the birth rate, the number of students receiving schooling indicates a significant decrease 一定别忘了连词如 while, ( whilst, since, for, if,等。 )从句有让步,条件,时间,因果,目的,等等,也包括非限制性定 语从句。 (4)用在一个修饰短语之后, In the middle of the winter, the percentage of coal consumption hit 如 a plateau at 56%. (5)在部分副词的后面 perhaps,so 等不可以放逗号

提示:在两句之间只有逗号来连接时有几种改正方法?
The availability of immense learning resources on the Internet is, certainly, favourable to the children, the undue exposure to the violence and pornography is disadvantageous to their growth. 分号 与中文一样,分号用于分割地位平等的独立子句。在某些情况下,用分号比用句号更显出句 子之间的紧密联系; 另外, 分号也经常与连接副词 thus, however, therefore, hence, consequently, inversely, conversely, 一起使用,放在这些词之前。 括号 用来表示其中插入或附加的解释成分,但括号会削弱强调的作用,若想达到强调插入的句 子成分,则用破折号,插入可以是单词,词组或句子。如 American( at 5%) drove the car imported from Japan. 但英文写作中不可把破折号用来连接同位语。逗号连接同位语。 例如 The table exhibites the statistics on divorce rates of a western city—(,)London 4)省字号’顿号、不可以出现。 9)中式英语 英文叫 Chinglish,主要是指遣词造句收到汉语极大影响,带着浓重汉语味道的错误英语。 这是作文得分为 5——5.5 分的同学最常犯的错误,多大程度上摆脱中式英语,就多大程度 上显示了你真正的英文水平。 先请翻译以下句子: 目前,关于人和动物之间的关系出现了不同层次的讨论。 Nowadays, about people and animals‘ relationship appear several different layers of discussions. Nowadays there are discussions on several different levels about the relationship between humans and animals. 在真正开始写作之前先检验一下自己的写作水平吧! 请翻译:网络能够极大地丰富人们的生活。

二. 雅思考试中的图表作文有下面几种类型:(20mins) 曲线图(line chart, graph)作文;用于比较两个或多个不同的项目,或者表示变化的一张图 表 饼状图(pie chart)作文;同于比较两个不同的项目,或者表示变化的两种或以上不同的图 表

柱状图(bar chart)作文;用于比较两个不同的项目,或者表示变化的一张图表 表格图(table)作文:用于比较两个或多个不同项目,或者表示变化的一张图表,或者是上 面两者的集合 以上为数据型图表作文(80%),考试中还会出现非数据型图表作文,一般就是流程图(flow chart)作文、地理图(geographg)作文和示意图(diagram/figure)作文。 柱状图可变成线性图 饼状图可变成表格图 1. 四大评分标准 要写好图表作文,我们首先需要知道四大评分标准: Task achievement; coherence (连贯—分段和段内逻辑) and cohesion (衔接—过渡性表达) ; lexical resources; grammatical range and accuracy task achievement 是什么,即写什么样的信息才符合考试要求。 具体来说,要掌握三个方面: Summarize(总结阐释表中数字规律,而不是仅仅停留在对数据的具体描述上) the informantion by reporting(强调客观描述,不可有主观色彩的观点性描写) the general features/trends(最常见的规律有趋势和极值); Select important information(在一组数据中所表现出的大趋势而不是单单一个细节上表现 出来的个例特征); Compare and contrast(不同数据组之间规律的比较,既可以同一图表内部或之间) data where relevant(对主要特征的描述要有具体数字的支持); 也就是说, 我们写的图表作文从内容上要尽量写以上三个方面的信息, 这样才能更好的符合 评分要求,写出好作文。 曲线图:关键是把握好曲线的走向和趋势,学会 general classification,即在第二段的开头部 分对整个曲线进行一个阶段式的总分类,使写作层次清晰。接下来在分类描述每个阶段的 specific trend,同时导入数据作为你分类的依据。注意不要不做任何说明就机械性的导入数 据!可以使用一些比较 native 的单词和短语来描述 trend。 饼图:是所有图表题中最好写的一种,值得注意的是要处理好如何丰富百分比的表达和―占‖ 的表达。不要一直用数字加百分比的格式,如 25%。特定的数字可以采取多样性的表达, 如 25%=a quarter of, 50%=half of, >50%=a,or the majority of。 柱状图:―比较‖(找出 similarity)和―对比‖(找出 difference),是写作的关键,既要横向总结所 有柱状图表的共性特征,也要分别描写各个柱子的个性特征。

表格题:考察例举数字的能力和方法。注意怎样通过举一些有代表性的数据来有效地说明 问题。 流程图:注意流程图里的“因果关系”或每一流程的“承前启后”关系;表达每一流程的主体 内容,阐明这种关系;揭示其内在联系或规律;最后,给予简要归纳和总结。 2. 结构 由 3 部分构成,根据图表数量分 2—5 段:1)首段:完整罗列出图表的时间,地点,描述 对象,即改写原文但特别注意单位名称或数字形式。 (也可总结总趋势) 。2)细节段:包括在 二段描述总趋势和极值,即对图形的总趋势总体描述,并罗列最大及最小值;对于数据细 节性的描述为下一段。 3)结论:对总规律描述。4)注意事项:a.时态:开头结尾用一般现 在时, 数据描述时用一般过去时, 或全文都用一般现在时; b.数据描述一般不用现在完成时; c. 不要求罗列所有数据,但必须描述最明显的数据,其中包括最大值,最小值,变化最明 显值(雅思考察数据罗列能力) 3. 构思基本原则 那么, 图表类作文的主体段到底如何进行构思和行文呢?如何把握图表中的重点信息和核心 内容?在行文过程中哪些表达方式是必不可少的呢? 根据图表作文题中题目信息的特点, 图表作文可以分成两大类, 我们将其定义为“与时俱进” 和“定时定点”两种,表现在具体的图表上也就是说如果在图表中有出现以时间推进为基准 的数据比较,则归类为―与时俱进‖类;反之,如果图表中未有出现以时间推移而变化的信 息,则将其归入―定时定点‖类。 本文将重点讨论―与时俱进‖类(考试频率 80%)图表作文的构思基本原则,从而希望能够为广 大考生提供复习和练习的指导。 1)基本准则 由于在这一类的图表作文中存在随时间变化而变化的数据和信息, 因此, 我们在进行这类图 表作文的构思时,需要把握一个基本的准则,也就是应该根据时间的推移对数据点进行描 述,也即是说,从初始点的描述开始,随着时间的推移,逐一描述进程中的关键信息点, 直至终止点。例如,如果在图表中出现 1950-2000 的变化趋势,则应该从 1950 年开始描述, 并逐步向后推移直至描述到 2000 年的信息点。 2)何为关键信息点 上一点中我们提到了随时间推移需要对关键的信息点进行描述, 那么哪些才是所谓的关键信 息点呢?一般来说,起始点和终止点的描述是必不可少的,其次,图表中出现的极值点(最 大最小值),拐点(变化趋势出现转变的数值点),峰值(常常可以用类似―在某个时间段 内出现的第几个峰值‖的表达来描述)和图线的交叉点也都是可以具体描述的信息。 3)如何合理的安排信息点

在确定了可以描述的信息点之后, 考生往往会遇到两个难题, 有时候图表中可描述的对象很 多,如果一一详细描写一则时间不允许,二来也会造成文章的重心过多,因此需要考生对信 息点进行筛选和取舍; 另一种情况为图表中可描述的信息极少, 简单进行数据的描述无法完 成题目的字数要求,这种情况,就需要考生选取重点信息进行多样化和详细化的描述。 4)― 文字”和“数字”

在确定文章的内容后,对于每一个信息点的描述,都由三个部分组分,即对信息点特点的 文字描述,具体数字的体现和与相关信息点的比较,考生切忌在行文过程中仅仅关注数字 的录入而忽略了能够让读者清晰了解图表内容的恰恰是另外两方面的内容。 我们通过下列两 组句子能够对这一问题有很好的体会。 EXAMPLE 1 原句:The energy demand in the year 1990 was 3.5 energy units and it increased to 20 units in the year 2000. 修改后:The energy demand in the year 1990 was relatively low, (at)3.5 energy units, but it experienced a rapidly increasing trend during the next 10 years and reached the peak of 20 units in 2000, almost 6 times over the 1990 level 原句的表达在语法上没有任何的问题, 但是因为没有对数据点进行特征和比较的描述, 所以 对于读者而言,仅仅只是枯燥的数据罗列,并没有很直观的概念。而在修改后的描述里,我 们将起始点的特点―relatively low‖,终止点的特点―the peak‖,以及两者的比―almost 6 times over the 1990 level‖有效的加入进来,从而更形象和直观化的将信息展现给读者,同时,使 文章的表达更具特色。 EXAMPLE 2 原句:The US population is 15 million in 1990, 20 million in 1995 and 40 million in 2000. 修改后: 10 years from 1990 to 2000 witnessed a growth of the US population from 15 million The to 40 million, while the increase in the second half of the decade was much more dramatic, (by)20 million in a mere 5-year period. 同样的, 原句的表达没有任何的错误, 但是单纯的描述三个年份的人口信息无法给读者带来 直观的印象, 而修改后的句子在其中加入变化趋势等信息, 同时还体现出了 ―后五年的增长 幅度更快‖这一特色信息。 4. 小作文逻辑分析 开头不能与文章已经给出的东西一样,改动 3-4 处,增加、删除、替换单词,用自己语言 表达;开头句型(用简单的句子给出尽可能多的信息 WHEN,WHAT,WHERE,有特色。) 一般有两种,一种是主动一种是被动。

常见的小作文的逻辑分析方法包括:总分、比较(类似比和相反比)、分类、因果、时空 和过程分析等。 总分逻辑主要用于写 pie chart 等,开始时要介绍一下总共有的项目数,其他图表中也可能 会用到总体趋势分析,如线图中某一条线可能整体上升、下降或持平,但其中基本都会有 某一个点是例外,常见的句型可以把总趋势作为主句,后面接独立主格或者 with 结构。 比较逻辑是大部分学生很会用的, 无论是类似还是相反比较, 只是要注意用稍微复杂点的句 式。如表示两个项目很类似,大部分同学会把第一项用一个简单句写出来,然后第二个句子 前面加上 Like A, B also …。而要表示相对照,一般就会想到用 but。除了句式的复杂,更要 注意比较的每个句子尽量不要写成一样的形式,或者全部写成原始数据的积累,可以先找 一个基准点,用一个句子把其中的数据写出来,第二个与之相比较的句子可以写比其稍高、 多…%或者是几倍或几分之几。 对于图表中的数据较多,一般要用到分类,可以根据大体趋势如增多、减少、频繁变化或 者几乎不变分成几个大类。几乎每个数据都罗列出来的文章也得不到高分, 建议大家不要 列出 4 项以上。其实每次考试中不论哪种图表几乎都至少有一个特殊点,这就和前面的总 趋势加一个单点是一样的。 描述关键以及有代表性的点或者是趋势;首先横向比较,介绍各个数据的区别,接着纵向 比较各个数据间的变化、趋势,突出强调最大值、最小值,总结出数据对比最悬殊的地方 在语法与句法正确的基础上,力求用不同的句型组合(如简单句,复合句,定语/表语/宾语/ 非谓语从句),用近义词语; 结尾句型(如果没有可以充分说的,可以不用结尾,结尾不要节外生枝。最好不要出现很明显 有结尾特征的词语―in conclusion‖,可用 Overall,On the whole,In general,In total 等)

三. 曲线图作文(60mins) 首段是信息段,不能照抄命题,只能改写命题,概括主要的研究内容,研究对象,时间和 地点。如果是两个图,必须分开来写,句型常换用。 主体段应描写大的特征或大趋势的概括(关键数据支持),关键数据即起点终点坐标,最 大最小值,偶尔会用交点坐标,部分特征拐点坐标。 得分注意点: 句子的衔接和句子结构的变化 分词和比较结构的使用 从句的使用 整篇文章万万不可主观推理分析,否则扣分

在掌握第一节的基础上,我们要想写好曲线图作文,需要从五个方面下手: 基本结构;核心词汇;核心句型;衔接策略;高分句型。 1.图表作文基本结构 This graph/line chart/histogram/illustration indicates/organizes/reflects/compares/represent/presents/exhibits/ 句 首 首 段 displays/ describes/provides/gives the number/proportion/information/changes/statistics/data…of…(统计对象)in…(地点) in one …, over 数字 years/decades from …to…, over 数字-year period (from…to…,in the year(s)/during/over/for the period of/from…to/untill…/between…and….(时间)

第 二 句 中 间 段 落 末 段

有可能的话总结总体趋势/特征

顺次描述趋势,指出重要数据(极值点、相同点、始末点)

总结线之间的联系或最重要的趋势/特征

注意: 中间段落可能会根据具体情况变化为 2——3 段; 在所有的信息写完的情况下,图表作文可以不写结尾段。 2. 特征: 1)一般来讲,曲线图主要以横轴、纵轴为主要坐标,横轴表示时间(范围 time),纵轴表 示数值(number and unit),时间和数值都是有序变量。 2)以曲线的形式来表达图中所描述的对象(subject),这些对象一般不止一个,在不同的时 间对应指标的变化。曲线的条数对应的就是描述的对象。写作时不仅观察描述对象对应纵 轴数值的变化,同时也要注意横轴时间的范围,因为这对应整篇文章的时态选择。 3)图形表现为曲线的平稳、(急剧或缓慢)上升、(急剧或缓慢)下降、最高、最低、波动 等趋势, 3. 雅思写作曲线图解题思路分析

雅思图表作文通常涉及 5 种题型,即曲线图、柱状图、饼状图、文字图表以及流程图。在这 几种题型中,以曲线图考的频率为最高。加之曲线图可以理解为任何其他一种图形的原型, 对于曲线图写作的把握对于考生来说尤为重要。 第一步:审题 图表中(剑 5T3)有四条曲线,题目要求考生描述在(X1 轴有序变量)1979 到 2001 年某欧洲 国家的(X2 轴:无序变量)鸡肉、牛肉、羊肉和鱼肉的消费情况(描述对象),Y 轴绝对 变量:人均消费量。描写图表信息中,第一个步骤是审题。审题过程中,重要的是要看清楚 题目要求我们所描写的主题对象是什么,即 subject,描述的时间范围(对应文章时态的选 择)以及描述的信息单位,即 time and unit。这些信息的捕捉的正确与否直接影响到文章是 否切题。 第二步:分析图形 在审题结束,开始写作时所要遵循的基本原则是根据曲线数量和特点来决定段落数量。本 题重要描述的曲线为四条 1)按 X2 分析,当 X2 为 beef 时,起点(1979 年)为 225grams,终点(2004 年)为 100,降 幅为 125;当 X2 为 lamb 时,起点为 150,终点为 55,降幅为 100;当 X 轴为 chicken 时, 起点为 150,终点为 250,涨幅为 100;当 X2 为 fish 时。起点为 55,终点为 50,降幅为 5。 2)按 X1 分析,当 X1 为起点时。四个的变量的欢迎度排名为 beef、lamb、chicken、fish; 当 X1 为终点时,其欢迎度排名为 chicken、beef、lamb、fish。 3)确定框架:从图形特征来看,趋势很明显,chicken 呈现上升趋势,其他均呈现先将趋势, 并且 beef、lamb 两条变化的线条基本上是平行的,fish 单独有微弱的波动变化;由此,显 然主体部分分三段,按顺序 beef 和 lamb 一段,chicken 一段,fish 一段。 4. 主体段落描述过程中要注意几个方面: 1)是否有具体数值的描述。小作文所要达到的最终目的应为读文章的人看完文章后可以了 解大致图形的概况,所以如果没了具体的数值,描述也就失去了意义。另外,描述数值不 可忽视数值的单位。 2)描述图形所运用的词汇。曲线图的走势一般分为上升、下降、波动、持平而每种走势都 可以用不同的词汇进行表达。 描述上升可以用 increase, go up, climb up, 下降可用 decrease, 如: go down, drop,dip, 持平的表达可以用 level out, remain stable 等等。对于同一走势的不同程 度,我们也应用相应的词汇加以区别。如:急剧下降可说成 decrease drastically,缓慢上升 increase gradually。对于考生来说,运用多种词汇来表达曲线的走势对于小作文拿高分意义 相当重大。 3)文章中出现的句式。在小作文评分中,句子结构是重要考察项。中国考生往往因为母语 的影响,对运用不同句式作文掌握还有所欠缺。特别是在描写曲线时,很多曲线在不同阶段 有相似的走势,在描述的过程中,更加应该注意尽量避免同种句式频繁出现。如要表示男性 人均收入在 1 月到 3 月中上升很快, 我们可以说: Average income for male workers in Australia increased greatly from January to March in 2001. 也可以用名词来表示:There was a great increase for average income for male workers from January to March in 2001。 类似的表达还有很 多,考生们可以在备考的过程中加以总结归纳。

主体段落写完,最后就剩下总结工作了。文章的结尾段一般的不会有很多新信息的出现, 主要目的是将主体段落中所描述的信息加以总结,也可以将不同的描述对象的趋势进行大 致的比较。 例文: The graph illustrates changes in the amounts of beef, lamb, chicken and fish consumed in a particular European country between 1979 and 2004. In 1979 beef was by far the most popular of these foods, with about 225 grams consumed per person per wek. Lamb and chicken were eaten in similar quantities (around 150 grams), while much less fish was consumed (just over50 grams). However, during this 25-year period the consumption of beef and lamb fell dramatically to approxiamately 100 grams and 55 grams respecrively. The consumption of fish also declined, but much less significantly to just below 50 grams, so although it remained the least popular food, consumption levels were the most stable. The consumption of chicken, on the other hand, showed an upward trend, overtaking that of lamb in 1980 and that of beef in 1989. By 2004, it had soared to almost 250 grams per person per week. Overall, the graph shows how the consumption of chicken increased dramatically, while the popularity of these other foods decreased over the period. 5. 曲线图审题技巧 小作文其实是在雅思考试中,分数更好得的一项,相比较大作文那主观发挥而言,她的客观 描述更能得心应手。 一般学生在拿到一幅图后, 都能挑出其中值得介绍的数据, 但不足的是, 许多同学在寻找数据的过程中全凭感觉走,没有所谓的逻辑,思路,以致于全篇下来后,考 官并不能很好地看清整个图表, 从而分数不高。 而正如大家都知道的, 小作文写的成功与否, 最关键的就在于说考官在批作文时能否自己勾画出该图表。 第一步、先看横纵坐标: 1)横坐标中一般直观反应出来的是时间年份,因此在寻找数据之前先确定好时间是至关重 要的。因为时态的确定直接从图表反应的时间上来说明。一般小作文分为 2 种时间信息: 无具体时间 & 有具体时间。那么如没有时间时,小作文一般采用现在时态;若有时间,则 要根据实际情况走,时间为过去的或将来的来具体分析。 2)纵坐标直接反应出数据以及单位,这也是很好地体现小作文的客观性和准确性的依据。 一般都知道,小作文肯定要多放些数据,但很多时候数据的单位却被大家忽略了,因此尤其 要注意单位的添加,那么此个看去不起眼的步骤就必不可少了。 第二步、再看有几条曲线: 1)1 条线:

若整个图都只有一条曲线,那么具体的分段要根据实际情况进行分段 2)2 条线: 若是有 2 条线,则可以有多种分段构思,可以 1 条 1 段,也可以结合实际分段 写好此题,需分两步走:先构思,再写作成文。 构思:此图有两条线,仍按照曲线图作文基本结构来写。 首段 首句 This graph depicts the number/proportion/…of…(统计对象)in…(地 点)in…(时间) 有可能的话总结总体趋势/特征

第二句 中间段落 末段

分别描写每条曲线(即分为两段) 重申或补充说明总体趋势/特征,或有可能的话比较对比两条曲线

难点在于此图的总体趋势或特征是什么呢?应该怎样分析呢? 我们可采用 2D 分析法:即从两个维度(dimension)来分析。 1st dimension: 分析方法:观察…在一天内的变化趋势(横轴表示时间,对应时态的选择) ; 分析结果:两者均先升/降后升/降;但最高点分别在… 2nd dimension: 分析方法:一天时间内两者的数值大小对比(纵轴表数据) ; 分析结果:…两者相等或交叉点,之前更多人选择…,之后更多人选择…。 3)3 条及以上: 其中 2 条分 1 段或根据实际分段。一般―相似‖―相交‖―相反‖的 2 条线更适合被放一起。 三条线的曲线图 思路一: 尤其对于不善分析数据的同学来说, 考场上最佳采用的结构仍是按照我们前面所讲的曲线图 作文的基本结构来写,只要词汇、句法、衔接做好,仍可以取得 6 分以上的成绩。 首段 首句 This graph illustrates the number/proportion/…of…(统计对象)in… (地点)in…(时间)

第二句 中间段落 末段 思路二:

有可能的话总结总体趋势/特征

分别描写每条曲线(即分为三段) ,注意要简洁。 重申或补充说明总体趋势/特征,或有可能的话比较对比两条曲线

从内容评分(taskachievement)的角度来讲,能比较对比数据并进行总结是更好的表现,所 以我们可以通过比较对比来写作文。前提是 2D 分析到位。 首段 首句 This graph the number/proportion/…of…(统计对象)in…(地点)in… (时间) 有可能的话总结总体趋势/特征

第二句 中间段落 末段

分阶段比较对比曲线,按其相似性和不同点分段。 重申或补充说明总体趋势/特征。

第三步、最后寻找关键数据: 1)分析总体趋势: 总体趋势即看线的一头一尾,从而推算出是―上升‖―下降‖―波动‖―不变‖或其他,另外也可根 据此步骤给自己另一个分段依据,例:可以将总体上升的几条线分一段,而下降的分另一段 2)分别描述(纵比): 在此阶段该寻找出自己这条线的重点特殊点,如:起始点,最高点,最低点,以及变化趋势 3)区别比较(横比): 在此步骤,该对不同曲线进行区别比较,找出:交点,排序等 范文: The graph below shows the percentage of people unable to find work in three major countries from 1983 to 1992.

