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1.必 修 五 Unit 1 JOHN SNOW DEFEATS “KING CHOLERA” 约翰· 斯诺击败“霍乱王” John Snow was a famous doctor in London - so expert, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician.约翰· 斯 诺是伦敦

一位著名的医生——他的确医 术精湛,因而成为照料维多利亚女王的 私人医生。But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera.但他一想到要帮助那 些得了霍乱的普通百姓时,他就感到很 振奋。This was the deadly disease of its day.霍乱在当时是最致命的疾病, Neither its cause nor its cure was understood.人们 既不知道它的病源,也不了解它的治疗 方 法 。 So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.每次霍乱暴发时, 就有大批惊恐 的老百姓死去。John Snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. 约 翰· 斯诺想面对这个挑战,解决这个问

题。He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found.他知 道,在找到病源之前,霍乱疫情是无法 控制的。 He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people.斯诺对霍乱致人死地的两种推测 都 很 感 兴 趣 。 The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims. 一种看法是霍乱病毒在空气 中繁殖着,像一股危险的气体到处漂浮, 直到找到病毒的受害者为止。 The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals.第二种 看法是人们在吃饭的时候把这种病毒引 入体内的。From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died. 病从胃里发作而迅 速殃及全身,患者就会很快地死去。 John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence.

斯诺推测第二种说法是正确的,但他需 要证据。 So when another outbreak hit London in 1854, he was ready to begin his enquiry.因此,在1854年伦敦再次暴发霍 乱的时候,约翰· 斯诺着手准备对此进行 调 研 。 As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information. 当霍乱在贫民区迅速 蔓延的时候,约翰 · 斯诺就开始收集资 料。In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in ten days.他发现特别在两 条街道上霍乱流行的很严重,在 10天之 内就死去了500多人。He was determined to find out why.他决心要查明其原因。 First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had lived.首先, 他在一张地图上标明了所有死者住过的 地方。This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease.这提供了一条说 明霍乱起因的很有价值的线索。Many of the deaths were near the water pump in

Broad Street (especially numbers 16, 37, 38 and 40).许多死者是住在宽街的水泵 附近(特别是这条街上16、37、38、40 号) 。 He also noticed that some houses (such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street) had had no deaths.他 发现有些住宅(如宽街上 20号和21号以 及剑桥街上的8号和9号)却无人死亡。 He had not foreseen this, so he made further investigations. 他以前没预料到这 种 情 况 , 所 以 他 决 定 深 入 调 查 。 He discovered that these people worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street.他发现, 这些人 都在剑桥街7号的酒馆里打工,They had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the pump.而酒馆为他们免 费提供啤酒喝,因此他们没有喝从宽街 水泵抽上来的水。 It seemed that the water was to blame.看来水是罪魁祸首。 Next, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets.接下来,约 翰· 斯诺调查了这两条街的水源情况。He

found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London.他发现, 水是从河里来的,而河水被伦敦排出的 脏水污染了。 He immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the pump so that it could not be used.他马上叫宽街上惊慌失 措的老百姓拆掉水泵的把手。这样,水 泵 就 用 不 成 了 。 Soon afterwards the disease slowed down.不久, 疫情就开始得 到缓解。He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas. 他证明了霍乱是由病菌而不是由气体传 播的。 In another part of London, he found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak.在伦敦的另一个地区, 他从两个 与宽街暴发的霍乱有关联的死亡病例中 发现了有力的证据。A woman, who had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water from the pump so much that she had

it delivered to her house every day.有一位 妇女是从宽街搬过来的,她特别喜欢那 里的水,每天都要派人从水泵打水运到 家里来。 Both she and her daughter died of cholera after drinking the water.她和她的 女儿喝了这种水,都得了霍乱而死去。 With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.有了这个 特别的证据,约翰· 斯诺就能够肯定地宣 布,这种被污染了的水携带着病菌。 To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined.为了防止 这种情况的再度发生,约翰· 斯诺建议所 有 水 源 都 要 经 过 检 测 。 The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more.自来水 公司也接到指令,不能再让人们接触被 污染的水了。Finally "King Cholera" was defeated.最终,“霍乱王”被击败了。