13

% of people unable to work (UNEMPLOYMENT RATES)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

United Kingdom Canada Japan

The line graph shows a comparison of unemployment rates in Japan, the United Kingdom and Canada between 1989 and 1992. In Japan, the percentage of unemployment increased from 2.3% to 3% between 1983 and 1986.After that, the percentage started decreasing with minor fluctuations and returned to the original value in 1992.(第一组:具体谈日本的变化趋势,起末点,最高最低) In 1983, the proportion of umemployed people was 12% in Canada and 13% in the UK(起 点). These values declined dramatically and at a constant rate over the next few years(趋 势)and the unemployment reached the lowest percentage in Canada with about 7.7% in 1988-1989,and in the UK with 7% in 1989-1990(最低点)(介词短语的并列形式).The unemployment rates of the two countries hit the same point between 1988 and 1989. And then the figures(替换))started rising in both countries.In 1992, Canada gained its original value. Meanwhile, UK reached 10%, three points below the original percentage in 1983.(终 点) Overall, the unemployment rate was more stable than those of UK and Canada. (结论) 6. 核心词汇 趋势描述(上升,下降) 上升的动词:increase/rise(建议做名词), ascend, climb(n.), grow(th), go up 飙升的动词:surge,soar, rocket

下降的动词:decrease(n.), decline(n.), descend, fall, diminish, go down 直线下降的动词:dip,plummet, plunge, slump, drop 曲折变化的动词:fluctuate, vary, rise and fall, 降到最低点的动词:level out, bottom out, fall to/hit the lowest point(at) 升到最高点的动词:peak at, achieve/reach the summit/a height of(at/in), plateau at 保持平稳的动词:remain stable/steady(at), even out 形容词:steady, stable, constant, flat, even 小的变化的形容词:Slight, insignificant, slender, minor 大的变化的形容词:Huge, large, steep, massive, sharp/dramatic 修饰动词的副词:markedly, strikingly, considerably, sharply, remarkably, dramatically, substantially, continually, continuously, rapidly, fast, swiftly moderately, slightly, steadily, gradually, progressively approxiamately, around, nearly, just over/under respectively, generally, mainly, 7. 核心句型 有些同学在做上面的练习的时候意识到一个问题: 每个时间段内使用的句型都一样, 并且中 间的时间点都重复。 那怎么样才能避免句型的单调和时间的重复呢?我们一起来看看下列多 姿多彩的句型吧。 比如我们来描述本节―核心词汇‖部分的练习中的趋势,可以采用以下句型: 1)The number of …doing/done by… increases steadily from approximately …in/at… to …in/at... 2) There is a steady increase in the number of people from approximately 300 at 6 a.m. to 450 at 8 a.m.

3) There are increasingly more people who do… from 6 a.m. to 8 am. 4) The time from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. withnesses/sees a steaby increase in the number of people from about 300 to 450. 5) The subway station witnesses/undergoes a steaby increase in the number of people from approximately 300 at 6 a.m. to 450 at 8 a.m. 6) A noticeable increase can be found in the number of people fromn approximately 300 at 6 a.m. to 450 at 8 a.m. 7) The trend is a steady increase in the number of people …from approximately 300 at... to 450 at 8 a.m. 段内描述:During the period 1970—1999; From 1970 to 1999; Since the early 1970s; In 1970------then in 1980-----ten years later (在总结或第二段开头)It is interesting to note that…; Interestingly, …; It is evident/ manifest/ apparent/ noteworthy (或在这些词后加 from the gragh /from the information provided by the graph) that… There was 变化趋势 in the number of A from 1986-1990(over next…yeas) ,which was followed by 变化趋势 After that,变化趋势 until 1998 when there was 变化趋势 for the next….years From 1990 onwards, there was 变化趋势 in the number of A which then 变化趋势 to…/at… in 1994. In 1990, the number of …hit/ reached (was) 数量,but 30 years later there was 变化趋势. After a/an 变化趋势(doing 副词)from…to…,A begin 变化趋势 over the next….years. The number of…increased rapidly from 1988 to 1990 during the five-year period 例子 A has almost/nearly/about/over a quarter/ half/ twice/ double/triple/one third /as many 可数 名词复数 as/as much 不可数名词 as B A shared about/approximately/exactly/precisely the same number /proportion/ amount of students/money as….. It has reached a plateau of X percent/ an average of X percent in the past few years/ in 1998. In the 3 years spanning from 1995 through 1998,the percentage of...is sightly larger/smaller than that of..... 8. 衔接策略 衔接是雅思作文的四项评分标准之一。 要做好曲线图作文的衔接, 我们需要掌握以下 6 类衔 接用语。 1)from then on; from that time on/onwards; after that; next; afterwards; thereafter;

2)until+时间; after 时间/doing; before 时间/doing;prior to +doing 3)…, which precedes a adj. decrease/increase.= which is followed by …=, preceding… 4)…(以时间词/地点/核心名词结尾),when/where …(关系副词引导的非限定性定语从句) 5)对比数据的表达:However/inversely/conversely/by contrast/on the contrary,…; …, while/whilst/whereas; in comparison (with…),…/different from …/,contrasting with …/,which is matched/projected against/ with… 6)相似数据的表达:similarly/likewise; a similar tendency is … 例子(剑五 P52,剑四 P100 剑四 P54): For example: (首段)The three lines in the chart each show the changes in the proportion of the elderly people to the population of the USA, Sweden and Japan from 1940 till today. Also the chart gives predicted dates for the trends. (主体段)Since 1940, the proportion in the USA has been slightly higher than that in Sweden at any given time, while that in Japan was always the smallest(总趋势). Specifically, the figures for the three countries in 1940 were 9%, 7%, and 5% respectively. The changes in the proportion in the USA and Sweden are featured mainly by a steady increase, although since 1980 the USA experienced somewhat declines. By contrast, Japan did not see increase substantially, sending it to a peak of 5% in 2007, the same as in 1940. According to the prediction since 2000, the upward trends will have been obvious in the three countries, but in Japan will soar at the fastest speed. Till/By 2040 the figure will have reached 27%, compared with25% in the USA and 23% in Sweden.

四. 饼状图(60mins) 1. 特征及规律: 1)饼状图一般用圆来表示总体与部分,以及部分与部分之间的比例关系。其特点是能够清 楚地表现出某件事情、活动、食物、消费品等. 2)饼图存在的关系通常也有两大类,即并列(无纵比)和延续(有纵比)的关系 3)观察单个饼图中个区域之间的数据变化差异,以及相同区域在各个饼图间的数据比较。 饼状图的数据就是描述部分写作的重点。读图时,首先看总的趋势,然后看最抓眼球的增 减变化,通过这些细节的描述来体现对总趋势的支持。 2. 审图

第一步:确定每个饼图的区域以及他们之间的变量关系。 有序变量-年代:1980-2000 年 无需变量-国家:澳大利亚、法国 无需变量-原料种类:煤炭、石油、天然气、水力发电、核能 绝对变量-发电量 第二步:观察数据的差异 首先比较澳大利亚的两个饼图,发现在 1980 年-2000 这 20 年间,煤矿单位产电量比分比变 化最大,其次是水电;而法国在这二十年间百分比变化最大的是是核能的单位产电量,其次 是天然气;通过两组之间对比,到 2000 年,澳大利亚电力生产主要靠煤矿,法国主要靠核 能。 第三步:确定框架 可以把澳大利亚在 1998 和 2000 年的数据变化写一段,法国的两个年代的写一段,最后,两 个国家总的数据对比分为一段。 3.多样词汇 表示―占‖的核心词汇(短语) 最大值(Of/Among …,) sth. rank/take top / the first place/ position; be the most popular/favourable/preferred 第二大值…be the(second) highest/ biggest/ largest/ greatest share/enjoy the (second)most popularity (倒装)Next comes sth…; Followed closer is…; Close behind is/are sth…; The second highest is/are sth…; A 最小值 The lowest ranked/listed is/are sth…; In the lowest position is/are sth. be the lowest/,be least popular/ favourable/ preferred 描述数据…be equal to…; ,(standing) at…;doing %; with the number/percentage/figure doing % respectively; with each doing%; which do(es)% respectively …forms/constitutes/comprises/represents/contridutes…to…/ occupies/takes up/makes up/equals x% of the total.

常用概数表达: all; almost all; the vast majority; the majority; many; most; some; quite a few; (only) a few; (only) a little; a small number; only a minority; a small minority; almost no; no (none) 4.多样句型 (百分比作主语)% of sb./sth. do(es); (there be 句型)There is/are % of sb./sth. who/which do(es) sth.; (人或物作主语) People who do sth. take up % of the total; sth. which/that do(es)/ be done (by…) constitute(s)%; (数量名词作主语)The percentage/proportion/number/amount of sb./sth who/that/which does sth./be done is,/amounts (up) to %; (约数作主语)Three quarters of the sb./sth. do(es)/be done 例句: 1) A form/comprise/make up/constitute ….percent …占百分之… eg. Women comprise more than 50% of the US.population. eg. Females make up only 24% of the illustrations whereas males constitute 76%. 2) A form/comprise/constitute a half/third/fourth of……占…的 1/2, 1/3, 1/4eg. Female illustrions form less than a fourth of the total.

3)…account for…percent of…

占百分之几 eg. ……, accounting for approximately 20 percent

4) (倍数)A be …times as much/many as B eg. The annual rainfall of Hunan is 5 times as much as that of Sichuan. 5) A doubles/is half/triples B A 是 B 的两倍,一半,三倍 eg. The annual rainfall of Jidda doubles that of Janta, but is only half the amount of rain Kuwait receives each year.

5.一副饼状图 这种情况非常简单,请掌握下列模板结构:

开头段 主体段落

This pie chart relates the percentage/proportion of 描述对象+地点+时间 According to the chart, it is obvious that the most(adj.) component is A, which accounts for m%(第一大值) of all. B is the next largest component/proportion/part,n%(第二大值),x% lower than A, and followed closely by C (o%). (有可能的话写第三大值) The above three items take up about a% (前三大值总和) of all…By contrast, D, E, F make up a small percentage of the total… which are p%, q% and r% respectively. (2-3 个最小 值) 总结最大值或不写结尾

结尾段

6.两幅或多福饼状图 如果出现了两幅饼状图, 我们都按照前面的策略进行描述会产生巨大的句型重复, 并且有罗 列数据的嫌疑,无法实现对两幅图数据的总结和比较。所以,如果有两幅饼状图,应注意综 合观察两图,对信息进行分类描写,一般的分类原则是从左图到右图,上升的一类,下降 的一类,保持不变的一类,以更好的符合高分作文要求:compare and contrast data (group information). 精华词汇: 1)分类分组的动词:…be divided into; …be grouped/categorised into 2)表示部分的名词:groups; categories; items; parts; portions; segments 3)表示超过、多于:exceed; outpace; outnumber;overtake 4)情况恰恰相反:The reverse is the case. /Quite the reverse is true. 5)情况相似:A/The similar pattern/trend favoured…/occurred to…/took place in…/was found in… 6)和…相比:in comparison with/to…; compared with…; contrasting with…; which is /This is in stark contrast with… 7)转折连词,可用于总结或写两个相反的数据:…,while/whilst/whereas…; Although/though…, ….。 转折副词: However,…; By/In contrast,…;Inversely/Conversely…;相似: Likewise; Meanwhile 8)A 是 B 的 x 倍。 ① The+计量名词+of+A+be+倍数+that+of+B. ② A+be+倍数+as+形容词原级+as+B. ③ A+be+倍数+形容词比较级+than+B.

2)A 是 B 的 1/x ① A+be+1/x of B 9)A 增加到 n 倍,或增加了 n-1 倍。 A+increase/rise/go up+(by)倍数 例如: As conmpared with last year, the sales increase 6 times. The price of houses has virtually increased fourfold over the past few years. The output of coal has been increased treble /threefold/3 times as against 1996. A was regarded as the top…, holding ten times more than …——the second…, while ...came to the third. 9)差额表达:The gap/discrepancy/difference/distance between… and…was…. 总结写作模式: …pie chart consists of…segments, the largest one representing…, which accounts for …of the total.…each takes up….…goes to….All the rest…, …of all,……. .例: 一个圆盘显示了大学生 在 food, books, transportations, entertainment, clothes, unknown 中的开销,它们各自占的比例 依次 60%, 3%, 5%, 10%,10%,12%,要求你描叙这个圆盘图。 描述: The above pie chart consists of 6 segments , the largest one representing food, which accounts for 60% of the total. Clothes and entertainment each takes up 10%. 5% goes to transportation and 3% books. All the rest expenses, 12% of all ,is spent on unknown items. 一篇文章,主要展示最值的表达 In the term of/ In terms of the length of the Underground Railway System (URS), that in London ranks first among the six in that it reaches 394km, almost 36 times longer than that in Kyoto, the shortest. The second longest is in Paris (199km). Focusing on the open date, we see that once again London URS was strikingly earlier than all other counterparts. Put it accurately, London opened the URS as early as in1863, 37 years earlier than that in Paris. By contrast, the youngest is LA who did not start to run URS until 2001. 说明文注重语言的流畅,简洁。在图表作文中,不追求词藻的华丽,只追求表达的清楚。 范文: The two pie charts below show the types of communication used in 1962 and 1982.

1982

1962
L 10%

L 50%

P 35%

C 30%

P 60%

C 15%

The two pie charts demonstrate a comparison in different patterns of communication which were used in 1962 and 1982. As what has been shown in the two charts, the percentage of letters drastically decreased from 50% in 1962 to 10% in 1982 respectively. The figures of phone and computer usage, on the contrary, increased correspondingly at a high rate. The percentage of computer communication in 1982 was exactly twice that in 1962.Similarly, the popularity of phone in 1982 can also be suggested by its rise-25% from the original value,35%. In general, communication devices, as economy and technology are being enhanced, have changes greatly. High-tech ways will gradually take the place of private and traditional ones. 7. 高端写法 饼状图和折线图相比,从思路上来说更多;从词汇角度来说稍复杂些,比如在饼状图里,经 常会涉及到扇形面积的描述,因此,我们会使用到―占‖这个意思,而常用来表示这个意思的 动词和词组有:constitute,comprise,contribute,make up 和 take up;此外,扇形面积还时 常会涉及 5 个常见的分数值,如 1/3,2/3,1/2,1/4,3/4,当扇形面积在这 5 个分数值附近 时,我们需要使用一些不同的句型来描述。从高分角度来说,饼图的主体段写作思路一般可 以从 3 方面入手: 1)纵向数据对比的饼图 先描述面积最大的扇形,然后从大到小排列扇形顺序 在这种写法中, 我们可以首先描写面积最大的扇形, 也可以将面积最大的 2 块扇形面积一起 描述。以下我们就来看一个例子: Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below.You should write at least 150 words. You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

Food and cars made up the two biggest items of expenditure in both years. Together they comprised over half of household spending. Food accounted for 44% of spending in 1966, but this dropped by two thirds to 14% in 1996. However, the outlay on cars doubled, rising from 23% in 1966 to 45% in 1996. 之后的数据排列我们可以按照大到小的扇形面积顺序, 也可以以变化幅度较大或者有倍数关 系的扇形为先,这种写法更高级。如: Other areas changed significantly. Spending on eating out doubled, climbing from 7% to 14%. The proportion of salary spent on computers increased dramatically, up from 1% in 1996 to 10% in 1996. However, as computer expenditure rose, the percentage of outlay on books plunged from 6% to 1%. 2)采用折线图的写法来写饼图 当饼图的数据按照时间变化时,我们可以将其转换为折线图的方式来安排数据,比如: You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

The charts below show the percentage of their food budget the average family spent on restaurant meals in different years. The graph shows the number of meals eaten in fast food restaurants and sit-down restaurants. You should write at least 150 words. Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.

Over the past 30 years, the average family has dramatically increased the number of meals that they eat at restaurants. The percentage of the family's food budget spent on restaurant meals steadily climbed. Just 10 percent of the food budget was spent on restaurant meals in 1970, and 15 percent in 1980. That percentage more than doubled in 1990, to 35 percent, and rose again in 2000 to 50 percent. 3)横向数据的对比的饼图或者单个饼图 针对以上的饼图,建议考生采用的写作思路可以是先写总数,一般用简单句来实现;然后 再按照扇形面积大小逐一描写。比如: Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information below. You should write at least 150 words.

You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.

In the year 2000, Coca-Cola sold a total of 17.1 billion cases of their fizzy drink product worldwide. The largest consumer was North America, where 30.4 per cent of the total volume was purchased. The second largest consumer was Latin America. Europe and Asia purchased 20.5 and 16.4 per cent of the total volume respectively, while Africa and the Middle East remained fairly small consumers at 7 per cent of the total volume of sales 完整例文: Of these activities, watching television was the most widely enjoyed in both years, at 32 percent in 1985 and a slightly lower 30 percent in 1995. Yet by far the most significant change to take place during this period was playing computer games rated as their preferred leisure activity in 1985. However, by 1995 this figure stood at 27 percent—the second highest overall. Also more popular in 1995 was talking with friends, at 26 percent compared to 21 percent a decade earlier. In stark contrast, however, the other activities decreased in popularity. Eating out---which was the second most widely enjoyed pastime in 1985, accounting for 23 percent of

respondents---slipped to a mere 8 percent in 1995. Likewise, there were also considerable decreases in the popularity ratings of talking with family, other activities and (as previously mentioned) watching television. 五.翻译练习: 1)总体上来说,做兼职的女性得数量随着年龄的增长大幅度下降 2)总体上来说,冬天平均每天电的消费量都比夏天的高得多,前者几乎是后者的一倍 3)在这二十年期间,英国和澳大利亚的电的生产量都大幅度上升,分别从…上升到… 4)在 1968 年,核能是英国电的最大来源,为…,其次是风能,它的电生产量比核的少… 5)但是,同一时期和英国不同,法国的电的最大生产源是太阳能,数量高达…。而核能列 在了第二位,只有…

NEW CHANNEL INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION GROUP LIMITED 第二节 柱状图和图表 教学目标:掌握雅思 柱状图和图表(包括 ―调查问卷式‖图表)写作的相关细节与 技巧 总体安排:课时—2.5 小时 教学内容:讲解柱状图和图表的细节 教学方法:结合剑桥范文和第六代讲解课件,要求学生练习关键句型

教学重点:柱状图和图表写作重点与技巧及固定句型 教学难点:短时间内如何迅速掌握柱状图和图表的核心句型及技巧 教学亮点:把柱状图和图表当成线图—动态图与饼图—静态图来写即都是寻找趋 势变化与 极值; where 从句—The biggest…gap occurred to…, where 具体数据描述; …, while the reverse/opposite (trend) is true for/in the case of the remaining; A, B and C show an upward trend except C and D/ except in 时间 when…; In terms of the number of A, B and C, American females consumed far more than their gender counterparts, though the former spent less than the latter; The similar pattern was found in….; 数据表达用 comprise,consist of, take, represent, contribute (to the total); Of these 复数,A is ranked top/the most favourable, with the number/ percentage/ figure doing % respectively 问卷调查 survey / interview / questionnaire;显示的结果一般可以表达为:result of / response to a survey / questionnaire;被抽样调查的人群可以称为―样本‖sample ,被问卷调查或访问的个体 可以被称为:the people interviewed, 或 respondent; 引出数据的动词是调查问卷式图表作文的重点 Cite: Two other factors, driving when tired and driving too close to the vehicle in front, were cited by 44% and 36% of respondents respectively. ―回答‖有关的词汇 answer / say/ feel/ mention/ consider:15246 people out of the sample answered that holiday was their main purpose of traveling. 课后作业:背诵 G2T4,G3T2,G5T3,G7T1,摘抄重点描述趋势,比较大小,突变值句 型,练习写作剑桥雅思考试的柱状图 G6T4 和图表 G6T2 各一篇。 结合作业复习上次课所讲内容(5mins) ,注意 when 从句的应用,there be +a、an+adj. +n. 1. 柱状图作文(60mins) 通过对近两年雅思 A 类考试图表作文的统计分析,柱状图大约占总数的 39%,并且呈现出 较大幅度的上升,下面为大家总结了柱状图的特点,希望大家写作时会有的放矢。 一般说来,柱状图图形比较直观、易懂,但灵活性比较大,它既可以像饼图一样反应一个 静态的比例或数据(虽然饼图也有动态的,多以两个图或四个图的形式出现) ,又可以像曲 线图一样呈现出一个动态的变化趋势,有时也会两者兼有。拿到手之后,首先看图表的主 题,确定研究对象,弄清楚横轴、纵轴代表什么,对比项目是什么,然后分析横向的数据 比较和纵向的趋势变化,找出敏感数据。这里,主要把柱状图分静态型和动态型两种形式 讨论。 1)静态型属于较为简单的一种,主要侧重于横向比较,说的通俗点就是没有变化的趋势在 里面,主要抓住项目间的对比进行重点描述即可。如图: Germany Italy France

total expenditure(dollars) on consumer goods by people from different countries in 2009 400 350 300 250 200 150 100

Personal stereos

Toys

CDs

Perfumes

Tennis recquets

这就是一个典型的静态图,统计了德国、意大利、法国的人对 5 类消费品的读通话费,应为 没涉及时间因素,只需采用一些表示占有比例的词语如 occupy, share, constitute, contribute (to), gain, be in charge of, cover 等等,另外着重对这三个国家对五类消费品的不同花费作对 比分析如:more/ less than, exceed/ outspend/ outnumber/ outpace, prefer/ favor/ choose/ opt for, be the most/ least popular/ favorable/ preferred, A be+twofold/ threefold/ fourfold +as adj.+as + B(A 和 B 的几倍一样多)等等。 (答案请参考剑 3Test2Task1 考官范文) (下面给大家翻译的 练习以及课下布置一篇静态型柱状图作文写作) 。 解题思路与详细分析: ⑴德国人在随身听上化的钱最多,高达 450 美元,比意大利人花的多 25 美元左右,而法 国人花的最少为 325 美元左右。 (2) 尽管如此, 法国人在玩具上和随身听上的一样多为但花的比德和意大利人加起来还要 多(这两国的数额分别为 130 和 170 左右) 。同样,这种情况也适用于网球球拍的消费,几 乎三个国家在这两种上的开支一样多, 虽然德国人花在网球拍上的钱比玩具的还少只有 100 多一点。 (3)三个国家在 CDs 的花费差不多,其中法国人花了高达 425 美元,还是比其他两国人 多,大约 100 美元。 (4)形成鲜明对比的是,在香水上的消费是这五种商品中最少的,都在 200 美元以内。 要求使用高分句型, 换用不同的主语, 谓语, 使用 who 和 where 的定语从句, while/whereas 和 although 或 even though、 的状语从句, if 主语从句 it is adj. that, 用非谓语动词像 amounting up to, constituting,equal to 等;要求第一段对题目中的主语、谓语和宾语进行改写或换用 其他句型如: This is a bar/column chart /revealing…., The graph indicates/illustrates/exhibites the

great differences in /some interesting data /information regarding /concerning…, Illustrated /revealed /provided /demonstrated/ represented is the bar chart regarding/relating….等等。注意: 开头最好不要超过两句,第二句可写总结,像三个国家在随声听上花的钱最多,而在香水上 花的最少;特别是法国人除香水外在其他四种商品上的花费都超过了 300 美元 In general /Overall, ….and,in particular,…. 也可把最后结尾一段单列。 2)所谓动态型柱状图就是指图形中有时间变化,即存在纵比,这就要求大家在途中既要注 意到纵向的趋势变化,又要兼顾横向的比较,意味着既要把每个时间段里面的极值写出来 并与其他的相比较(想静态饼状图一样) ,还要把代表相同项目属性但分布在不同时间联的 柱子的顶端系起来,便可以得到同一项目属性的随时间变化而变化的趋势。来看一下第一 幅图,详细分析一下: The chart shows the percentage of commuters using different modes of transport in New York in 1960 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information in the chart. (At least 150words) 1960 2000 Modes of transport and years

(%)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Train bus subway car

此图展示了两个年份内四种交通方式的情况。先从年份入手,从同一年份的柱子联系来看,

可得到四种交通方式的比例对比情况,可以选取每个年份的最大值和最小值最为一段来描 写: 1)train 在美国最流行有三分之一以上的人选择它出行; 。其次为 subway,大约有 25%的人 选择。而 bus 和 car 最不受欢迎,加起来还不到 15%的人会乘坐它们。 2) 2000 年的情况与 1960 年的相似, 但从整体上说, 除了选择 car 的人略有上升大约为 3%, 其他三种却略有下降。其中,bus 最不受欢迎,只有 5%左右的人选择。但是有 30%之上的 人乘坐 train,保持了领先优势,比乘坐 subway 的人多 10 左右,比四分之一少一点。 接着从另一个统计指标——交通方式入手, 把代表同一交通工具的柱子联系起来, 便可以得 到四者分别在两个年份内变化趋势: train, 和 subway 都是随着时间的推移在缓慢的下降, bus 越来越不受欢迎,car 则呈现上升趋势。 注意要求使用以前讲过的高分扩展句型:在用动词时表示上升与下降时要添加副词 sth. rose steadily, 用时间段作主语 two decades experienced/ saw/ experienced a insignificant dcrease in the popularity of the train, subway and bus, except for a slight increase in the car., there be 百分 比+人+doing sth. , having fallen slightly from…to…, 主语 climbed up steadily/remained stable, hitting % 等等。 范文: The graph below shows the different modes of transport used to travel to and from work in one European city in 1950, 1970, and 1990.

% of total travellers

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 bus car bike foot Modes of transport and years 1950 1970 1990

The bar chart represents a contrast in terms of bus, car, bike, foot in years of 1950, 1970 and 1990. From 1950 to 1990,the percentage of people who travel(替换)by bike and on foot decreased from 27%to 7% and 33%to 10% respectively. Similarly, the percentage of people taking bus dropped after 1970 but increased before that. However, car’s percentage use sharply boomed year after year.(第一组:柱自身比较) Traveling by bike or on foot were most popular in 1950.but percentage of car users was far

more smaller. After two decades, with the decrease of bike users and travelers on foot, bus and car gain a lot of popularity. Bus reached its peak at 27%.in 1970,over one out of three(替 换)people drive to and from work.(替换第二组,柱间比较) All in all, as the economy increases gradually, people prefer to go to work and come home by driving rather than taking bus or walking.

2. 表格作文(50mins) 1)构思 表格信息有两部分组成;列与行,我们可以分别来分析两个维度上可能存在的趋势变化、重 点信息及比较对比关系。然后,把符合 task achievement 要求的信息写在中间段落(一段或 几段根据具体情况来看) ,最后总结。 拿到一个表格,表格题中,先看图表主题,确定研究的对象,然后弄清楚横柱代表的项目 及数据代表的信息。通常它的最后一行或一列有可能是数据的叠加、平均或差额。筛选数 据,找出关键信息。重点描写总数、总变化、极值、突变值,其他的就过滤掉。在对象的 旁边标识出上升,下降,或有变化的箭头,之后,将同类上升的写一段,下降的写一段, 不稳定的单列一段) 总体结构如下: 开头 中间 General introduction+overall features ―行‖信息(侧重总体特征,趋势变化) ―列‖信息(描述重要数据如最值,突变值,相同变化值) 结尾 总结

作为最经典的雅思复习资料, 剑桥系列在作文部分一直以来都有一个重大的不足: 范文不全 -只有一部分的作文在书的最后部分提供了考官写的高分范文,相当一部分的 topic 后面只 有考生写的, 分数也各不相同的―参考文章‖-大部份还都是低分―范文‖。 像剑 6 当中 A 类第 二套试卷的小作文(剑 6 的 52 页),很经典的一个 table 题,可惜后面只有一篇考生写的相当 平庸的 6 分―范文‖,明显缺乏学习研究的价值。在此帮大家搜罗了这个表格题的范文。 The table below gives information about changes in modes of travel in England between 1985 and 2000. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

The table demonstrates how different modes of travel changed in England in 15 years spanning from 1985 to 2000. In general, the modes are classified into two kinds in terms of average miles travelled per person per year: one enjoyed rising popularity while the other decreasing. The travel modes which gained popularity in the period included cars, long distance buses, trains, taxis and others. Cars remained top among the modes in the 15 years, with its average miles increasing considerably from 3,199 in 1985 to 4,806 in 2000. Long distance buses and taxis seemed to be warmly welcomed by travelers, so average miles travelled in the two modes almost tripled. Travels by walking, bicycles and local buses lost travelers’ favor in the one and a half decade. Average travelling distance by local buses suffered the biggest decrease, dropping from 429 to 274, whilst the number of miles by walking and bikes fell mildly from 255 to 237 and from 51 to 41 respectively. Despite the decreases, however, the total miles travelled grew from 4,740 to 6,475. In brief, the total travelling distance in the country grew in 15 years when cars, long distance buses, trains, taxis and other modes of travel were more popular and walking, bicycling and local transportation less popular. (212 words) 范文:The table below shows information on income, taxes and prices in five cities around the world. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. City Athens Geneva Hong Kong London Tokyo Average hourly wage £4 £13 £3 £7 £12 Tax as % of wage 18.9% 26.6% 15% 31.3% 19.3% Monthly rent for 4-bedroom flat £700 £1, 300 £2, 400 £1, 200 £5, 300

This table graph demonstrates a comparison of wages, taxes and rents in five important cities, Athens, Geneva, Hong Kong, London and Tokyo.

Geneva and Tokyo offer the highest average hourly wage, 13 and 12 pounds respectively. Within expectation, the tax as percentage of wage is also high. However, the rent in Tokyo is much more than that in Geneva. On the contrary, the lowest wages are offered by Hong Kong and Athens, 3 and 4 pounds respectively. It is not surprising that the taxes are correspondingly lower than the rest. The difference between the two cities is the rent, with the lowest 700 pounds in Athens and more higher 2400 pounds in Hong Kong.(第二组:工资最高,相似和不同) With the average rent and wage, London has the highest tax (其他有特点但未提到的) On the whole, in terms of living cost, living in London might harder than the others. (合理推 断)

3. “调查问卷式”图表 雅思 A 类小作文里有一类特殊的图表,笔者把它们称作―调查问卷式‖图表。这类图表的形 式可以是柱图、线图、饼图或表格,但它们的共同特点是数据来源于针对一部分人群所做的 调查问卷, 数据的体现是对调查问卷问题回答的统计。 此类题型从图表特征分析的角度来说 与一般的传统题型没有什么太大的区别,我们同样必须关注数据的趋势、总数、极值、数据 比较等。 但是从语言上说, 此类图表具有其独特的词汇和句式。 一些基础不是很扎实的学生, 如果不对这些词汇句式做专门的关注与练习,考试时很可能会答非所问甚至跑题。本文中, 将对这些调查问卷式图表作文常用的词汇句式做一些总结。 1)调查问卷式图表的特征 (1)以抽样调查的形式反映社会全体人群的想法 调查问卷式图表一般都是针对一个抽样群体(a sample)做问卷调查(questionnaire)或访问 (interview),涉及的调查问题一般是关于对某种事物的喜好程度、重要性认识或对某类事 件发生原因的个人意见。被进行问卷调查或访问的群体的回答被认为代表了社会全体人群 对这些问题的看法和意见。 (2)图表内的数据是以抽样群体的人数作为计数基础 调查问卷式图表的数据一般是以“人数”或者“人数百分比”作为形式体现。如果是前者,那 么必须注意,这些人数的计数基础是被调查人群,不能理解为全体社会人群中有同样数量 的人。如果是后者,那么因为抽样人群被认为具有代表性,数据也可以适用于社会全体人 群。下面以一个表格题的局部作为例子: The chart below shows the results of a survey, which sampled a cross-section of 100,000 people, asking if they traveled abroad…

Visits abroad by UK residents by purpose of visit (1994~98)

该图表中的数据形式是―人数‖,但必须注意这个人数的计数基础是抽样的 100,000 人,而不 是全体人群。 15246 这个数据为例, 举 严格说来, ―15246 people traveled for holiday in 1994.‖ 这样的句子是错误的,因为 15246 不能代表全体人群的数据。 2)调查问卷式图表的典型词汇和句式 和―调查‖有关的词汇: survey / interview / questionnaire 调查问卷显示的结果一般可以表达为: the result of / response to a survey / questionnaire 被抽样调查的人群可以称为―样本‖sample 被问卷调查或访问的个体可以被称为: the people interviewed, 或 respondent 引出数据的动词: 此类词汇是调查问卷式图表作文的重点, 因为此类图表的数据反映的是在一个抽样人群种有 多少人或多少百分比的人对调查问卷的问题有着某种回答,所以关键的一个动词就是“回 答‖。所以和―回答‖有关的词汇要在此类图表作文中反复出现,现总结如下: answer – 15246 people out of the sample answered that holiday was their main purpose of traveling. 在这样的句子里 answer 还可以被如下动词所替代: say, feel, mention, think, consider 另外,还有一些动词可以以被动语态的形式出现: rate: Drinks and meals are rated number one (the most important consideration) by 26% of the younger women.

choose: Entertainment is chosen by 14% of the younger people as the most important consideration when taking the flight. cite: Two other factors, driving when tired and driving too close to the vehicle in front, were cited by 44% and 36% of respondents respectively. 最后,还有一些名词词组也经常被使用,比如: approval/ disapproval rating: The disapproval rating for mobile phones is higher among females than among males. The “***” reply The ―no‖ reply makes up just under 30% in answer to this question. 调查问卷式的图表作文在真实考试中也屡次出现,这类题目本身并不难,关键是要熟悉 常用的词汇和句式, 这样数据的引用才能准确无误。 在最后附上一些调查问卷式考题作为补 充学习资料。 雅思 A 类满分小作文经典范文 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. Write your answer in a word processing program on your computer. The table below shows the results of a survey to find out what members of a city sports club think about the club's activities, facilities and opening hours. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make any comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words. Club satisfaction survey table Range of activities--------Very satisfied---------Satisfied---------Not satisfied Ferrale members---------------35%----------------------35%-------------------30% Male memebers----------------55%----------------------40%---------------------5% Club facilities Ferrale members---------------64%----------------------22%-------------------14% Male members------------------63%----------------------27%-------------------10%

Opening hours Female members---------------72%----------------------25%--------------------3% Male members------------------44%----------------------19%-------------------37% 范文: The table compares the opinions of male and female club members about the services provided by a city sports club. We can see from the responses that the male members are generally happy or satisfied with the range of activities at the club, with only 5% dissatisfied. In contrast, however, only about two-thirds of female members were positive about the activity range and almost a third were dissatisfied. The genders were more in agreement about the club facilities. Only 14% of women and 10% of men were unhappy with these, and the majority (64 and 63% respectively) were very positive. Finally, the female respondents were much happier with the club opening hours than their male counterparts. Almost three-quarters of them were very satisfied with these and only 3% were unhappy, whereas nearly 40% of the men expressed their dissatisfaction. Overall, the table indicates that female members are most unhappy with the range of activities, while male members feel that opening hours are the least satisfactory aspect of the club.