2.必 修 五 Unit 1 COPERNICUS’ REVOLUTIONRRY THEORY 哥白尼的革命性理论 Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused.尼古拉· 哥白尼被 吓得心烦意乱的。 Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system.虽然他曾经试着不去理睬那 些数字,然而他所有的数学计算都得出 了一个相同的结论:地球不是太阳系的 中心。Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.只有当你把太阳放在中心位 置上,天空中其他行星的运动才能说得 清楚。Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea.他的这个理论可 不能告诉任何人,因为即使他只暗示有 这种想法,他都会受到强大的基督教会

势力的惩罚。 They believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system.教会认为世界是上帝创造的,正 因为如此,地球就具有特殊的意义,它 必定要成为太阳系的中心。 The problem arose because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop.这样,问题就来了, 因为天文学家以前发现过,天上有些行 星停顿下来,往后移动,然后再成环状 向前移动, Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others.而其他行星 看上去有时亮些, 有时又不怎么亮。 This was very strange if the earth was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round it.如果地球是太阳系的中心,而所 有行星环绕着地球转的话,那么这种现 象就很奇怪了。 Copernicus had thought long and hard about these problems and tried to find an

answer.哥白尼对这些问题曾经苦苦思索 过很久,试图找出问题的答案。He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge to explain them. 他曾经收集过观察星球的 数据,并且利用他的全部数学知识来解 释这些数据。 But only his new theory could do that. 但是只有他的新理论才能 作出解释。So between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete.于是, 他在1510至1514年期间从事这项研究, 逐步修改他的理论,直到他感到完善时 为止。 In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends.1514年,他把他的新理论私下里 给他的朋友们看。 The changes he made to the old theory were revolutionary.他对旧 理论的修改是具有革命性的。 He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth.他把

太阳固定在太阳系的中心位置上,而行 星则围绕着太阳转,只有月球仍然绕着 地球转。He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. 他还提出地球在围绕太阳转的同 时,它本身还自转,这样就说明了行星 运动的变化情况以及星球亮度问题。His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas, but Copernicus was cautious. 他的朋友都热情地鼓励他 把他的想法公之于世,而他却小心谨慎, He did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church, so he only published it as he lay dying in 1543.他不想遭到基督 教会的攻击,所以他直到1543年临终之 前才公布了这一观点。 Certainly he was right to be careful.当然, 他小心谨慎是对的。 The Christian Church rejected his theory, saying it was against God's idea and people who supported it

would be attacked. 基督教会拒绝接受他 的理论,说这种理论违背了上帝的旨意, 而支持这种理论的人都会受到打击。Yet Copernicus' theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the universe are built.然而哥白尼的理论却是我们宇宙观 赖以建立的基础。His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity, which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe.他的理论还 改变了基督教对地心引力的看法,他们 认为物体往地球上掉落是因为上帝创造 了地球,而地球正是宇宙的中心。 Copernicus showed this was obviously wrong.哥白尼表明这是明显错误的。 Now people can see that there is a direct link between his theory and the work of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking.如今人们可以看到,他的这些 想法与艾萨克· 牛顿、 阿尔伯特· 爱因斯坦 以及斯蒂芬 · 霍金等人的研究都有着直 接的联系。

3.必 修 五 Unit 2 PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY 地理之谜 People may wonder why different words are used to describe these four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.人们也许觉得奇怪,为什么用来 描述英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰和北爱尔 兰这四个国家的词语不太一样。You can clarify this question if you study British history.但如果你学过英国历史,就能弄 清楚这个问题。 First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century.首先是英格 兰。威尔士于13世纪同英格兰联合了起 来。 Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well.如今只要有人 提起英格兰,你就会发现威尔士总是包 括在内的。Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to "Great Britain".接着,英格兰、威尔士同

苏格兰于17世纪联合了起来,名字就改 成 了 “ 大 不 列 颠 ” 。 Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well. 令人庆幸的 是,当苏格兰的詹姆斯国王成为英格兰 和威尔士的国王时,这三个国家和平地 实 现 了 联 合 。 Finally the English government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way.最后,英国政府打算于20世 纪初把爱尔兰也同另外三个国家和平联 合起来以形成联合王国。 However, the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government.然 而,爱尔兰的南部却不愿意而分离出去 了 , 并 建 立 了 自 己 的 政 府 。 So only Northern Ireland joined with England, Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack.因此