NEW CHANNEL INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION GROUP LIMITED 第三节 多图题、流程图和地图 教学目标:掌握雅思多图题、流程图和地图写作的相关细节与技巧 总体安排:课时—2.5 小时 教学内容:讲解多图题、流程图和地图的细节 教学方法: 结合 2010 年考试流程图特别是地图题的变迁, 雅思第六代和剑桥范文讲解课件, 要求学生练习关键句型 教学重点:多图题、流程图和地图写作重点与技巧 教学难点:短时间内如何掌握多图题、流程图和地图的核心句型 教学亮点:总结多图题、流程图和地图中的核心句型像 The next stage is that…; The… was easily accessible to …; The…lay/was sited/located/situated to the north of…(lying 距离)in 1976, while it relocated to…; A is beside/next to/close to/in the proximity of B; The motorway/ railway/ mainroad ran across/ crossed/ intersected…; A is planned/projected/expected/ to be built/ constructed in/on/at the east of…; The new… will replace/ substitute /take the place of the original/old…; A is planned to lenthen/enlarge/narrow down, double the former size, and connected by… 课后作业:背诵剑桥雅思考试的流程图和地图各一篇,做第六代 P104,105,116 练习并背 诵固定句型与词汇,练习写作 P118,熟悉写作考试题型与结构 结合作业复习上次课所讲内容(5mins) ,学生需要加强句型练习,表达趋势变化时谓语动 词多样化。

1. 多图题(15mins) 有些时候考试终会出现两幅或更多的图形(每三个月考一次) 。如果作文想要在 task achievement 上拿到高分,除了每个图里面的重要信息要去描述,还需要适当的将两幅图联 系/糅合起来,即写两幅图间的关系,基本上来说有三种关系:因果、比较、对比关系(若 没有关系则不写)要写开头段每幅图个代表什么 注意:在考场中,如果不能很快发现两者关系,则可以放弃这部分的写作,只需分别写出每

个图形即可,以节省时间来完成 task 2. ―四为”-以题目透露出的主题为重心,以分类解释各图为逻辑顺序,以分析两图的结合点为 亮点,以精炼概括图表信息为宗旨。 构思 在你掌握前五节讲述内容基础上,分别写每一幅图都比较简单。但是作为一篇好作文而言, 不能简单的分别写完计算完事了。 本题曲线图有两条线, 应该在写作时按第三节所讲从横纵两个维度进行比较对比: 两者的大 小对比、两者在一天内的趋势变化对比。否则,较难给读者呈现一个总体特征。 就两幅图总体而言,我们应该阐述一下两者之间的关系:饼状图中一半以上的电量花在了 heating 上,这基本上说明了为什么曲线图中冬天的用电量要比夏天高。 就两幅图的题型而言,文章总体结构如下: 开头 中间段落 结尾 General introduction+可能的话总结两图的总体特征 可选择将每幅图分别写为一段(需要的话,复杂的一图可分段来写) 总体阐述两图之间的关系(可能的话也可以在写第二幅图的时候跟第一幅联系 起来写)

高分扩展:两(多)图中的常用句型: (1)表示―就……而言‖: As for… As to … In terms of … When it conmes to … (2)表示两幅图间的关系(比较对比) : Like A,B also… B is similar to A in that… B contrasts with A in that… In contrast to A,B… In the chart B, quite the reverse is true in that…

The total number of the second table shares the same movement with the first table, increasing/decreasing generally over the whole period except a mild drop in ..(except in…when/where…experienced a slight/sinnificant fall) Although…, B differs a lot from A in that… There is less of a correlation between… and… From the chart, we can see that there is no relationship between… and… The total number formed the same trend, starting from.. in …, falling/rising to… in … and then climbing steadily to … in …

2. 流程图作文(50mins) 1)构思 本题实际上是两个流程图,一个描述了蚕的周期变化,另一个描述了蚕茧如何做成丝绸/丝 布,当然两个图有一定的联系。 就一幅图而言,文章的组织思路如下: 开头段 中间段落 引入+总体分为 n 阶段 按步骤分别描写每一个阶段 需要的话,可以进行合理想象,以某种程度扩展字数 可能的话按阶段分段 结尾段 注意: 有三个关联词值得高度关注: when, which, where。尤其是后两个,流程图中往往涉及地 点转移,因此很多地方可以用 where 来进行补充说明;同时一个事物/事件联系着前后不同 阶段, 所以可以使用 which 来做纽带。 有了这三个词, 就不会把句子全写为简单句了。 同时, 注意被动语态的使用。 When the cleaning is done, the bottles are conveyed to a glass factory where they are cut into glass pieces which are then poured into a furnace. 上面的句子用了 when/where/which 三个连词,就把玻璃瓶回收的三个步骤‖cleaning cutting –heating 巧妙地连接在了一起。 2)流程图写作注意事项 重述此图总体内容或阶段,注意换用表达方式

第一,找到流程起点,按照箭头方向,仔细看图,理解图意;1)首先说明是做什么工作的 过程,目的是什么 2). 准备工作 3). 按时间/过程先后描述 4.) 结果 5). 简单总结(可有可无) 描述一个实物/器具的工作过程,文章应分以下几点:1). 实物是什么,做什么用的 2). 基 本结构 3). 工作过程 4). 简单总结 第二,如果出现生词,结合图中信息进行猜测,多数生词可以直接代入; 第三,按图中步骤、分阶段进行描述,不要省略其中环节; 第四,一定要使用表示逻辑顺序的衔接词; 第五,通常选用一般现在时,注意主谓一致,注意适当使用被动语态。 3)流程图的衔接策略 成功写作流程图中最关键的是使用恰当的衔接手段,一方面增强文章连贯性,另一方面,可 以避免写太多的简单句,使句间的语法关系增强。 (1)表示时间顺序 ① first; first of all; in the first/initial stage; second; next; then; afterwards; thereafter; finally; at the same time; simultaneously; meanwhile; subsequentlyconsequently;in the course of in order to/in order not to in order that so as to/so as not to ---全为副词(或短语) ,虽是简单,却可增强逻辑,有效衔接! ② and; and then;----写出并列句:把句子写长最经济有效的方法! ③ After; before; prior to; until; when;- before this;during;after this---不管是介词还是连词, 都既 可以增强衔接,也可以使句间关系紧凑! (2) 表示限定/补充说明: that/which/where,既能加强衔接, 又可以写出复杂句型, 高分必备。 (3)流程图的句型多样化 要避免句型单一化,我们可以通过(2)中讲的衔接策略来实现,当然还可以采用一定的语 言手段: 被动语态 流程图写好的关键是被动语态的使用。流程图表现的是客观的工作流程或事物发展的过程。 因此,我们可以尽量避免用―We should/ must/ need to do sth.‖的主动语态,改为―Sth. Should/must/needs to be done‖这样的被动语态。被动语态和情态动词的恰当搭配,可以使文 章显得更具有客观、和学术化色彩。

The production of cement starts in a mixer, where limestone gravel and sand are converted into a mixture, which is then fed into a crusher. Here the mixture is ground into cement powder, and then is passed through a rotating heater. 上文中用到了 convert、feed、grind、pass 这四个动词的过去分词构造了被动语态,使过程的 描写显得非常专业。 词形变化 在写流程图时,图中信息可能是以名词、动名词动词呈现的,我们写作时需有意识地在其三 者间互换。比如,上图中 food 可以转换为 feed,select 也完全可以写 selection。 (4) 流程图必备表达 This diagram/flow chart/figure show/reflects/illustrates the process/ the whole procedure of…which can be divided into… stages/steps/phases/parts. The life of the silkworm mainly consists of/involves four main stages. There are three phases in the lifecycle of a butterfly.(下划线部分为句型结构)It works as follows. The initial/primary/first phase/step is that… The second stage takes…(多长时间)/takes place in…where…(地点) The next procedure is to… In the last/final stage,… After this process/procedure,… From the diagram, we can see clearly how…/the progression(development) of… Overall, the flow chart tells us… 5)引言段和结尾段的重要性 在流程图的引言段和结尾段写作中可以适当进行过程的阶段划分和总结, 使文章的构思上一 个层次,摆脱―流水账‖的俗套。 This diagram illustrates the recycling process of glass bottles. The whole process is a cycle which can be divided into three main stages. In summary, plants, humans and animals provide services for each other. Humans and animals need the oxygen that plants produce in order to stay alive. When humans and animals breathe out, they provide the carbon dioxide that plants need in order to survive.

在流程图中,有时不可避免的会出现一些比较专业的概念,考场上一时想不出对应的英文, 这时候要善于利用已知的简单词汇, 试着把这些―专业‖的概念用简单的方式表达出来。 例如, 不知道如何表达―房间通风‖ ventilation) ( 这个概念, 我们可以说―air moving through the house‖ 来说明,不知道如何说―斧头‖和―锯子‖(axe and saw)我们就用―special tools‖来绕过,虽然 不是描述得很精确,但总比不写或写错了要好。 3. 地图题(30mins) 纵观历次雅思地图题写作,我们不难发现无非就是“两位置方案的二选一”或“某处事物新旧 变迁的过程描述”。不管“二选一”还是“过程描述”,请注意,一定不要忘了要结合地图中所 体现的“人文与地理环境”进行相互的“比较与对比”且体现“比对结果”;而这里的比对,前 者是“横向比对”,强调各自“优缺点比对”,后者则是“纵向比对”,强调“新旧变化”。解题 思路有了,那么剩下的是语言上的事情了。在语言上,请你注意以下几个方面:首先,平 时要多积累表示“方位、比对、变化”等方面的词汇和句子表达;其次,要注意时态的选择, “二选一”型常用一般现在时态,而“过程描述”型则要视题目而定,往往综合运用一般过去 时态、一般现在时态和现在完成时态;最后,要注意语态的把握,要主动与被动相互结合 运用,记住适当被动能给考官好印象,但切忌出现人称代词。 1)读题:读图标的含义,哪个是铁路,哪个是村庄等等都读明白了。要看清哪个是公路,哪 个是铁路。有没有交叉点等等。 2)确定写的顺序,是按变化写还是按位置写,还是两个的综合体。以图中的一确定地点为参 照物。 3)如果是要求描述变化, 把明显的变化先划出, 最好用词在图旁边描述, 确定自己要写几点。 4)句型多用被动语态。 5)时态使用一般现在时或者过去时。表示将来的时间可以用下列表达:be predicted/be expected/planned to do… 6)记得用关联的词和句子: It is obvious/notable/noticeable that… It is easy to locate/to find that… It can be seen from the graph that… As can be shown from the information provided (by the graph), ... As the first/second map shows, ... Next to A is ... 7)细节描述 时态: 如果地图题反映的是一个地方在过去的一段时间的变化,文章用一般过去时。如果地图题 反映的是一个地方在将来一段时间的变化趋势,文章用一般将来时或表“估计”的词汇。如 果地图题反映的是一个地方从过去到现在的变化,可用现在完成时。 如:现在停车场改成了一个剧院。 The car park has been removed and replaced by a theatre. 城镇 A 的家庭数量从 1937 年到 2020 年将翻一番。 The number of homes in Town A is likely to double (is likely to= is predicted to /is estimated to/is projected to/is expected/is planned to ) 又可为: It is likely that the number of homes in Town A will double. (it is likely that = it is predicted/estimated/projected/ expected that…..)

细节变化 地图每个细节变化都要提到,不要忽视一个细节 语态: 地图题用被动语态 如:2000 年在城镇 A 新建了一个医院:A new hospital was established in Town A in 2000. 地图题的书写顺序:时间顺序和空间顺序 如 2006 年 9 月 A 类 TASK 1 The map shows the development of the village of Kelsbey between 1780 and 2000. 这篇文章大体框架按时间顺序,BODY 分三段分别描述:1780 年村庄,1860 村庄, 2000 年村庄。对每一年的描述,如 1780 年村庄,我们要注意按方位顺序来描述,否则文章会出 现混乱。这就需要考生在考前对方位词进行总结。地图题的方位我们说东西南北,不说成 左右。 A 在 B 的东方/西方/南方/北方 A is/ lies/ is located/ is situated in/on / to the east/west/south/north of B(in 表 A 在 B 内部, on 表 A 和 B 接壤,to 表 A 和 B 分开) A 在 B 内部的某个部位 A is in the eastern/ southern/ western/ northern part of B. In the west of the school(倒装) is a small park, while a playground is located in the east part, next to study building 2 A 在 B 西北部的 120 千米处 A lies 120 km to the northwest of B. A 在 B…角落 A is at/in the south-eastern corner of B ( at 表示 A 在 B 外部, in 表 A 在 B 内部) 在河流或道路的南边/北边等 On the south/southern side of the river On both sides of the road On the other side 临近马路的地区 The area is adjacent to/ near /next to/close to/in the proximaty of/ just off the road A parallel s(平行)B A intersects (交点)B 在道路或河流的最南端 At the southern end of the river A 在 B 的对面 A is on the opposite side of B A is opposite/across B A 在 B 的中间 A is in the center/middle/central area of B A 在 B 东部的边界上(A 在 B 外部) A is on the eastern border of B A 在 B 东部边缘上 (A 在 B 内部) A is on/ along the eastern edge of B “变化”词汇 地图题描述的是一个地区的变化,那么“变化”词汇必须过关。

分析发现,变化包括两种:图形原有事物的改变,图形新添事物。 我们先看图形原有事物的改变: 原有事物可说成: The original/previous/former garden 原有事物尺寸上变大/变小: The size of the library has been enlarged/extended/halved/reduced by half 原有事物在数量上增多或减少: The number of homes has increased/ risen/ grown/ reduced /d ecreased/ dropped/ fallen/doubled/ tripled/ quadrupled to 500. 原有事物没了: The farms completely disappeared/were removed. There is no dock for fishing boats. 原有事物被改为: A becomes B A is transformed/reconstructed/redeveloped/converted/changed/turned over to/ into B A is replaced /substituted by B = A gives way to B= A takes the place of B. 图形新添事物 A newly-built road A new car park was built/established/set up/constructed/completed and opened in the middle of B A new IT centre has been added to the library The year 2000 saw two additions to the land: a pond in the northern part and a vegetable garden on the opposite side. A connection road between the two parks for easier acces will be built. A new building will be built in the proximaty of the old ones, which will be connected by a new road. 地图题第二类为选址题 如剑 5 TEST 3 TASK 1 The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket. 为一个城镇的超市选址, 有两个位 置 S1 和 S2 供选择。选址题并不难写,主要注意两点: 位置描述和优缺点 这篇文章我们 BODY 段可分两段,分别陈述: S1 的位置及位置相应的优缺点 S2 的位置及位置相应的优缺点 其中表位置的方位词已在前文有总结, 同理,2006 年 2 月 A 类 Task 1: The diagram below shows the problem of flooding in a UK town and two possible solutions 我们 BODY 段可分两段,分别陈述: Solution 1 的解决方案和相应的优缺点 Solution 2 的解决方案和相应的优缺点 其中,解决方案实际还是要涉及一些方位词。 注意点: 1.没有必要写出每条信息,要辨别关键特征

2.段落划分要合理(得分点) 3.衔接和过渡词很重要 一整篇文章的例子:剑五 P75 To be located in the town centre, S2 is in the town centre, a non-traffic zone. As result, it is only accessible by the railway whereas the main roads are unavailable. Moreover, it is hemmed out the houses, meaning it’s convenient for the dwellers to do some shopping. In addition, it is closer to the south industry but far away from the north. Unlike S2, S1 will be set in the countryside, where both the railway and main roads are ready. But the 44000 people from Bransdon and Crandson find it not easy to reach S1, although it is connected by the railway with Crandson. Furthermore, this site is far away from the two industry areas. However, it is convenient for those who live in Hindo. In general, the two sites are different in many aspects/ways. 请结合笔者上述内容, 操练以下改编成的地图题范文选词填空练习, 以加强你的雅思地图题 写作。(笔者这里特注,题目与范文都来自《剑 5》TEST3 中的 TASK 1) You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The map below is of the town of Garlsdon. A new supermarket (S) is planned for the town. The map shows two possible sites for the supermarket. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. You should write at least 150 words. The first potential location ___ is outside the town itself, and is sited just off _____to the town of Hindon, lying 12 kms to the north-west. This site is in the ______and so would be able to accommodate a lot of car parking. This would make it _____ to shoppers from both Hindon and Garlsdon who could travel by car. As it is also close to the railway line linking the towns to Cransdon (25 km to the south-east), a potentially_____ number of shoppers would also be able to travel by ____ . ________, the suggested location, _____ , is right in the town centre, which would be good for local residents. Theorically the store could be accessed by road or rail from the surrounding towns, including Bransdon, _____ as the central area is a _____ zone, cars would be ____ to park and access would be difficult. _______, neither site is appropriate for all the towns, but for customers in Cransdon, Hindon and Garlsdon, the out-of-town site (S1) would probably offer ____ advantages. 流程示意图及步骤图 (使用总分结构, 着重对比和过程的描述, 关键词 firstly, secondly, thirdly, finally, to begin with, and then, furthermore…) 4. 示意图(15mins)

第三种非数据图表为示意图,一般向我们展现某事物的工作原理。很多时候,它是把地图侧 重考查的空间描述和流程图侧重考查的过程描述综合了起来。 构思 本题为典型示意图,一般让我们描述 how something works,应对此类题目有两种思路,一种 在开头段引入之后,主体段落一段描述事物的基本结构,另一端描述事物的工作原理/工作 流程;另一种思路就是将结构和流程糅合在一处来写。 1)描述形状 Triangular, rectangular, square, round, elliptical, straight, curved; 3-dimensional; spherical; cylindrical triangle; rectangle; square; circle; ellipse; sphere; cylinder; cube It looks like … It is shaped like… It has the shape of… It is a v-shaped… 2)描述颜色 It is red/white/black/purple/orange… 3)描述大小 It is …long/wide/tall/ Its length/width/height is… Large; medium-sized; small 4)描述功能 It is used for… It functions as… OBJECT (描述物体) 注意点:要明确以一定的顺序来写。从左到右或者是从上到下,从内到外(根据物体自己的 特点)等等。把题目中给出的部件详细描述。(如 202 的自行车) 句型:介绍功能 The illustration is of a _______ which is designed to (do something) 说明构成部分 A ______ is made up of /consists of/comprises How many ?A number of parts/sections 描述各个部件功能不要用 you ,one 可以用 we, the operator (单数个体) First , (the cyclist) puts

his or her _____on the ____ 要有一定的顺序,不要将每个部分单独写出,应该将能够合并的一起结合,注意用以下句型 (被动态,定语从句,非谓语动词)要用关联词 5. 小作文多样表达汇总(选择性抄写) 1. The bar chart illustrates that... 该柱状图展示了... The graph provides some interesting data regarding...该图为我们提供了有关...有趣数据。 2. The diagram shows (that).../This diagram unfolds a clear comparison between…and… 3.As to the other three, though the growth rates were not so high, they were indeed remarkable 该 图向我们展示了... 4.The pie graph depicts (that)....该圆形图揭示了... 5.This is a cure graph which describes the trend of...这个曲线图描述了...的趋势。 6.The figures/statistics show (that)...数据(字)表明... 7.The tree diagram reveals how...该树型图向我们揭示了如何... 8.The data/statistics show (that)...该数据(字)可以这样理解... 9.The data/statistics/figures reveal that... 这些数据资料令我们得出结论... 10.According to the chart/figures, ...根据这些表(数字)... 11.As is shown in the table, ...如表格所示... 12. As can be seen from the diagram,great changes have taken place in... 从图中可以看出,...发生了巨大变化。 13. From the table/chart/diagram/figure,we can see clearly that...or it is clear/apparent from the chart that... 从图表我们可以很清楚(明显)看到... 14.This is a graph which illustrates...这个图表向我们展示了... 15.This table shows the changing proportion of a & b from..... 该表格描述了...年到...年间 a 与 b 的比例关系。 16.The graph,presented in a pie chart, shows the general trend in... 该图以圆形图形式描述了...总的趋势。 17.This is a column chart showing...这是个柱型图,描述了... 18.As can be seen from the graph,the two curves show the flutuation of... 如图所示,两条曲线描述了...的波动情况。 19.Over the period from.....the...remained level. 在...至...期间,...基本不变。 20.In the year between...a.. 在...年到...期间... 21.In the 3 years spanning from 1995 through 1998... 1995 年至 1998 三年里... 22.From then on/from this time onwards... 从那时起... 23.The number of...remained steady/stable from (month/year) to (month/year)....月(年)至...月 (年)...的数量基本不变。 24.The number sharply went up to...数字急剧上升至...