只有北爱尔兰同英格兰、威尔士、苏格 兰联合起来,而组成了联合王国,这一 点从新的联合王国国旗上就可以看得出 来。 To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg, the currency and international relations), but they still have very different institutions.值得赞扬 的是,虽然这四个国家的确在一些方面 共同合作,例如在货币和国际关系方面; 但是它们在制度上仍然存在很大的区 别 。 For example, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland have different educational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competitions like the World Cup!例如,北爱尔兰、英 格兰和苏格兰在教育体制和立法体制上 都存在着差异。在参加像世界杯之类的 比赛时,它们有着各自的足球队。 England is the largest of the four countries, and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones.在这四个国家中, 英格兰

是最大的。为了方便起见,它大致可以 划分为三个地区。 The zone nearest France is called the South of England, the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland is known as the North. 最靠近法国的那个地区叫做英格兰南 部,中部地区叫做英格兰中部,最靠近 苏格兰的那个地区叫做英格兰北部。 You find most of the population settled in the south, but most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the North of England.你 可以看到英国的大部分人口聚居在南 部,而多数大工业城市都位于中部和北 部。Although, nationwide, these cities are not as large as those in China, they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two!尽管,英国任何一个 城市都不像中国的城市那样大,但是他 们都有着自己的享有威名的足球队,有 的城市甚至还有两个队。It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors.很遗憾,这

些建于19世纪的工业城市对游客并没有 吸引力。 For historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the Romans.要找历史性建筑你得去更 古老的、比较小些的由古罗马人建造的 城镇。There you will find out more about British history and culture.在那儿你才可 能找到更多的有关英国历史和文化的东 西。 The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums, art collections, theatres, parks and buildings.最具历史意 义的宝地是伦敦。那儿有博物馆,有艺 术珍品、剧院、公园和各种建筑物。It is the centre of national government and its administration. 它是全国的政治中心。 It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the first century AD, the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Saxons in the 1060s and the oldest castle constructed by later Norman rulers in 1066.它有公元一世纪 由罗马人建造的最古老的港口,有由盎

格鲁——撒克逊人始建于 11世纪60年代 的最古老的建筑,还有公元1066年由后 来的诺曼人统治者建造的最古老的城 堡。There have been four sets of invaders of England.曾经有四批侵略者到过英国。 The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads.最早的入侵者是古罗马 人,他们留下了他们的城镇和道路。The second, the Anglo-Saxons, left their language and their government.接着是盎 格鲁——撒克逊人,留下了他们的语言 和政体。The third, the Vikings, influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England, and the fourth, the Normans, left castles and introduced new words for food.第三是斯堪的纳维亚人, 他们对词汇和北部的地名造成了一定影 响;第四是诺曼人,他们留下了城堡和 新的食物名称的词语。If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all these invaders.如果你到英 国乡间去看看,你就会找到所有这些入

侵者的痕迹。 You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile. 如果想使你的英国之旅不 虚此行又有意义,你就必须留心观察。 4.必 修 五 Unit 2 SIGHTSEEING IN LONDON 伦敦观光记 Worried about the time available, Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London.由于担心时间不 够,张萍玉早就把她想要在伦敦参观的 地点列了一张单子。Her first delight was going to the Tower. It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066.她最 先想参观的地方是伦敦塔,它是很久以 前由入侵的诺曼人在公元 1066 年修建 的。Fancy!This solid stone, square tower had remained standing for one thousand years. 真是太棒了!这个坚实的用石头 砌的方形塔已经在那儿屹立一千年了。 Although the buildings had expanded

around it, it remained part of a royal palace and prison combined.尽管在塔的四周扩 建了一些建筑,但它仍然是皇宫和监狱 联合体的一个组成部分。 To her great surprise, Zhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers who, on special occasions, still wore the four-hundred-year-old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth I.让张萍玉很惊讶的 是,她发现女王的珠宝由皇家的特别卫 士守护着,而这些卫士在一些特殊的日 子仍然穿着 400 年前伊丽莎白一世女王 时代的制服。 There followed St Paul's Cathedral built after the terrible fire of London in 1666.接 着参观的是圣 · 保罗大教堂,它是公元 1666 年伦敦大火以后建造的, It looked splendid when first built!刚建成的时候, 它 看 起 来 真 是 金 碧 辉 煌 。 Westminster Abbey, too, was very interesting.伦敦威斯 敏斯特大教堂也是很有意思的地方, It contained statues in memory of dead poets

and writers, such as Shakespeare.里面珍 藏着一些已故诗人和作家的雕像,例如 莎士比亚的雕像。Then just as she came out of the abbey, Pingyu heard the famous sound of the clock, Big Ben, ringing out the hour. 正当萍玉从大教堂往外走的时 候,她听到了著名的大本钟在整点敲响 的钟声。 She finished the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palace, the Queen's house in London.她参观了女王 伦敦住所白金汉宫的外景,以此结束了 一天的观光。Oh, she had so much to tell her friends!啊, 她要同朋友们讲的实在太 多了! The second day the girl visited Greenwich and saw its old ships and famous clock that sets the world time.第二天, 萍玉姑娘 参观了格林尼治天文台,看到了古老的 轮船和那座著名的为世界定时的时钟。 What interested her most was the longitude line.她最感兴趣的是那条通过 天文台的经线。 It is an imaginary line

dividing the eastern and western halves of the world and is very useful for navigation. 这是一条假想的线,它把世界分成东西 两 半 球 , 从 而 有 利 于 航 海 。 It passes through Greenwich, so Pingyu had a photo taken standing on either side of the line.这 条线穿过格林尼治,萍玉就跨着这条线 拍了一张照片。 The last day she visited Karl Marx's statue in Highgate Cemetery.最后一天,她参观 了伦敦海洛特公墓里的卡尔 · 马克思的 雕像。It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London.这似乎是一件怪 事:这位发展了共产主义的人竟然在伦 敦生活过, 并且在伦敦去世。 Not only that, but he had worked in the famous reading room of the Library of the British Museum. 不仅如此,他还在大英博物馆著名的图 书阅览室里工作过。Sadly the library had moved from its original place into another building and the old reading room was

gone.遗憾的是,这个图书馆已经从原来 的地方搬到另一座大楼里去了,而原来 的阅览室也没有了。But she was thrilled by so many wonderful treasures from different cultures displayed in the museum. 但是她感到最为震惊的却是博物馆里展 出的那么多来自不同文化的奇妙宝物。 When she saw many visitors enjoying looking at the beautiful old Chinese pots and other objects on show, she felt very proud of her country.当萍玉看到那么多 参观者用欣赏的目光注视着古老漂亮的 中国陶瓷和其他展品时,心里充满了对 祖国的自豪感。 The next day Pingyu was leaving London for Windsor Castle.再过一天, 萍玉就要离 开伦敦去温莎城堡了。"Perhaps I will see the Queen?" she wondered as she fell asleep.她边睡觉边想:“也许我能见到女 王呢?” 5.必修五 Unit 3 FIRST IMPRESSIONS

第一印象 Spacemall: liqiang299A@GreatAdventureSpaceStatio n.com 太 空 邮 件 : liqiang299A@GreatAdventureSpaceSatio n.com 15/11/3008 (Earthtime)(地球时间) Dear Mum and Dad, I still cannot believe that I am taking up this prize that I won last year.亲爱的爸爸妈妈: 我现在仍然无 法相信我是在接受去年获得的这个奖 励。 I have to remind myself constantly that I am really in AD 3008.我得不断提醒自 己,我真的已经进入到公元3008年了。 Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. As a result, I suffered from “Time lag”.因为担心这次 旅行,头几天我心里总是不踏实,结果 我得了时间滞后症。This is similar to the “jet lag” you get from flying, but it seems

you keep getting flashbacks from your previous time period. 这就与你乘坐飞机 会产生时差反应相似,所不同的是,在 你的脑子里似乎会不断闪现以前的时 光。 So I was very nervous and uncertain at first. 因此,我一开始就感到神经过敏和 心神不定。However, my friend and guide, Wang Ping, was very understanding and gave me some green tablets which helped a lot.但是我的朋友兼导游王平很细心体 贴,给了我几粒绿色药片,倒是挺起作 用的。Well-known for their expertise, his parents' company, called "Future Tours", transported me safely into the future in a time capsule. 他父母的公司叫做 “ 未来之 旅”,以其技术高超而闻名。他们把我装 在一个时间舱里,平安地把我送入了未 来。 I can still remember the moment when the space stewardess called us all to the capsule and we climbed in through a small opening. 我仍旧记得我们被太空服务员