25.The percentage of...stayed the same between...a. ...至...期间...的比率维持不变 26.The figures peaked at...in(month/year) ...的数目在...月(年)达到顶点,为... 27.The percentage remained steady at...比率维持在... 28.The graphs show a threefold increase in the number of... 该图表表明...的数目增长了三倍。 29.The situation reached a peak(a high point at) of[%]. ...的情况(局势)到达顶(高)点,为...百分点。 30.The figures/situation bottomed out in...数字(情况)在..达到底部。 31.The figures reached the bottom/a low point/hit a trough. 数字(情况)达到底部(低谷) 。 32.a is ...times as much/many as b.a 是 b 的...倍。 33.a increased by...a 增长了... 34.a increased to...a 增长到... 35.high/low/great/small/ percentage.比低高(低) 36.there is an upward trend in the number of......数字呈上升趋势。 37.A considerable increase/decrease occurred from...到..发生急剧上升。 38.From.....the rate of decrease slow down.从...到...,下降速率减慢。 39.There are a lot similarities/differences between...a. ...与...之间有许多相似(不同)之处 40.A has something in common with b a 于 b 有共同之处。 41.The difference between a and b lies in... a 与 b 之间的差别在于... 42....(year)witnessed/saw a sharp rise in... ...年...急剧上升。 NEW CHANNEL INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION GROUP LIMITED 第四节 雅思考试大作文写作步骤与结构分析 教学目标: 结合雅思评分标准和 2006-2010 年考试真题掌握雅思四大类大作文的写作结构细 节与开头、中间段落、结尾段的技巧 总体安排:课时—2.5 小时 教学内容:讲解四大类大作文的写作结构细节与开头、中间段落、结尾段的技巧 教学方法: 结合雅思评分标准和 2006-2010 年考试真题讲解课件与复印材料, 要求学生练习 四大类大作文的写作开头、中间段落、结尾段 教学重点:四大类大作文的写作结构与如何开头、中间段落扩展、结尾段的技巧 教学难点:短时间内如何掌握开头段、中间段落扩展、结尾段的技巧 教学亮点:如何开头像在驳论文中是否直接表达观点、中间段落扩展的方法像对比方法:① 与反面事物对比:像中外对比,城乡对比;②假设对比:像有和无对比(有电脑/没电脑) , 做与不做(的结果不一样)对比;③时间对比:过去与现在(Decades ago,…. Currently, nonetheless 英式/nevertheless 美式, …); 结尾段的技巧像简短提意见 It is wise that…; It would be better if…; 有条件的实施…;兴利除弊;平衡发展 课后作业:练习写作教育话题—大学的功能一篇,并背诵写作高频词汇熟悉写作结构

Schools should concentrate on teaching students the academic subjects that will be useful for their future careers. Subjects such as music and sports are not useful. To what extent do you agree or disagree?(2010-5-15)

1. 雅思考试大作文考试内容和评分标准(20mins) 考试内容: 1)个人的发展与教育 个人发展与教育是雅思作文中出镜率很高的一类话题,在 2005 年 1 月到 2009 年 10 月的历 次考试中所占比例大约为 25%。命题思路大致可以分为以下几个方向,即家长、学校和老 师对孩子进行教育和培养的方式,学校课程的设置,学校、老师、家长在教育中所起的作 用,个人学业事业的发展走向,影响个人成长的因素,涉及个人成长和成才过程中所需要 考虑的问题以及对相配套的教育模式的反思等诸多方面。 2)全球化与国际交流 雅思作为国际上的一种测试,作文中出现与国际相关的话题,应该不难想到。从历年的雅 思议论文真题来看,涉及的内容主要有全球化的原因和利弊、国际关系的重要性、国际援 助的利弊、国际合作的作用、国际贸易的利弊和文化交流的影响。由于进行国际交流的方 式有很多,所以这个话题还可以同传媒、体育结合起来出题,例如国际体育赛事是否促进 世界和平。 3)语言与文化 这类话题的命题思路包括,英语的重要性,创造国际语言的利弊,语言学习与文化的关系, 文化融合的利弊,传统文化的保护。前两种思路侧重于语言方面,后两种侧重于文化方面, 而最后一种则是探讨语言和文化的桥梁联系。 4)科技与现代化 技术改变世界,科技与现代化是当今社会的热门话题,也是雅思历年必考话题之一,出现 频率在 10%左右。它的一般考察范围为现代科技对人们生活习惯及生活方式的影响,考察 的对象可以细化某项科技产品或技术突破,如电脑、手机和互联网对人们生活、工作、交 流方式以及基础设施产生的影响,月球探索对日常生活的影响,也可以整体化为先进科学 和技术的发展,如不同时期技术发展对人类影响的差别,科技对不同人群的影响,高科技 对传统技术的影响等。 5) 环境保护与旅游 环境保护与旅游是当今社会的热门话题,是雅思考试的重点之一,出现频率大约为 10%。 环境保护与旅游类话题的出题思路主要有以下几个方面:旅游业发展的利弊,环境保护是 谁的责任,题干中给出的选项通常有个人、公司、国家、国际组织等;为何人们对环境破 换熟视无睹;造成环境破坏的原因及保护环境、防止污染的方法或措施,如为什么消费品

生产数量增加会导致环境污染,是否该用限制长途飞行、不依赖高科技、或者提高燃油价 格的方法来解决环境问题等。 6)广告与媒体 人们所熟知的五大媒体:电视、广播、报纸、杂志、互联网。广告与媒体话题是雅思议论 文中比较常见的一类,出现频率大概在 10%,出题方向主要集中在广告及媒体的作用及其 对社会的利弊影响,广告与产品畅销及需求的关系,禁止广告是否有利,媒体上是否应该 出现暴力犯罪事件,媒体具有强大影响力的原因。除此以外,偶尔还会考到与新闻工作者 的职责问题。 该类话题无论怎样出,大体上都是万变不离其宗,所以熟悉一些与广告媒体功能和利弊相 关的论据或论点对写好此类议论文会大有裨益。 7) 基础设施与政府职能 基础设施包括物质性基础设施和社会性基础设施,机场、公路、铁路、水电煤气、医疗卫 生、教育、科研与技术服务都是属于这个范畴。从历年的雅思议论文考题来看,基础设施 与政府职能类话题在雅思写作中所占的比重不轻,是广大考生不可忽略的一般月份。常见 的出题思路有两大类,一是讨论基础设施的功能和发展方向,如图书馆和博物馆的功能, 改善教育和医疗设施的方法,二是讨论政府对基础设施建设和发展的责任及措施,比如医 疗、教育、体育、公路建设、科研、人口数量以及住房问题。 一般来讲,考官的出题重点是在第二种思路上,即侧重讨论政府在基础设施建设中的职能 问题。针对这类题目要特别注意提问方式,抓住问题核心,因为有的题是考察政府解决困 难的方式,有些题是考察某项基础设施建设是否改由政府负责,而有些则是关于政府是否 有权控制和决定某项事务,不同的提问方式,讨论的重点也该不同,不要鸡同鸭讲。而且 具体问题不同,政府所起的作用和采取的措施也是大相径庭的。 8)健康、家庭与社会问题 健康、家庭与社会问题在历次考试中所占比例约为 15%,这类话题的最大特征是覆盖面广、 命题角度多,是雅思议论文的重头戏。这类话题中出现最多的是犯罪问题,包括老年人在 家庭中的作用,人口老龄化的利弊,不尊重老年人的原因和影响,快餐对家庭和社会的影 响,进口食品的利弊,空运果蔬的利弊;而其他的话题有公路安全、税收、农业的发展、 汽车的使用、改善公共健康的方法、金钱的使用、提高发展中国家生活水平的方法、男性 和女性对国家的领导等。 9)艺术与体育 艺术与体育类的话题在雅思议论文中属于出现率较低的一类。该类话题历年考试的主要命 题方向有如下几个:艺术及艺术家的重要性、音乐对社会和个人的影响、运动员和娱乐工 作者与其他行业人群的收入比较、取得体育成就的决定因素、艺术家是否有言论自由、房 屋的建造是重使用目的还是重外观形态等。 10)抽象名词类话题

一般的考查内容可以分为两大块,时间类和非时间类。时间类的考题命题方向有历史的作 用、现在和未来的重要性、童年和学生时代对人的影响、节日的作用等;非时间类的话题 主要包括,快乐的来源、衡量国家成功的标准、时间对服装的影响、变化的利与弊等。 抽象名词类话题,难就难在“抽象”两字上,写出来的文章很容易让考官觉得很空洞,不知 所云,缺乏足够的说服力。解决这个问题的方法是,尽可能地让抽象问题具体化,把抽象 的概念落实到具体的事情和实例上,使抽象和具体达到一定的平衡,我们用下面这道雅思 议论文题目来进行说明。 雅思写作评分标准中的高分密码 从雅思四项评分标准提出写作高分作文的基本原则。 雅思写作高分密码原则一:题目为中心 在四项评分标准中第一项是 Task Achievement / Response. (任务完成)。雅思写作,观点 无所谓对错。关键是要切题,言之有理,言之有物,能够自圆其说就好。但是,烤鸭一定要 按照题目的要求写作。简言之,就是要明确回答问题和充分论证问题。明确回答问题即你的 论证须涵盖题目的所有要求, 文章立场要力求清晰。 如果通篇文章找不到作者对于一个观点 的看法是很难折服考官的。 雅思写作最参见的提问角度有三种, What are its causes and what measures should be taken to solve it? (分析问题解决问题),discuss both views and give your opinion ?(平衡两边 写) 以及 to what extent do you agree or disagree? (让步反驳) .这些提问都有典型的信 号词。行文时在首段尾句要明确表明自己的立场或是写作目的。在尾段的观点总结句还要 再次重申观点,总结理由。 1)现在我们来看看让步反驳类话题主题观点句的写法: 题目: Housing shortage in big cities can cause severe consequence, some people think that only the government can solve the problems. To what extent do you agree or not?大城市的住房短缺可 以引起严重的后果,有人说只有政府才能解决这个问题,是否同意? 解析:该题目中有关键性的信息词 only, 这个表示绝对性的词汇过于武断,很难令人信 服,但是该观点又有其合理成分。综上分析,文章推荐首段尾句写作如下: As I see it, there is an element of truth in this opinion, yet it is not completely true. This essay aims to explore the roles that governments play in the process of resolving housing shortage and other means available. 在我看来,这个观点有合理成分但是又不完全正确,这篇文章将要探 讨下在解决住房短缺的过程中政府扮演的角色以及其他的可行的方法。 2)另外,要留意的是论证的过程不可以偷换概念。

例如:More working people are busy with work and have no time to spend with their families and friends. Why does this happen? What are the effects on family life and society as a whole? 人们 忙于工作,没有时间和家人和朋友分分享,原因和何在,对于家庭和社会的影响? 解析:该题目的提问十分清晰,要求论证的是家庭关系不紧密的原因和影响。结果有的却写 成了分析问题解决问题, 还有烤鸭分析现代生活的快节奏是引起家庭纽带不紧密的原因, 此 原因很合理,可是余下的部分考生却偷换了概念,大谈特谈快节奏生活的利好和弊端,那自 然就已偏题甚远。 3)充分论证问题就是要用例证,反证,再解释等写作手段去支持主题论点或者反驳不支持 的观点。在近期的雅思作文中,题目总越来越多的要求用例证去支持观点,这就要求烤鸭有 意识的分类整理各个写作话题的例证。 例如: Today, more and more developing countries are expanding tourist industry. Why is the case? Do you regard as positive or negative? 现今, 很多国家发展旅游业的原因, 你认为有利还是有 不弊? 解析:分析该题目,推荐的写作思路是谈及发展旅游业的原因,在分别论证其利好和弊端, 作者的观点应以支持为主,对于弊端可以提出建议的解决途径。 分支观点的支持句例证如下: The most striking merit of boosting tourism is that it could generate immense economic value. South Africa could severe as a perfect example, which used to poverty-stricken and behind place. As tourism booms, it now becomes one of the most promising and eye-catching scenic spots. When tourists do their sightseeing, they will buy local souvenirs, dine in restaurants and seek accommodations, hence, the prosperity of tourism spurs national economy and multiplies tax revenue. 发展旅游业的最显著的利好就是能够创造经济价值。 南非就是很好的例子, 过去的南非落后 贫穷,旅游业的发展使得南非成为最有前景和惹眼的旅游地之一。当游客观光游览之时,会 购物,就餐,住宿等,因此旅游业的繁荣刺激了国民经济,增加了税收。 雅思写作高分原则二:逻辑为纲要 雅思写作的第二项评分标准为 Coherence and cohesion(内容连贯与篇章衔接)。其实,无论 是英语写作还是汉语写作, 都讲究一个谋篇布局的逻辑清晰, 都讲究一个论证过程的起承转 合。很多烤鸭的英语作文失分体现在行文的逻辑矛盾以及结构松散。在改写的雅思作文中, 有的文章在首段提出支持题目观点, 论证结束后却是在反驳观点。 还有文章只是简单句的堆 砌组合而非衔接紧密的锻炼。其弊病在于文章在宏观和微观上都缺少清晰的布局。因此,雅 思写作的第二项高分密码为逻辑为纲要。宏观上,雅思文章都应该应分成三部分,即首段, 主体段(主体段可以根据不同题目再进行细分),尾段。首段提出观点,主体段论证观点, 尾段再次亮明观点,这种逻辑结构前后呼应,在议论文写作中十分有效。微观上,论证的 过程要力求清晰有序。具体体现在各句间以及各段间要有清晰衔接词汇。建议烤鸭按功能 归类整理各类路标词汇。在平常的写作训练中就注意文章的连贯与篇章的衔接。雅思议论

文考试是最多的,它的准备首先是逻辑结构。也就是说你必须知道议论文分三部分,每部分 有哪些思路(每条思路有哪些句型),这才是重点。议论文的中间段落是拿高分的重点。一般 来讲有两种结构模式:立论和驳论。立论的结构是这样的:(分论点)……In other words(解释 论证)……For example(举例论证)As a result(影响/结果)……Conversely(强对比论证)……这是 三种最基本的论证方法。可以用一种,也可以用两种或三种。另外一种是驳论:Some people think that (敌人的观点)……, because they think(敌人简单的论据)……However, they are oversimplifying the situation. In fact, (敌人的第一条错误)…….In addtion,(敌人的第二条错 误).Last but not least, (敌人的第三条错误)…….反驳的时候说两句话还是三句话可以酌情处 理。结尾段重申观点…两个优缺点综合考虑,趋利除弊…长远影响/解决措施 现在以让步反驳来举例: 题目: Some people think that maintaining public libraries is a waste of time because computer technologies have already replaced its function? To what extent do you agree or disagree? 有人认 为计算机科技已经取代了图书馆的功能是否同意? 宏观布局: 首段:背景介绍 + 有待反驳的观点 + 写作意图(明确表达不支持或是不完全支持) 二段:有待反驳的观点及其合理性 三段:反驳对方观点 + 提出自己的观点 尾段:让步对方观点的合理性,强调我方观点。 具体论证:(三段反驳) Yet, on no account can we lose sight of the immense value of libraries. Firstly, although it is easy to acquire and utilize e-books, it is far from easy, for millions people, to change their deeply-rooted habits of reading in libraries. Still, libraries could serve the function of communication and entertainment. A case in point is that many retired men and young adults like to pay a visit to library for recreation. Lastly, a good library with large collection of books is the symbol of top university as well as civilized city. The ideal academic atmosphere created by libraries can never be matched by e-reading. 翻译:然而,任何情况下我们都不能忽视图书馆的巨大价值,首先,尽管很容易得到和使用 电子书籍,很多人难以改变根深蒂固的在图书馆中阅读的习惯。第二,图书馆是交流和休闲 的好去处,例如很多退休老人和年轻人都把去图书馆当成了享乐。第三,一个藏书丰富的图 书馆是名校和文明城市的象征。电子阅读永远不能营造图书馆的良好的学习氛围。 雅思写作高分密码原则三:词汇为亮点

雅思评分的第三项标准是 Lexical Resource(词汇资源)。遣词造句是行文的基石。言之无 文,行而不远。雅思写作好比盖楼房,再好的图纸也要靠优良的建筑材料才能筑起高楼,词 语就如同建造大厦时的砖瓦。 语言是思想的载体, 有文采的表达可以让文章在思想不变的情况下卓尔不群。 设想考官通篇 看到的都是基础词汇和口语词汇(good, bad, important, a lot of, I think)难免会有审美疲劳, 惯性地打出一个平均分。因此,高分密码的第三项为词汇为亮点。 雅思写作用词原则有三,精准性,丰富性,独特性。 汉语和英语写作都讲究一个达义,词本无意,意由语生。用词第一原则就是选择最贴近语 境的词汇。比如,剑桥 7 册勤奋和天赋哪一个更加重要的满分范文中,学习不同的技能作者 的翻译是 acquire different skills, 通过个人的努力去学习知识和技能非常准确的用词就是 acquire. 同理,在表达不利于的时候,由于宾语不同,动词的选择也讲究一个贴切。有害健 康推荐用 undermine one‘s health (undermine 有逐渐损害的含义) 破坏经济推荐用 cripple the , economy (cripple 有严重削弱的含义),破坏环境推荐用 ruin the environment(在官方文体 中该搭配十分常见)。 用词的第二原则是避免词穷,积累相关语义场。在剑桥 7 册勤奋和天赋的范文中,作者就 用 innate talent, talent that are inherited via genes, nature, natural talent 来代替了题目指令中的 people are born with certain talents. 同理,在表达贫困这个概念的时候,不仅仅是有 poor 唯一 的表达,同义词就有 needy, impoverished, poverty-stricken, 推荐短语就有 live in extreme poverty , suffer from poverty, come from humble background 等。 用词的第三原则是熟练使用个性表达,例如写增加自信,我的第一选择就是 indoctrinate confidence into oneself, 写使快乐,我的第一选择就是 be intoxicated by,写擅长于,我的第一 选择就是 be apt at。其实,大量精彩的语料的输出唯有靠大量精彩的语料的输入。―有诗书 气自华。‖ 用词的精准,丰富和个性来自润物细无声的阅读积累和词汇课程的学习。强烈建 议烤鸭们建设自己的写作语料库。推荐大家精读剑桥各册的阅读文章,也推荐大家研读各 国元首的演讲稿,更推荐大家欣赏写作名家的经典范文。在阅读的同时还要随时做摘抄, 积极背诵。 精彩语料库的建设定能帮助烤鸭们处理相关主题时高屋建瓴, 自然也能支撑烤鸭 们东施效颦地写出美文。 雅思写作高分密码原则四:句型为基础: 雅思写作的第四个评分标准是 Grammatical Range and Accuracy (语法范围与精确性)即看 在句子和结构的选择上是否多样化,语法是否准确。雅思写作是规定时间内的写作,题库又 浩如烟海。 快速流利的写作唯有靠储备多样的写作样句式因此, 高分密码的第四项为句型为 基础。建议准备文章开头结尾及起承转合的基本句型,准备表达赞成或反对的精彩句型。准 备表示分析问题,谈及影响和解决问题的写作句型。同时,句型准备时要简单句和复杂句穿 插使用,句子成分上可修饰到极限。 雅思高分作文的一个原则就是要淡化模板痕迹,但是,淡化模板不是不写模板。