一起叫到时间舱,爬上去进入一个小门。 The seats were comfortable and after a calming drink, we felt sleepy and closed our eyes.座位是很舒适的, 喝了点镇静剂 后,我们的眼睛就闭上了,感到昏昏欲 睡 似 的 。 The capsule began swinging gently sideways as we lay relaxed and dreaming.时间舱在轻轻左右摇晃,我们 放松地躺在那里做梦。 A few minutes later, the journey was completed and we had arrived.几分钟以后, 旅程结束, 我们 就到了。I was still on the earth but one thousand years in the future. What would I find?我仍然在地球上,但是进入到了未 来的一千年。我们会看到什么呢? At first my new surroundings were difficult to tolerate.一开始新的环境让我 很难忍受。The air seemed thin, as though its combination of gases had little oxygen left.空气似乎很稀薄, 好像在混合的气体 中剩下的氧气很少。Hit by a lack of fresh air, my head ached.由于缺乏新鲜空气, 我

感到头痛。 Just as I tried to make the necessary adjustment to this new situation, Wang Ping appeared. 正当我想努力调整 适应新环境时,王平出现了。"Put on this mask," he advised. "It'll make you feel much better."他告诉我,“把这个面罩戴 上。 它会使你感觉好得多。 ” He handed it to me and immediately hurried me through to a small room nearby for a rest.他把面罩 递给我,敦促我马上走进附近的一个小 房间,叫我休息。I felt better in no time. 我立刻就感到舒服些了。 Soon I was back on my feet again and following him to collect a hovering carriage driven by computer.很快,我就又一次恢复过来了, 跟着他去领取了一台由电脑驱动的气垫 车。 These carriages float above the ground and by bending or pressing down in your seat, you can move swiftly.这些气垫车是 在地面上方漂浮着的,只要在座位上把 操纵杆打弯或压下,你就可以迅速地移 动。 Wang Ping fastened my safety belt and

showed me how to use it.王平系紧了我的 安全带,教我怎样使用它。Soon I could fly as fast as him.不久,我就可以飞得跟 王平一样快了。However, I lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached what looked like a large market because of too many carriages flying by in all directions.可是, 当我们到达一个看上去像大市场的地方 时,由于太多车子朝四面八方飞奔,我 看不见王平了。He was swept up into the centre of them.他被卷入到这群车队里去 了。Just at that moment I had a "time lag" flashback and saw the area again as it had been in the year AD 2008.就在这个时候 我得到一次“时间滞后”的闪回,这样我 就再次看到了似乎是公元2008年的那个 地区。 I realized that I had been transported into the future of what was still my hometown!我这才懂得我被送到了未来, 但却仍然在自己的家乡。 Then I caught sight of Wang Ping again and flew after him. 就在这个时候,我又见到了王平,

于是又跟在他后面飞去。 Arriving at a strange-looking house, he showed me into a large, bright clean room. 到了一幢看上去很奇怪的房子里,他把 我带到一个明亮而洁净的大房间。It had a green wall, a brown floor and soft lighting.墙是绿色的,地板是棕色的,灯 光很柔和。Suddenly the wall moved - it was made of trees!突然墙壁移动了—— 原来是树形成的!I found later that their leaves provided the room with much-needed oxygen.后来我才发现,就 是这些树的叶子为这栋房屋提供了最急 需的氧气。 Then Wang Ping flashed a switch on a computer screen, and a table and some chairs rose from under the floor as if by magic.然后王平在电脑屏幕上的 开关上闪了一下,于是一张桌子和几把 椅子就像变魔术那样从地板下面升了起 来。"Why not sit down and eat a little?" he said. “怎么不坐下来吃些东西呢?”他说 道,"You may find this difficult as it is

your first time travel trip. “你第一次作这 样的时间旅行,可能会感到有些困难。 Just relax, since there is nothing planned on the timetable today.你可以好好休息一 下。今天没有任何出行计划。Tomorrow you'll be ready for some visits."明天你还 要准备参观几个地方。” Having said this, he spread some food on the table, and produced a bed from the floor.说完这些, 他把食物摆在桌子上,又从地板下取出 一张床来。After he left, I had a brief meal and a hot bath.他离开后,我简单吃了饭, 洗了个热水澡。Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep.实在累坏了, 我溜上床 很快就睡着了。 More news later from 以后再谈吧! your loving son,你的儿子 Li Qiang 李强 6.必 修 五 Unit 3 I HAVE SEEN AMAZING THINGS 我看到了奇妙的东西

My first visit was to a space station considered the most modern in space.我首 先参观的是一个太空站,这个站被认为 是太空中最现代化的地方。Described as an enormous round plate, it spins slowly in space to imitate the pull of the earth's gravity.太空站像一个巨大的圆盘,在太 空中缓缓的旋转,以仿照出地球重心的 引力。Inside was an exhibition of the most up-to-date inventions of the 31 st century. 太空站里展出了31世纪一些最前沿的发 明。A guide (G) showed us around along a moveable path.有个导游带领我们站在一 条移动的运送带上,到各处参观。 G: Good morning to all our visitors from 2008.导游:从2008年来访的朋友们,早 上好!First we're going to examine one of the latest forms of communication among our space citizens.首先,我们要查看一种 我们太空居民使用的最新的通讯方式。 No more typists working on a typewriter or computer!再也不需要打字员在打字机

或电脑上工作了! No more postage or postcodes! 再也不需要邮费和邮政编码 了!Messages can now be sent using a "thought pad". 现在用一种“思想仪”就可 以传递信息。You place the metal band over your head, clear your mind, press the sending button, think your message and the next instant it's sent.你把金属带放在 头上,整理思路,按下发送键,集中精 神想着你要发送的信息,片刻功夫信息 就发送出去了。It's stored on the "thought pad" of the receiver.这个信息会储存在接 受者的 “ 思想仪 ” 里。 It's quick, efficient and environmentally friendly. 它 快 捷 有 效, 而且环保。 The only limitation is if the user does not think his or her message clearly, an unclear message may be sent.唯 一的缺点是,如果使用者不能想清楚要 传递的信息,发送出去的信息可能是模 糊不清的。But we cannot blame the tools for the faults of the user, can we?但我们不 能因为使用者的使用不当而责备仪器,

是不是? During the explanation I looked at the pair of small objects called "thought pads" on a table.在导游解说的时候,我观看着桌上 这副被称为“思想仪”的小东西。 They just looked like metal ribbons.它们看上去像 金属带子。So ordinary but so powerful! 那么普通,但却那么神通广大!While I was observing them, the path moved us on. 正当我还在观察时,运送带向前移动了。 G: And now ladies and gentlemen, we are in the "environment area".导游: 女士们先 生们,现在我们到了“环保地带”。People used to collect waste in dustbins.以前人们 习 惯 用 垃 圾 箱 收 集 废 弃 物 , Then the rubbish was sent to be buried or burned, am I right? (We nodded.)然后这些垃圾被 送走埋掉或烧掉,我说的对吧?(我们 都点头。 ) Well, now there's a system where the waste is disposed of using the principles of ecology.可现在我们有一种 装置,能利用生态学原理来处理掉废弃

物。A giant machine, always greedy for more, swallows all the waste available.一 架巨大的机器,能把所有能获得的废弃 物都吞进去,而且总是贪得无厌。 The rubbish is turned into several grades of useful material, such as "fertilizer" for the fields and "soil" for deserts.然后垃圾被分 解成了几种有用的物质,如庄稼地的“肥 料”和沙漠中的“土壤”。 Nothing is wasted, and everything, even plastic bags, is recycled.什么都不浪费,所有的东西,哪 怕是塑料袋也被回收利用了。 A great idea, isn't' it?伟大的创意,对不对? I stared at the moving model of the waste machine, absorbed by its efficiency.我注 视着缓缓移动的垃圾分解机器模型,为 它的成效所吸引。 But again we moved on. 但是,我们又开始向前移动了。 G: Our third stop shows the changes that have happened to work practices.导游:第 三站要展示给我们的是工作实践方面的 一些变化。Manufacturing no longer takes

place on the earth but on space stations like this one. 批量生产不再在地球上进 行,而是转移到了像这样的太空站里。A group of engineers programme robots to perform tasks in space.在太空里,一组工 程师给机器人设计了程序让它们完成工 作。 The robots produce goods such as drugs, clothes, furniture, hovering carriages, etc.机器人生产像药品、衣服、 家具和气垫车等东西。There is no waste, no pollution and no environmental damage! 没有废弃物、没有污染,也没有环境破 坏。However, the companies have to train their representatives to live and work in space settlements.但是,这些公司必须培 训他们的代表能在太空中生活和工作。 They have to monitor the robots and the production. 他们必须在此监控机器人和 生产过程。 When the goods are ready they're transported by industrial spaceship back to earth.一旦货物齐备,就用工用太 空船运送到地球。