例如,在剑桥七册 7.5 分的是否支持固定刑罚的范文中,作者开篇就用到了备好模板句型, Fixing punishments for each type of crime has been a debatable issue. There are many arguments supporting both views, those for and those against fixed punishments.可见, 模板句型可以使文章 思路清晰,字数饱满。以大多中国考生的水平,还很难做到在考场上随心所欲的传情达意。 所以,针对不同题型的个性模板句型还是要准备的,不过,模板句型要力求个性和灵活。另 需特别注意的是,若模板句型中多复杂句或亮点词汇,相反,烤鸭自己填空的词句却逢写必 错,就会造成文章语言风格不统一。句式的准备要符合自己的写作水平。 下面列出笔者备好的写作句型,以期给烤鸭们一些启示。 1)背景介绍: There is an increasing tendency in today‘s campus that many college undergraduates would only opt for courses that appeal to them. (选课话题:大学是要教授学校规定的课程,还是学生感兴 趣的课程) 2)争议焦点: Perhaps no issue has led to such endless debate as to whether or not students should be sent to boarding schools. (教育话题:孩子们应不应该读寄宿学校) 3)亮明观点: Although animal experimentation sounds appealing to some extent, I still strongly frown on this proposal. (动物话题:小动物试验是否合理) 4)支持观点: Granted, millions of merits could be gained via having a break from academic study after finishing high school. (教育话题:间隔年) 5)反对观点: Nevertheless, under no circumstances should we turn a blind eye to the underlying drawbacks triggered by imposing restrictions on aviation. (交通能源类:是否应该限制飞机旅行) 6)提出例证: From our own school experience, it is easy to find plenty of evidence to support the view that many seemingly ungifted children could be instructed to be fluent speakers of English with continued teaching and guided practice.(教育类:没有语言天赋的孩子要不要学习外语) 7)反证对比:

A young adult who passes directly from school to university is rather restricted in terms of mental horizons and knowledge scope. On quite the contrary, it is self-travel and working experiences that forge one‘s fortitude as well as mature one‘s thought. (教育类:间隔年) 8)总结观点: In light of above-mentioned arguments, one may easily concludes that it exerts positive impacts on students‘ personality when living on campus, while its potential demerits should be emphasized and resolved. (教育话题:孩子们该不该读寄宿学校) 简言之,依据四项评分标准,高分密码的四项原则为:题目为中心,逻辑为纲要,词汇为亮 点,句型为基础。不为失败找借口,只为成功找方法。将这四项原则谙熟于心,雅思写作的 备考就有了明确的方向。 写作要一个厚积薄发的过程。 烤鸭的路很艰辛, 但是我们要有坚信。 祝福大家考试成功。 雅思写作基本结构-四/五段 通过对历年雅思作文题型统计分析,题目内容一般是辩论型 argument 即一个观点的探讨, 或两种观点的比较或一个事物/现象的利弊的分析, 及解决问题型 (或叫作报告型) problem (effects/causes)+solutions 即一个现象/问题的原因及解决措施的分析,还有时前两者结合 在一起。 而辩论型题目的提问方式,一般有如下 4 种: 1) (To what extent) do you agree or disagree? 2)What is your opinion? What do you think? Whatdo you think it is positive or negative? 3 ) What are the advantages and disadvantages of something?/What are the benefits and drawbacks of something? 4)Discuss both sides and give give your opinion. 当我们看透所有的范文,可以发现雅思议论文思路非常简单,文章的结构无非如此四大部 分: 1) Introduce the topic+possible expansion + give your opinion. 引入话题+明确表明倾向性 ( 的观点) 2) Subtopic 1 +evidence+analysis+example+summary; subtopic 2 +evidence(两个分论点可 以放一起做第二段,也可以分为两段,都需要用因果/对比/举例等方法充分扩展) 3) Opposing argument(s) +evidence+ analysis/example;+ assessment(分析评价反方观点或 让步反方观点以平衡自我观点,防止绝对化) 4) Restate your viewpoint+ expansion/solutions(重申自己观点,并补充说明) (四段和五段式范文祥见考官范文 C5T2, C3T2,C3T3,C6T2,C6GB,C6T1,C7GB) 2. 四大类型大作文讲解(20mins)

利弊类,讨论类,表态类,和报告类 1)利弊类作文 ①问题提问的共性/定义:题目要求中包含了一件事情或一种现象的利弊,要求考生就某一 事物的好坏利弊或优缺点进行阐述,其中包括利弊罗列及及利弊对比。标志性的词语是:the advantages and disadvantages,或者表示积极消极的 positive and negative;动词基本上用的 是 compare, discuss, analyze,所以要求考生正反两方面要说到。经常题目要求给出自己的意 见,在最后一段经常表达利/弊大于弊/利,所以在论述利弊的二、三段根据自己的支持面可 以有侧重。也有一种不那么直接提问的,如:In some countries, it is now possible for people to buy a wide range of foods transported from all over the world. To what extent do the benefits of this development outweigh the drawbacks? 这种问题仍属于利弊类, 既可以说利大于弊, 又 可以弊大于利,只要把优缺点都说到言之有理即可。 (若两种事物的利弊像 international fast food and traditional food,the Internet and the school 讨论,二者各自的利就是对方的弊,他们是对立且互补的,不可以一种事物的本身的 利弊一起写,结尾各有利弊但要支持一个,互补) ②答题关键:利弊的比例分配是关键 ③这类作文最好采用四段式写法,并且进行驳论法: 开头引题,阐述现象;然后转承句子说明任何事物有利也有弊,如 As the saying/ proverb goes/says,―(谚语)…‖,the case is true with …或 there is no exception of…。 As everything has two opposite aspects/sides, When speaking of /referring to…/When it comes to…, I would say/believe/be of the opinion (held of/among 或 maintained by the majority) that…, A/the majority of people hold (the perspective)/maintain(the view/perception)/advocate/claim/would contend that…(问学生) 第二段阐述某事物/现象的 2/3 点好处(A+) ,采用举例或分项说明进行扩展,句式如 Some people believe…because…/in that…/, for+句子或介词 due to/owing to+名词或+the fact that+句子 (Generally speaking,或 It is widely acknowledged that) There are many/major benefits/ drawbacks/ merits/ demerits/ (un)favorable influences/ beneficial effects/detrimental effects of doing sth. 或 to do sth., the obvious of which is n. / to do sth. 第三段通过转承句,让步提出该现象或事物的另一方面—弊端(A-)2/3 点, (也可在分析 完后转折对其进行反驳) ,句型像 It may be true that…(总结上一段),yet, on the other hand,…。

In spite of /Despite +名词(总结上一段),on the other hand,…。 Compared with…, however, sth. carries/bores…. Sth., nonetheless, brings about limitations and drawbacks. 第四段表明自己倾向性的观点 A+, 利弊大小(surpass/ outweigh/ overtake/ exceed/ outbalance/ suppress)或折衷(whether sth… depends on the actual situation involved/in question.),再总结自 己观点的论据,并提出解决措施。 (见考官范文 C5T2) From/Taking into account/consideration/Considering what has been discussed above, my conclusion is that… (By way of conclusion,)It is reasonable (to believe/conclude) that… As discussed above, /As a conclusion, /All in all, (personally,)… 2006-05-30 International tourism has brought enormous benefits to many places. At the same time, there is concern about its impact on local inhabitants and the environment. Do the advantages of international tourism outweigh the disadvantages? 旅行已经逐渐成为人们生活中必不可少的一部分 an indispensable part of life,出国旅行视为一 种娱乐和消遣 entertainment and recreation. 国际旅行有助于经济的发展和文化的交流 cultural exchange.它的 prosperity 会给相关产业带 来丰厚 huge profits such as commerce, catering, accommodations and transportation; moreover, 了解 the beautiful landscapes and exotic cultures 让旅游者最直接有效感受,放松 为发展旅游而过度开发 exploit excessively 会破坏当地的 natural environment and cultural landscapes; furthermore,游客过多导致景区污染物和废弃物不断增加 二者都有,利大于弊,但需要(有条件的)If people could take proper measures to deal with its side-effects, it would bring more advantages.像 unless continuous efforts can be made to conduct education in environmental protection among the whole people from all walks of life, and enhance their consciousness of sustainable development, these side-effects could be solved. 2)讨论类作文(30%) 这种类型的写作任务要求考生对某些观点或现象/问题进行讨论,提问动词多为 discuss、 comment,讨论的范围可以是一种现象的两种观点 discuss both views,也可以是产生的影响 discuss the positive and negative effects,也可以只讨论利弊的一个方面。但应该有所侧重的 情况下兼顾正反两方面的观点。 讨论两种观点 discuss both views and give your opinion,应把两种观点的合理和不合理之处 都说, 哪怕你支持一方也不能忽略另一方的讨论。 再如题目没说具体讨论什么像 What is your comment on popularity of TV soap series?,可讨论流行原因,对公众的影响(正面和负面) , 也可从中选一两个作为重点讨论,都可,结论可褒可贬,可折中,也可提出新看法。 (见考 官范文 C6T2,C6T4)

像政府投资艺术,说艺术的作用,提高艺术的质量;但有人认为浪费钱,应该投教育和 poverty,是基本问题;最后同意投资艺术,是基础设施,保证稳定,但有条件的实施,有 闲钱时或征求大众意见 poll 同时警告艺术家不可粗糙 rough,政府立法监管。 作文的结构 一引题,接着可以暗示自己的倾向或转承下文,如 In the present age, …triggers/arouses a controversy. Various views exist as to…. It is always a hot/heated topic/discussion that…

The controvercy relating/concerning/involving… has been discussed (among the public)for many years/decades/for a long period of time/in recent years/in the contemporary period/society. 二、一边倒,论证自己赞同的观点, 或按照题目要求讨论事物的利/弊 It is obvious/clearly witnessed that… There is no doubt/denying that… First(ly),sth.… Undoubtedly,… 三、另一方观点。如(可用前面讲到的句式也可): It would be unimaginable if there were…. Critically speaking,…. It would be ridiculous to believe that…. By contrary, 四、结尾可以总结观点… 题干中明确提出一种现象/事物的对立的两种观点 discuss both views 考得最多,要求分别就 双方的观点讨论后,提出自己的(两者观点之间是互补的,是对一个事物的双边讨论) 。开 头可/不表观点(最好表达),在二三段讨论双方观点时不能出现 I think,因为是 some…, others…;在四段重述观点,并针对弊端提出 A+B=solutions,,有条件的实施,扬长避短 这种双边讨论的论述结构与利弊类似: 一段:背景+改写原文+提出自己的观点 二三段分别对双方观点进行剖析 最后一段总结利弊,用万能句提出解决措施 例如: 2007-01-20Some people think the government should pay for health care and education, but other people think it is not government‘s responsibility. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. (雅思考试从不否定政府责任和投资)

医疗教育作为 are valued as two major components in every nation, require strong capital support. 在谁买单争论。 政府 the authorities should shoulder the responsibility。是国家的领导者,只有保证了公民的健 康,国家才能 thrive and prosper; 教育是社会发展和国家进步的支柱,可 build a civilized and harmonious society;很多人承担不起,并且为全体居民提供大体均等的医疗和教育服务,普 通公民作为纳税人 tax,payer,已经 fulfill obligations, be entitled to enjoy welfare benefits. 国家医疗和教育的 ultimate objective 是 serve the people, 个人付,国家可把资金 invest fund into scientific researches, 为国家的发展作贡献;个人是医疗和教育的 direct and final beneficiary,理应个人付。公民是 recipients(举例教育,挣钱) As far as I am concerned,政府与个人配合 the gov… and the in…should share the responsibility of funding…. Specifically, 政府付 basic education, 父母或 bank 贷款 higher education。 As for the health care expenditure, it calls for joint unremitting efforts of governments, companies and individuals. 再例如: 题目:Some people think that the increase of cheap air travel has brought about many benefits while others argue that this development has nothing good but its drawbacks to the world‘s environment and resources。 Discuss these two points of view and give your opinion。 首段:The merits and drawbacks of the cheap air travel is a frequent topic of discussion when people are submerged by the attractive and beckoning information relating to the discounted air tickets online。 中间段 1:有些人说便宜机票好。第一,对乘客好,比如说……;第二,对航空公司好, 比如说……;第三,对目的地好,比如说…… 中间段 2:另一些人说便宜机票多了不好。第一,对航空公司不好……第二,污染了环 境…… 结尾:根据上面分析,我觉得便宜机票还是挺好的。 这篇文章看上去几乎是天衣无缝,有理有据,不卑不亢……但是,仔细看看本文的中间论 证段和结尾段,就不难发现,怎么自认为―便宜机票好‖,却又在中间段分析―便宜机票不好‖ 的段落里说得头头是道呢?以子之矛攻子之盾? 在这种体型上往往大家的作文思路宏观把握,也就是所谓的―谋篇‖出现了问题。 我们一起来分析一下这篇文章。首先咱们一起来看看题目的问题方式:Discuss these two views and give your opinion。然后思考一下两个问题: 1. 讨论的两者观点是哪两者观点,存在在哪呢?

2.

要谁来讨论呢?

同学肯定能轻而易举的给出这两个问题的回答: 1. 2. 这两者观点当然就是题目中所说的两个观点啦。 当然是要求―烤鸭‖本人来讨论这两个观点啰。

可是同学有没有想过,既然是要我来讨论这两者观点(往往是矛盾的两个观点),那么我是 以一种客观的态度来讨论这两者观点呢还是应该以一种带有主观的自我感情色彩的方式来 讨论这两者观点呢? 当然,既然要―我‖来讨论这两者观点,肯定―我‖是一定带着自己主观色彩来评析这两者观 点的。就像两个人吵架,吵得不可开交,天旋地转,但是谁也说服不了谁,于是两人相约找 ―我‖评理。这就是传说中的(You)Discuss the two views 的来源。 因此上面这位同学的文章就出现了这样的问题:既然最后给出的自己观点是―便宜机票 好‖,那为什么在分析第二这观点―有些人说便宜机票不好只会给环境和资源带来消极影响‖ 的时候还要对其进行支持呢?逻辑不就有误了吗? 因此这篇文章的结构应该如此: 首段:The merits and drawbacks of the cheap air travel is a frequent topic of discussion when people are submerged by the attractive and beckoning information relating to the discounted air tickets online。(这句话写得还挺不错的) 中间段 1:便宜机票能带来很多的好处(topic sentence)+一方面给出行者带来了好处,节省 了钱财……另一方面给相关的产业经济也带来了好处,比如说…… 中间段 2:但是另外一些人却不这么想,他们认为便宜机票没啥好处,反而加剧了环境污 染,还破坏了环境。的确偶尔在极个别地区是存在这么点问题,但是总体来看,他们这样想 是很傻很天真的。事实上…… 结尾段:根据上面的分析,我认为这个便宜机票真的是太好了。。 请同学们注意,根据上面的分析我们可以得出这样的结论: 要―我‖对题目两个观点 A, B 加以讨论,那么自己对此事的态度决定着讨论题目两者观点的方式!!如果自己觉得观点 A 正确,就把它加以立论的写作;而往往与之相矛盾的 B 观点,就只能采用驳论的方式加以 论证。反之亦然。当然在某些情况下(题目中两者观点不互相矛盾),也有可能是觉得两者观 点都挺对的。则中间两段直接用立论的写作方式将两个观点进行支持的论证。如剑 7 Test 1 的大作文。 谋篇到位,文章的框架就能容易搭建起来。议论文的目的是让人看完之后感觉言之有物, 论之有理。老生常谈 Task2 写作结构总分总;须铭记这个所谓的―分‖应源自于首段的―总‖;

又推出末段的―总‖。这条宏观上的文章主线必须贯穿全文,否则论证只能是大而无当,漏洞 百出。 在缜密的文章框架搭建好的前提下, 剩下的只是在这样的结构中添加进去适当的句子 就大功告成了。

3)表态类 ①即提出一种观点,然后要求考生就这个观点发表自己的看法,可攻击或维护或批评或接 受。标志语 Do you agree or disagree?这种考得最多(多只有同意或不同意一种选择)To what extent do you support the..? What do you think of it?What is your opinion?(问你 的观点时,选择的范围会更大,可以赞同,可批判,可以功过三七、四六、五五,或发表与 题目中相反的观点) ②以事物的利弊性后果为核心思路和观点,可并考虑以让步段落/句子罗列反方观点(能否 assess opposite 观点,以让步实现) (部分同意但有弊端) (让步=反方观点+转折+我方观点) (见考官范文 C4T3, C3T2,C3T3, C6T1,C7GB) 题目像政府制定 healthy style,有钱并且科学,但不强制,负担;政府投资核电站有好处,清 洁,但有 risky,需要注意保护 像 Research indicates that characteristics we are born have much more influence on our personality and development than any experiences we may have in our life. Which do you consider is the major influence? Some people think that the popularity of TV has affected the close relationship between family members and friends. What is your opinion? 一段,可以先引题,点出别人的观点,提出自己的观点 Some people say that…,while I stand on… I fully agree with the point that 二段(也可写两段)自己观点的展现+证明、解释、说明 三段让步段写一些自己不同意的方面,两到三句(若文中是正反两方面的观点,可以这段写 的更长) 四(/五)段回顾点题 4)报告类(问题+对策) (15%) ①综合分析题目中给出的某种问题、情况、现象的背后原因或相关因素,或产生的问题、 影响, 并且多要求提出解决措施, 标志词 give the reasons for…, explain the causes、 why…, give your suggestions…。 (解决措施是关键)在提措施时要客观,像―措施在于…,以下几种 方法可以帮助解决…‖

②解法:分别从社会,团体和个人三方面叙述原因,最后一段写措施;也可在叙述每一个 原因之后紧接着叙述措施(二,三段,四段写三个原因+措施) ;也可二段把各原因写一起,三 段写措施。 最后一段可写: a,解决问题的重要意义 b,不解决问题的重大危害 (范文祥见 C4T4) 例如:第一段 引题描述现象,转引下文: 引出问题+总论点 The reasons/causes seem to lie in the following aspects/ can be listed as follows. There are ...reasons to explain it. 二,三,四段说明原因,并解释扩展 五段措施 2 个左右并进行解释;需要的话,写问题的解决意义/不解决的危害,一起 make joint/concerted efforts 3. 雅思作文审题的技巧 (20mins) 拿到题目首先要认真审题。 很多考生认为只要是把字数写够, 用了一些比较高级的词汇和复 合句就算完成了任务。 其实, 这种想法指导下的写作在实际考试中很容易使考生忽视把握论 证的方向,造成写作扣题不严密,论点表述不完整,更严重还会导致跑题。最近雅思作文题 目中争论的焦点难以把握。很多考生看到题目中认识的单词,然后就发挥自己想象,天马行 空下笔就写。但是这样的作文无论语言质量多高,也拿不到好的分数。只有把握题目争论重 心,才能保证论证有的放矢,获得高分。 例子 1: Air transport is increasingly being used to export many types of fruits and vegetables to countries where those plants can‘t grow or are out of season. Some say that it is a good thing, but others con sider that such use of air transport can‘t be justified. Discuss both views and give your own opinio n. 空运各种蔬菜和水果到不出产这些蔬菜水果的国家或者到这些东西已经过季了的国家越 来越司空见惯,有人赞同,有人反对,请评价双方论点并给出自己的看法。 题目分析: 这篇作文为 2004 年 9 月 18 日 A 类雅思考题。题目表面是谈论蔬菜水果和空运的话题,实 际上考生需要明白蔬菜、 水果作为食品属于商品, 商品的一个特点就是要满足不同层次的消 费需要。作为一种高成本的服务方式,空运满足的是高消费水平人群,而其他低成本运输服 务方式满足的是普通消费水平人群。 明白了这一点, 就很容易分别解释、 评价两种对立论点, 最后进行总结,提出自己看法。 很多经验不足的考生审题时思路往往不清楚, 抓不住问题的主要和本质方面。 针对本题的飞 机和蔬菜,有的考生可能会描写飞机运输的便利性,然后联想到飞机的发明、对人类的贡献 等等和题目关联性很小的话题上, 也可能会有考生花费很多篇幅讨论蔬菜和水果对人体健康 的重要性,诸如此类的论点都属于跑题。 例子 2: Traffic and housing problems in major cities could be solved by moving large companies and fact ories with their employees to the countryside. To what extend do you agree or disagree? 交通和住 房是城市的主要问题, 把大公司和工厂及员工移到郊区可能解决该问题, 你同意这样的看法

吗? 题目分析: 该题目提出大城市交通堵塞和居住紧张问题,建议解决方案是把大公司和员工转移到郊区。 根据我们的生活经验和知识, 造成上述问题原因可能有很多, 文中并没有提供任何证据说明 大公司和其员工是造成问题的主要原因。 考生可以提出一些其他原因证明这个解决方案可能 不会奏效。这些原因可以是:交通设施落后 old transport infrastructure、交通管理水平低下 poor traffic control、城市人口增长过快 fast population growth、住房供应不 足 inadequate housing supply 等。如果考生不深入思考这个题目可能会提出类似以下错误论 点: The city, large corporate, and factories could suffer substantial financial loss because business ope ration is usually more difficult in faraway location than in the city. 考生可能认为:如果公司赔钱,城市的税收收入减少,政府就更没有钱来改善交通和居住条 件了。 但是这种思维不能直接解释把公司或者工厂移到市郊去是否能解决问题, 所以是不适 合作为论点的。还有人考虑到这样做可以增加当地就业、造成环境恶化、或者迁移带来的公 司运营成本增加等等论点都不属于本题讨论之列。 在审题的过程中,特别是阅读题目内容比较长的题目时,考生可以在自己认为重要的单词、 短语下面做标记。 做标记的好处是重点的部分一目了然, 在考虑题目的时候, 尽量考虑全面, 这样写作的信息和线索才会比较多。 看完题目后,要迅速的考虑自己对题目的论点是什么。论点可以是赞成,可以是反对,也可 以是部分赞成部分反对。雅思考试的题目往往叙述比较宽泛,没有加太多限制条件。考生要 关注的不是论点新颖与否,也不是论点正确与否。特别要注意的是:论点只是给后面的论 述定下一个方向和基调, 所以考生不要为了追求论点过于花费时间和心思, 这样对于写作新 手来说结果往往是得不偿失。 例子 3: Now many people think that we are spending too much money and time on protecting wild animals. The money should be better spent on human population. Do you agree or disagree? 目前 很多人认为我们在保护野生动物上花费的太多, 这些钱如果用在人身上会更好。 你赞成还是 反对? 题目分析: 本题为 2003 年 12 月 13 日的一道考题,题目把保护动物和促进人类发展两个表面矛盾的目 的对立起来。如果深入考虑这两个目的,我们可以发现动物保护和人类发展之间虽然相互 独立,但并不矛盾。考生可以分别陈述、论证保护野生动物的理由,最后在加以归纳。也可 以采取相反的论点并加以论证。 有的同学在论述支持野生动物保护的论点中提到:Scientists have found that the body of certain kinds of animal contains genes that are similar to those of human beings and could be used to treat diseases in the future.

考生如果继续探讨动物基因和人基因的相似性, 就偏离了题目要求的重心。 应该考虑的重点 要遵循:因为动物基因对治疗人类疾病可能有帮助,所以保护野生动物是有益的,反之则 可能对人类自身产生负面影响这个大思路。 具体题目审题技巧 Some people think that universities should provide graduates with the knowledge and skills needed in the workplace. Others think that true function of a university should be to give access to knowledge far its own sake, regardless of whether the course is useful to an employer. What, in your opinion, should be the main function of a university?(2007 年 1 月 13 日) 正确主题句: 1)我认为,大学的主要职能应该是传授理论知识。 2)大学要着重培养学生工作所需的知识和技能。 跑题主题句: 1)我认为,大学生的主要任务是学习理论知识。 2)大学的主要职能是培养学生的综合能力,而不仅仅是理论知识。 3)大学设立专业课是为了培养学生工作所需的知识和技能。 Some employers think formal academic qualifications are more important than life experience and personal qualities when looking for an employee. What are the cause of this phenomenon and do you think this is a positive development? (2007 年 1 月 13 日真题) 正确主题句: 1)正规学历并不是衡量人才的唯一标准。 2、工作经验和个人素质能够有助于工作的顺利开展。 跑题主题句: 1)企业评定优秀员工的标准不应该仅仅局限于学历。 2)对于一些招聘者而言,应聘者的学习能力比工作经验更重要。 3)员工如果不提高个人素质,能很难顺利的开展工作。 Some people think that economic progress is the only way to measure a country‘s success, while others think that there are other factors which can be used to measure a country‘s success. What are these factors? And among them, which one is more important than others? (2008 年 10 月 25 日真题) 正确主题句: 1)我个人认为经济进步绝不是衡量一个国家成功的唯一标准。 2)人们的居住条件、生活方式、生活质量也会反映一个国家的成功程度。 跑题主题句: 1)一个国际经济进步体现在很多方面。 2)对于一个国家的成功程度进行评估,利大于弊。 秉着―一手抓核心词汇,一手抓核心要求,两手都要抓,两手都要硬的原则。 核心词——就是作文题目最重要的,起决定性作用 的词汇或短语。它定了我们在整篇文章 中围绕着某一个话题的哪一个方面, 或是朝哪一个方向展开讨论。 常见的核心要求有 Do you agree or disagree, what‘s your opinion, discuss the advantage and disadvantage, what are the causes of this phenomenon,等等。还是以第二道真题为例,题目中的核心要求是 What are the causes of this phenomenon and do you think this is a positive development?可见, 该题的核心要 求有两个:一是,要求考生分析这种现象的原因;二是,要求考生表明自己的观点,说明这 种现象有没有产生积极的影响。

解题技巧:准确区分事实(fact)和观点(opinion) 。 Some eople think that economic progress is the only way to measure a country‘s success, while others think that are other factors which can be used to measure a country‘s success. What are these factors? And among them, which one is more important than others? 首先,我们通过浏览题目,很容易发现题干中的两个 opinion: 1)Some people think that economic progress is the only way to measure a country‘s success.一些 人认为经济进步是衡量一个国家成功的唯一标准。 2)Others think that there are other factors which can be used to measure a country‘s success.其他 人认为还有其他的因素可以用来衡量一个国家的成功。 其次,我们通过对比两个 opinion,发现第一个观点中出现了“only”这个词,因此,语气是比 较强烈、比较极端的;而第二个观点中就是一般的表述,语气比较客观或委婉。一般来说, 语气比较强烈或极端的观点(opinion)往往比较片面,偏离事实(fact) ;而语气比较委婉 的观点(opinion)往往比较客观,更接近事实(fact)。因此,第一个观点是比较片面的,远离了 事实;而第二个观点是比较客观的,更接近事实。这样,考生如果彻底同意第一种观点, 会远离事实,得出比较狭隘的结论。 ①对于利弊类的作文 Memorization of information by frequent repetition, namely rote learning, plays a role in many education systems. To what extent do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? (2008 年 12 月 6 日真题) 正确审题: 本题中的题干中陈述的是一个 fact 事实,包括两个方面:memorization of information by frequent repetition 通过不断的重复来记住信息 plays a role in many education systems 在很多教育系统中发挥作用 在此基础上我们可以确定题目中的核心词是 by frequent repetition,也就是说我们要重点讨论 的内容是: 通过死记硬背这种方式记住信息, 而不是分段记忆、 联想记忆、 选择记忆等方式。 题目的核心要求是对这个事实的优缺点进行论述。这样,我们以题干中的已知事实为依据, 初步确定这样的思路: 先承认题目中的事实, 即当前在很多教育系统中记住信息的方式是死 记硬背;然后说明这种事实的优势;再阐述这种事实的劣势;最后总结全文,说明教育系 统究竟应该采取什么样的教育方式。 对于这种利弊类的作文,考生在审题时很容易走进两个误区:一是,只对前面的 fact 进行论 证或评价,而忽视了对优点和缺点的阐述;二是,看到题干当中有―outweigh‖,就误以为只要 谈到 advantages 就可以了。因此,对于这种利弊类的作文,重点还是应该放在对优点和缺点 的描述上;另外,To what extent do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages 和 discuss the advantages and disadvantages 是差不多的意思。 Todat, people can work and live in anywhere they want, because of the improvement of communication technology and transport. Do andvantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages? (2009 年 1 月 17 日真题) 错误审题: 本题题干中陈述的一个 fact 事实,包括两个方面: people can work and live in anywhere they want 人们能够在他们所希望的任何地方工作和居 住。 The improvement of communication technology and transport 通信技术和运输工具的发展 很显然,如果按照考生的审题结果,这篇文章又出轨了。本题题干中的确陈述一个事实,核 心词是―people can work and live in anywhere they want‖, 而题目的方向, 该考生将核心要求也

弄错了,题干中的问题是 Do anvantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?该句 为一个一般疑问句,实际上是让考生判断是利大于弊,还是弊大于利,所以是要求考生将 利弊进行比较,而不是简单地对利弊进行陈述就了事了。 ②对于表态类的作文 An american film actor once said, ―Tomorrow is important and precious.‖ Some people think individuals and society should pay more attention to the future than to the present. Do you agree or disagree?(2008 年 2 月 16 日真题) 【正确审题】本题的题干中包含一个 fact 事实和一个 opinion 观点: 事实:An American film actor once said, ―Tomorrow is important and precious.‖ 一个美国电泳明星说过:―明天是非常重要和宝贵的。‖ 观点: individuals and society should pay more attention to the future than to the present 个人和社 会应该更关注将来,而不是当下 很显然,该事实是客观存在的;而观点中出现了 should,语气较强烈,偏离了事实,我们在 确定初步思路的时候就不能切底同意或反对,一定要看到它的合理性和局限性。 在此基础上我们可以确定题目中的核心词是 pay more attention to,也就是说我们要重点讨论 的内容是:明天和今天相比,明天更重要,而不是不重要或一样重要。题目的核心要求是要 考生表态——对这种观点是支持还是反对。这样,我们就可以通过审题初步确定这样的思 路:以题目中已知的事实为依据,先承认该观点的正确性;然后还是以已知的事实为依据, 说明该观点的局限性:美国电影明星只是说明天很重要,并没有说明天比今天重要,因此这 种观点是对这句话的误解;最后再以更多的事实为依据,进一步确定这种观点的局限;最后 总结全文,表明自己的态度。 对于这种表态类的作文,考生在审题时很容易忽略题目中的核心要求:Do you agree or disagree?一是,考生会以为只要在最后表态,说明自己是同意这种观点,还是不同意这种观 点就行了。这样是远远不够的,如果最后的结论是同意,那么考生之前就要用事实证明,为 什么这种观点是正确的?同样的, 如果最后的结论是不同意, 那么考生在作文前面通过哪些 事实对这种观点进行了反驳?二是,考生误认为 Do you agree or disagree 和 What’s your opinion 对考生的要求是一致的。因此,在写作的时候没有表明自己的态度,而是直接给出 了自己的观点。这种忽视考官智商的行为,带来的后果当然是很严重的! Many people say that we have developed into a ―throw-away society‖, because we are filling up our environment with so many plastic bags and rubbish that we cannot fully dispose of. To what extent do you agree with this opinion and what measures can you recommend to reduce this problem?(2005 年 8 月 6 日真题) 【正确审题】本题的题干中陈述的是一个 opinion 观点,其包括两个方面: We have developed into a ―throw-away society‖我们已进入了一个―废品社会‖ We are filling up our environment with so many plastic bags and rubbish that we cannot fully dispose of 我们让环境中充斥着很多不能完全处理的塑料袋和垃圾 该观点的语气比较客观, 因此很接近事实。 因此, 可以用大量的事实来对其进行正面的论证。 同时, 我们可以确定题目中的核心词是 plastic baga and rubbish that we cannot fully dispose of, 即我们不能完全处理的塑料袋和垃圾。因此,作文要讨论的重点应该是:我们的环境中充 斥着很多不能完全处理的塑料袋和垃圾,这究竟是不是一个事实?而这又要分两个方面来 讨论:1、随着社会的发展,塑料袋和垃圾的数量是不是增加了;2、这些垃圾袋是不是不 能完全处理。本题的核心要求包括两个方面:一是,要考生表明是否同意这种观点;二是, 要考生提出一些建议来解决这个问题。

③对于报告类作文 报告类作文中的核心要求一般都不止一个, 要么要求考生陈述产生这种现象的原因并提出解 决措施,要么要求考生表明书否同意某一种观点,并给出自己的解决建议,要么要考生分析 某个事实的后果并提出解决方案等。因此,考生对这种议论文题进行审题时,常常不知道究 竟该以哪个核心要求为主来展开论述。其实,这个问题相当简单。大家看看雅思考官的范文 就知道,解决建议一般都出现在作文的最后,而且是点到即止。因此,我们写作的重点还是 要放在对原因、后果、影响等的论述上。 ④对于这种讨论类的作文 Some people believe that teenagers should learn all school subjects while others think that students should focus on the subjects that are good at or that they are interested in. discuss both views and give your own opinion. (2008 年 6 月 5 日真题) 【正确审题】本题的题干包括两个观点: Teenagers should learn all school subjects 青少年应该学习所有的学校课程 Students should focus on the subjects that they are good at or that they are interested 学生应该集 中学习那些他们比较擅长或比较感兴趣的课程 在此基础上我们可以确定题目中的核心词是 subjects that they are good at or that they are interested in, 即他们比较擅长或比较感兴趣的课程。也就是说我们要重点讨论的内容是:学 生要学习的究竟是不是他们比较擅长或比较感兴趣的课程?那些不擅长或不感兴趣的是不 是就不该学?题目的核心要求是要求考生对两种观点进行讨论,并给出自己的观点。 对于这种讨论类的作文,考生在身体时容易出现的问题是:看到题目中出现的 Discuss both views,就认为对两种不同的观点的陈述所占用的篇幅一定是相当地。其实,我们比较倾向于 哪一种观点,就可以罗嗦一点,反之,就可以简洁一点。另外,给出自己的观点时也不能太 惜字如金,用一句 I think 就想打发考官,那是远远不够的,你得先给考官一个理由! Some people argue that fittest and strongest individuals and teams can achieve the greatest success in sports. But other people think the success is much related to the mental attitude. Discuss both views and give your opinion. (2008 年 5 月 30 日真题) 【错误审题】本题的题干中包括两个观点: Fittest and strongest individuals and teams can achieve the greatest success in sports 最强健的个 人和团体才能获得运动上的最大成功 The success is much related to the mental attitude 成功更多的取决于精神状态 在此基础上我们可以确定题目中的核心词是 the success,即成功。 也就是说, 我们要重点讨论 的内容是:取得成功是由哪些因素决定的。题目中的核心要求是要考生对两种观点进行讨 论并给出自己的观点。 本题的审题失误在于确定了错误的核心词。 由于核心词决定了写作重点, 因此核心词的错误 将直接导致作文中心主题句的错误。本题的核心词是―the greatest success in sports‖,即运动上 的最大成功,作文内容应该围绕―取得运动上的巨大成功,是由体质决定的,还是由精神状 态决定的‖。考生由于漏掉了限定词,将―运动上的巨大成功‖扩大为―成功‖,很容易走上邪 路哦! Sample answer: In many places today, children start primary school at around the age of six or seven. However, because it is more likekly now that both parents work, there is little opportunity for children to stay in their own home up to that age. Instead, they will probably go to a nursery school when they

are much younger. Some people think that government should pay course fees for those who want to go to university. Do you agree or disagree? Sample answer: In recent years and universities have been raising their tuition fees to a record high in China, which indeed brings unimaginable hardships for the impoverished families both in rural and urban areas. To solve these problems, some suggest that the government should pay the course fee for those freshmen, as they once did.

4. 雅思作文首段的技巧 (10mins) 万事开头难,写雅思作文也不例外,以下就教你一些写好雅思作文首段的小技巧。一般包括 三部分:背景(引子) ;改写议题;亮出观点 要素之一: Restatement of the Topic (大作文的题目都会给出相关情景或话题,在首段中应 先对题目中的情景或话题进行展开。) 方法一:改写。即按照题目所给的内容,用不同的表达方法重新写一遍,千万不能抄袭。 但改一两个词不算改写,一定要将整个表达方式改掉。 方法二:自己展开。即根据题目所谈到的话题内容适当展开,简单谈谈目前社会中的情况 怎样。但不要谈得太多,更不能偏题。 要素之二:Express Your Opinion (大作文的题目中一般会问你 do you agree or disagree 或 what do you think 等,因此必须与之相对应地在首段中表明你的观点。) 方法一:中立观点。可以说某种做法既有好又有坏;对某种观点有人同意又有人不同意等等。 比较好的表达如 I partly agree with the opinion expressed above. 方法二:一边倒观点。即直截了当地说赞成某个观点或不赞成某个观点。 方法三:不表达观点。即不在首段明确地表达自己的观点,但必须要先分析一下,在最后 一段表明观点。 方法一在考试中用得多;方法二适中;方法三用得比较少。 要素之三:No Excessive Background (大作文首段中只要涵盖以上两要素即可,不要写过多 不相干的展开内容,更不要将理由写进去,否则主体段就没内容写了。) 1)开门见山,直接入题 一般大家常用的开头直接引入主题,第一句像

The issue/ problem/ matter/ phenomenon of /as to/ concerning/ involving 名词或 doing sth. has been widely concerned/ has closely drawn the public attention /has aroused (raised/ stirred)) the societal/ wider/ closer attention (than traditinally /in the past). The matter that(同位语从句…)/whether 主谓宾… is a/an controversial/sensitive/emotional one. (可加副词 constantly 或时间词 in recent times,动词变为 has been a…)或 is not a new one.(注 意若主句中的谓语前面的单词数量过长的话, 写倒装或改为主语从句或 there has been/existed a widely discussed topic that…句型比 people hold the perception that…高?)。 题目示例一:电视对儿童的影响?正面还是负面?你的观点 A. Television is the most popular form of entertainment in the modern household.(引入话 题)people of all ages use this medium to entertain themselves for an average of four hours a day.(发 展 话 题 )thus, television has had a tremendous influence on its viewers, especially children.(缩小话题范围指电视对孩子的影响)scientists now say that children can be negatively effected by constantly watching television.(继续缩小范围至电视对孩子的负面影响)。I take their side. B.We hear a lot about negative effects of television on the viewers. Obviously, televisions can be harmful if it is watched constantly. However, when television is watched in moderation, it is extremely valuable,(点名观点)as/for it provides relaxation entertainment and education. 题目示例二: Some people think that the government should not put money in building theaters and sports stadium; they should spend more money on education and medical care. A. Theaters and sports stadium are the most popular places in the modern society. People of all ages love to entertain themselves and enjoy the relaxation. Plus, as the desire for music and sports is increasing, the government ought to spend more money on that. B. Most people hold the point that theaters and sports are losing their importance as time passes by. It is no denying that modern people are leading an increasingly busy life. Nevertheless, not a single place can replace the status in helping people develop their physical body and mental condition like theaters and stadium. 练习: Many people consider the death penalty to be appropriate punishment in certain cases whilst others that there is never a reason for it to be used. What is your opinion? Sample answer: The issue of death penalty is an emotional one, with many people taking the attitude that it needs to be used both often and swiftly to deter crime. Others believe that in a so-called ―civilized‖ society, the death penalty is little more than barbarism. 点评:使用 the issue of …直接引入主题,接着通过把原题中的两种观点进行简单扩展把引 入的话题进行了扩展,注意 with 复合结构的使用。 People receive a lot of information from news reports presented by journalists. However, some people claim that we cannot believe the news that we are presented with. What is your opinion on the issue? In addition, what qualities do you think journalists should have? Sample answer: Living in an information age, we are all too often overloaded with various news in the newpapers,

on television and over the radio. But a large proportion of them prove to be forged or fabricated, such as the South China tiger scandal in 2007. So how much can we trust the news we are presented with? And what qualities should the journalists have? 2)转折对比入题 对于考试中的很多题目,我们可以不直接引入题中的核心事件,而先写跟题中相反的内容, 然后转折对比入题。例题 1 A report indicates that nowadays children are becoming more and more lazy, fat and unsociable. Discuss the reasons for this and give some proposals. Sample answer: The social and economic development should have resulted in a happier and healthier life for children. However, recently increasingly more parents are concerning their children have become lazy, fat and unsociable. 点评:题中为负面现象,我们可以从人们假设、想象的正面情况写起,那常用句型就是虚拟 语气了。 表示虚拟语气的句型: …should…have. However,… If …,…should have… 例题 2 The overuse of modern technologies in recreational activities makes human beings less creative. Do you agree or disagree? Sample answer: It is generally acknowledged that modern technologies in recreational activities have brough us (people) easier and more convenient life. However, to use them too often might result in the loss of creativity belonging to human beings. 例题 3 Some people suggest that more courses promoting the healthy psychological growth of students should be set up in high schools. They believe that such courses will help the students in their future careers. Do you agree or disagree? Sample answer: Recently, high school students have had quite a few problems concerning not only academic matter, but also psychic issues. To solve these problems, more courses promoting the healthy psychological growth of students have been proposed. 点评:题中是一正面建议,我们可以先写它所针对的负面问题,然后入题。 表示―解决问题‖: To solve/resolve/ cope with/ handle/ tackle/ combat/ fight against/conquer this problem 练习 使用转折对比入题法写作开头段。 Some people believe that children should be allowed to stay at home and play until they are six or seven years old. Others believe that it is important for young children to go to school as soon as possible. What do you think are the advantages of attending school from a young age?

大作文要求字数至少达到 250 字, 在写作中考虑到字数的合理安排, 第一段最好写 3-5 句话, 大约 40 字左右,并且切忌在第一段就掏心掏肺把什么话都说完。因此总结出大作文开首方 式通常有以下几种情况: 1) 题目中包含了背景信息( phenomenon ),有时也出现一些人的观点,并且题目中字数 较多。这种情况下最保险的办法是将题目中的背景信息及一些人的观点重新表达 ( paraphrase ),可以做 : ● 主动语态 <=> 被动语态 ● 主谓宾 <=> 主系表 ● 某些近义词互换 Example: At present, it is hard for college students to find jobs. Many people claim that college teachers should give priority to practical courses like computer science and business over such traditional ones as history and geography. To what extent do you agree? → The number of college graduates is surging while a substantial proportion of them have difficulties in finding employment after their graduation. Numerous people blame this on the university education and believe that more emphasis should be laid on practical courses such as computer science and business than on traditional courses like history and geography. 其后再加 考生自己的观点即可。 2) 题目中包含了背景信息,有时出现一些人的观点,但题目中字数较少,若直接重新表达, 字数凑不到 40 字左右。这种情况下推荐以下 2 种开首方式来保证字数: ◆ 把笼统信息细节化即通过举例来解释说明题目中的背景信息。 Example: International tourism has become a big industry in the world. Do the benefits outweigh the problems? → The acceleration of globalization and high-tech development contributes to International tourism‘s gaining momentum virtually all over the world. Each year , millions of tourists from other countries swarm into china to appreciate the scenery and Chinese traditional culture. 其后加 入考生个人观点即可。 ◆ 追溯历史,过去与现在形成对比。 Example:

International tourism has become a big industry in the world. Do the benefits outweigh the problems? → Prior to the early 1900s, the proportion of people traveling abroad was considerably low and the majority of them preferred domestic travel. However, the advent of the motorized flight has greatly changed our life and it makes international traveling more convenient. International tourism is gaining momentum and has become a big industry. 其后加入考生个人观点即可。 3) 题目中仅出现一部分人的观点,而没有背景信息。这种情况下,我们可以根据这部分人 的观点所涉及的信息在开首段附加对背景信息的描述。 Example: The best way to solve the world‘s environmental problem is to increase the price of fuel. Do you agree or disagree? → In the process of industrialization and urbanization, the scope of environmental problem facing the world is getting immense. From Mexico City and New York to Singapore and China new solutions to this problem are being proposed, tried and implemented. Some people believe increasing the price of fuel is the best approach to this problem. 其后加入考生个人观点即可。

5. 雅思写作议论文中间段落的论证方法(30mins) 1)写作手法:①分论点;②具体论据 雅思大作文的考察形式是议论文,既是议论文,势必设计一些话题。在近几年的考试中, 经过研究分析发现,雅思议论文最关注的是教育类的话题,此外科技类,媒体类,文化类, 政府类,交通类等都有牵涉。但是面对那么多的话题和题目,能够做到在几分钟之内就想 出充足合理有说服力的理由是很困难的一个任务。 况且有时考题所出的题目非常偏, 考生根 本无法想到任何相关的理由。 所以所谓的论据扩展难, 就是指考生在面对有些议论文的难题 时,毫无头绪,无法扩展出论据,因为雅思写作的考题有个特点是题目出的很细节,有些具 体抽象的话题也涵盖其中, 所以没有一定的积累的考生在面对这些问题的时候很难找到合理 的理由来进行支持,继而使文章内容浅显没达到要求而导致拿了低分。 一个段落就像一篇文章一样,也有主题句、 扩展句和结尾句。主题句是段落的核心,但要记住, 一个段落只有一个中心,这个中心要清晰地表达出来。扩展句围绕主题句进行叙述、说明或 论述,方法各异;结尾句对本段的内容进行总结,和主题句相呼应,引发读者对段落的进一步 认识;结尾句可有可无,视内容而定。 雅思议论文,不管是双边论证还是单边论证,论据的扩展是非常重要的,只有合理逻辑的对 一个理由进行论证, 才能说服考官相信你的论证是有理的。 而合理的扩展有了素材后还需要 一些方法的补充。

2)常见的方法有解释说明 (explanation) 举例子 、 (exemplification) 推因论果 、 (development by reason)列数据(raising figures) 、对比对照(contrast & comparison) 、让步(making concession) 、引用(quotation)等。接下来,我们先来熟悉一下方法的具体使用。 (1) 解释说明(explanation) This is to say, … To be more specific/ precise,… By this I mean,… By +n./doing, I mean…. That is (mainly)to say,…. This means that… 常见的关联词有: first, second, finally; for one thing, for another thing; on one hand, on the other hand,等,如: 中国学生思维方式有个最大的特点就是拐弯抹角, 不会开门见山, 这往往与西方人的思维方 式有着巨大的区别,西方人通常习惯一针见血,而不是含蓄的说话。这就导致很多考生在论 证过程中用讲道理的论证方法时容易出现离题偏题的现象, 从而降低考分。 比如来分析一下 ―the reason why it is difficult for university students to find a job after graduation‖, 学生的答案为 ―the increasing world population‖,考生给出答案后进行了分析,他认为人口多了,意味着大 学生人数增多,那就是说大四学生变多了,找工作竞争激烈了,所以他们找工作困难了,这 样就将看上去风马牛不相及的两个东西转了好几个圈终于联系在一起。 中国学生喜欢去研究 一个问题的根本原因,但事实上,这个原因与题目根本没联系,就可以被判定为离题,所以 还不如直接说―the increasingly fierce competition ‖,更有说服力。根据这一特色, 建议考生在 讲道理的时候只围绕 topic sentence 进行解释说明,这样就不会出现离题的现象了。我们看 下面一个 topic sentence,通过 explanation 来进行扩展。 e.g. The retired people tend to offer service for the benefits of the family and the community. 读完这个句子,我们可能对其中 the benefits of the family and the community 感到疑惑,到底 是什么利益,提供什么服务。 This is to say, the elderly always spend their time in taking care of the family and doing household chores for the family as well as organizing charitable activities for the community. 这样就能很好的对上述句子进行解释说明了。 再例如: Effective measures can be taken to protect our natural resources. On one hand, we should carry out campaigns to make people aware of the urgency of environmental protection; on the other hand, strict laws should be made to put the commercial fishing under control.

例如: Today more and more advertisements are seen on the TV screen. There are two reasons for this phenomenon. To begin with, they can meet the needs of manufactures. With the development of market economy, manufactures have to be more and more competitive, and advertising is one of the best ways to strengthen their competitive capacity. What's more, advertisements are also necessary to consumers. Advertisements can help the consumers keep informed about different products and offer them different alternatives when they just stay at home. (2) 举例子(exemplification) 句型: Taking… for example, … One particularly salient example of this is that…, One example of this is…, Another example is…; 常见的关联词有: for example, for instance; such as, To be specific, to illustrate,等, 举例分:①事实论证包括经历和数据 data,其中经历一定用一般过去时,要 reliable,有渗 透性(在因果,对比和让步时都可用举例);数据要有权威,核心的期刊或论文名称,具 体数据要婉转,“大约”②假设论证(常用):可考虑将事物的后果严重化以论证自我观点, 但要注意虚拟语气的使用;而对于好的事物的猜测不可用虚拟 ③相关论证(较难) e.g. Most parents tend to overuse punishment in their education of the kids. 看到这样一个句子,我们脑中第一步要想到一个具体的事件,再想具体的人,就可以得出下 面的例子。 For example, only because of the bad performance in primary school, the child of my neighbour was inflicted corporal punishment. In this case, it does nothing but harm to the child‘s physical and mental development. 从例子中得出一个结论,这样使得论证过程更加有说服力。 下面列举几题来熟悉一下此类题目: (1)Nowadays, some universities offer students skills that assist them to find employment, but some people believe that the main function of a university should be to provide students with access to knowledge for its sake. What is your opinion?

(2)In many countries the number of elderly people is increasing fast. Does this trend have more positive or negative effects on the society? (3) One long-distance flight consumes fuel which a cars uses in several years‘ time, but they cause the same amount of pollution. So some people think that we should discourage non-essential flights, such as tourist travel, rather than to limit the use of cars. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this view? 上面三个题目难点在于如何扩展文章。 一般考生拿到此类题目都有些不知所措, 不知如何扩 展正文的论据,觉得此类话题不熟悉,或者过于理论,没有支持的理由,比如第一题,通过 审题, 是关于大学传授知识和大学传授找工作的技能的双边论证, 很多考生认为大学本来就 是传授知识的地方,要找到合理的论据进行扩展非常困难。应对此类题目,就是要以具体对 付抽象和理论,考生可以列举一些例子,如通过大学的知识传授为将来的就业、生活的改 变以及心理上的成熟等都起了重要的作用,而大学传授技能也是由于就业的严峻形势所迫。 我们可以将提纲列举如下: It is believed that the basic mission of universities is to conduct research and provide education based on it. First, a good command of basic knowledge lays a solid foundation for other courses. Second, through basic and theoretical courses, students can learn to improve their self-study as well as problem-solving ability. On the other hand, university education should also prepare students for their future employment. As the employment competition is growing fierce, graduates have to learn skills to adjust themselves to the requirement. Moreover, university provides the students with environment where they can deal with some problems that they will meet in their future career. 考生面对第二题的时候,同样也有一个疑问,即人口老龄化对社会的积极影响。没错,老年 人数量急剧上升,对社会来说并没有什么好处,所以这个扩展非常困难。但如果我们能够转 变一下思维,这个题目就不见得难了。此题可先让步写到老年人对社会、家庭等所带来的 好处,如帮忙家务,社区志愿者等。然后提出虽然有这些好处,但随着他们数量的急剧增 加,必定会带来很多问题,对社会家庭等,如成为政府的经济负担,政府需拨更多的钱支 持养老金,而对家庭也是负担,小辈要花时间和精力还有金钱来全方位照顾老年人。 提纲如下: Admittedly, older people often have time to offer for the benefit of family and community. However, population ageing bring about serious economic and social problems for both family and government. 例如:

Love means more to those who need help. For example, in 1998, southern China witnessed an unprecedented flood. Many people became homeless, and they were in bad need of clothing and food for the coming winter. At this moment, people all over China offered their warm hands. With their love, they help the victims of the flood live through the winter. (3) 推因论果(development by reason) 当你写出自己的分论点时,别人可能无法理解个中原委,所以觉得你的观点讲不通。但如果 你能有效地解释清楚内在的因果逻辑,就可以使读者很好的理解你了。 常见的关联词有:Because, since, for, owing to, due to, as a result, because of, so, there fore, thus, consequently, accordingly 两种思路:①向下式因果(先因后果:按对方说的做了的话,有何后果,是预测性的后果, 注意虚拟语气) ②向上式因果(先果后因: 用已经发生的后果说明有何危害, 用一般过去时) ③使用时只允许一组因果链 ④以社会,团体及个人为因果链,寻找节点(承上启下) 请参看下面的例题。 例题 1 Stress stems from the fierce competition among colleagues. Every person aspires to success. This very desire pushes people to scramble for limited positions and resources at all costs, creating intense pressure on everyone. 点评:本题所谈的是―现代人们压力过大的原因‖,作者指出一个原因在于同事之间的激烈竞 争,此为分论点。然后他紧接着回答了读者脑子里的一个问题:为什么(why)/如何(how) 这样了呢?简单明了地做好了对 subtopic 的扩展。 例题 2 Watching TV too much tends to have an unfavorable influence on the carmily relationship, by which I mean if one spends the vast majority of his spare time on television, he will lack sufficient time for communication with the family members, which may possibly result in the alienation in the family. 点评:本题所谈的是―电视的不良影响‖,作者指出一个分论点:看电视过多对家庭关系有不 良影响,然后分析了 how 的问题,一目了然。 练习 1 仿写上述段落: What are the disadvantages of attending boarding schools? 提示分论点: 1)可能扩大代沟。 2)影响孩子健康成长。 练习 2 划出下列段落的主题句(分论点) ,并写出内在逻辑关系图。可参照下面的例题。 例题 Some information in the newspaper is not reliable simply because many journalists fabricate sensational incidents in order to make themselves conspicuous. Reporters, like many people in other occupations, now feel the fierce compertition in their own circle. Consequently, some of them deliberately exaggerate or whitewash certain matters to gain the upper hand over their colleagues. As a result, their reports are certainly not dependable. 1) The most immediate factor that has given rise to this phenomenon is the extensive use of

farming machinery, such as seeding, harvesting and grain-drying machines, in the process of the modernization of agricultural production, which has, in turn, freed more farmers from the land to seek better opportunities in cities. With more immigrant workers swarming into them, many cities have been forced to expand into the nerghboring countryside, so as to accommodate the swelling population. (4)事实论据(development by facts or example) 英文议论文中很重要的一个扩展方式是用事实说话。 我们在写雅思作文时也可以使用此种方 法。这个时候,facts 往往是以 figures(数据)的方式体现的。不过有同学担心:自己没有 见过/背诵过一定的数据啊,那怎么办?其实,我们可以编造需要的数据,不过注意两点: 注意使用下列短语来引用数据 ①One research group finds that… A study/research conducted by…shows that… According to one recent survey,… 常用数据来源: China Daily; 21st Centrury; The Economist; The Ministry of Education; the Ministry of Health; UNASCO; WHO 注意所编内容要符合常识和逻辑 错误案例: First of all, the nuclear techniligy will improve our life. When it has been used in industrial working, people will get more new things and make our life colorful and modern, like the nuclear television, nuclear wave machine and nuclear system to defend the stealing. 此为学生作文。 Sample 1 Vigorous exercise can slow the aging process. One research group found that a group of intensively trained athletes aged 55 or older, men who jogged or ran as much as 50 miles a week, were a fit in many respects as were healthy 25-year-old athletes. Another study showed that among 17,000 Harvard University graduates, those who exercised regularly and vigorously after graduation had death rates a quarter to a third lower than their classmates who did not exercise. 点评:本段阐述运动可以减缓衰老,然后使用了两个数据进行扩展,非常充分。 Sample 2 One of the most disturbing truths about TV is that it eats books. Once out of school, nearly 60% of all adult Americans never read a single book, and most of the rest read only one book a year. Alvin Kernan, author of The Death Literature, maintains that reading books is ―ceasing to be the primary way of knowing something in our society‖. He also points out that bachelor‘s degrees in English literature have declined by 33% in the last 20 years and that, in many universities, the courses largely are reduced to remedial reading. American libraries, he adds, are in crisis, with few patrons to support them. 点评:本段阐述

更多相关文档:

雅思写作讲义2

雅思写作讲义2_高中作文_高中教育_教育专区。我的授课简要内容: 第一节:介绍雅思写作,结合雅思四大评分标准,第六代和剑桥考官范文讲解线图和饼图 第二节:结合第...

雅思写作讲义汇总

雅思写作讲义汇总_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。雅思写作精编2011上半年讲义——张...本章节开始讲述5大类IELTS作文类别,将按照 1常用句型,2例题思路分析+范文,3...

雅思写作教程-讲义 - 目录

雅思写作教程讲义 By Jimmy Xu 第一章 雅思考试写作部分简介 PPT 雅思写作综述 PPT 雅思写作评分标准 第二章 基础写作 1. 语法 PPT need 的用法, 插入语, ...

雅思写作讲义2

雅思写作讲义2。今日推荐 88份文档 2014全国高考状元联手分享状元笔记 ...雅思写作最全讲义分析 59页 免费 最全雅思写作讲义分析整... 28页 免费 雅思...

雅思作文讲义

雅思作文讲义_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。新东方名师雅思作文讲义介绍...Test2: 写作速度测试 请从上面提供的 3 个真题中任选一题完成一篇完整的雅思...

最全雅思写作讲义分析整理

47页 2财富值 新东方雅思写作讲义 28页 免费 雅思写作必备的高频词汇 完... 25页 免费如要投诉违规内容,请到百度文库投诉中心;如要提出功能问题或意见建议,请点...

雅思写作基础讲义

雅思写作基础讲义_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。雅思常用词组 1 be conducive to...经济的快速发展 the rapid development of economy 2.人民生活水平的显著提高/ ...

雅思7分part2写作讲义

雅思7分part2写作讲义_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。雅思 7 分 目标: 不一定拘泥于模板 用例子带出观点,后总结观点 结构更加严谨(开头能展现出自己文章的中心意思...

雅思7分写作讲义

雅思7分写作讲义_英语考试_外语学习_教育专区。雅思考试写作金牌教程(6-7.5 分...雅思考试介绍 2、雅思考试评分标准 3、雅思写作话题介绍 4、雅思写作题型介绍 5...
更多相关标签:
雅思写作讲义 | 新东方雅思写作讲义 | 雅思写作task2 | 剑桥雅思11test2写作 | 雅思写作task2模板 | 雅思口语讲义 | 雅思听力讲义 | 雅思阅读讲义 |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com