My mind began to wander.我的思绪开始 漫游。 What job would I do?我能从事什么 工作呢? My motivation increased as I thought of the wonderful world of the future.当我想到这个奇妙的未来世界时, 我兴趣倍增、干劲十足 7.必 修 五 Unit 4 MY FIRST WORK ASSIGNMENT 我的第一项工作任务 "Unforgettable", says new journalist “难以 忘怀,”新闻记者说 Never will Zhou Yang (ZY) forget his first assignment at the office of a popular English newspaper. 周阳永远不会忘记他 在一家畅销英文报纸的第一项工作任 务。His discussion with his new boss, Hu Xin (HX), was to strongly influence his life as a journalist.他同新上司胡欣的讨 论对他的记者生涯必将产生强烈的影 响。 HX: Welcome. We're delighted you're

coming to work with us. Your first job here will be an assistant journalist. Do you have any questions? 胡:欢迎你,非常高兴你来参加我们的 工作,你来这里首先就是当助理记者。 有什么问题吗? ZY: Can I go out on a story immediately? 周:我可以马上去采访吗? HX: (laughing) That' s admirable, but I' m afraid it would be unusual ! Wait till you' re more experienced. First we'll put you as an assistant to an experienced journalist. Later you can cover a story and submit the article yourself. 胡: (笑)真是勇气可嘉!不过恐怕这不 太合乎常规,还是等到你比较有经验以 后吧。我们先要派你给有经验的记者作 助理。以后,你才能独自去进行新闻采 访并提交自己的新闻稿。 ZY: Wonderful. What do I need to take with me? I already have a notebook and

camera. 周:太好了!我需要随身带些什么?我 已经带了笔记本和照相机。 HX: No need for a camera. You'll have a professional photographer with you to take photographs. You'll find your colleagues very eager to assist you, so you may be able to concentrate on photography later if you' re interested. 胡:不需要照相机!你们将带上一名专 业摄影师去拍照。你将发现你的同事们 会热情地帮助你。如果你对摄影感兴趣, 以后你可以集中精力去钻研。 ZY: Thank you. Not only am I interested in photography, but I took an amateur course at university to update my skills. 周:谢谢你。对摄影我不仅只是感兴趣, 在大学里我还专修过业余摄影课来更新 我的技术。 HX: Good. 胡:那很好啊。

ZY: What do I need to remember when I go out to cover a story? 周:我出去采访时还需要记住些什么事 呢? HX: You need to be curious. Only if you ask many different questions will you acquire all the information you need to know. We say a good journalist must have a good "nose" for a story. That means you must be able to assess when people are not telling the whole truth and then try to discover it. They must use research to inform themselves of the missing parts of the story. 胡:你需要有好奇心。你只有提出了许 多不同的问题之后才有可能获得你需要 知道的信息。我们说,一个好的记者必 须有一个对新闻非常敏感的“嗅觉“。那 就是说,在人们没有说出全部真相时, 你必须能够判断出,并努力发现真相。 记者必须通过调查研究,来使自己了解 到被遗漏的那部分情况。

ZY: What should I keep in mind? 周:我应该注意些什么呢? HX: Here comes my list of dos and don'ts: don't miss your deadline, don't be rude, don't talk too much, but make sure you listen to the interviewee carefully. 胡:下面是我的行为准则:不要延误任 务规定的期限,不可对人粗鲁,不可自 己说得太多,务必认真倾听被采访人回 答问题。 ZY: Why is listening so important? 周:为什么听人家讲话这样重要呢? HX: Well, you have to listen for detailed facts. Meanwhile you have to prepare the next question depending on what the person says. 胡:你得听清楚事实的细节。同时,你 还要根据被采访人所说的话准备提出下 一个问题。 ZY: But how can I listen carefully while taking notes? 周:在我记笔记的同时,怎么能仔细倾

听对方的答话呢? HX: This is a trick of the trade, If the interviewee agrees, you can use a recorder to get the facts straight. It's also useful if a person wants to challenge you. You have the evidence to support your story. 胡:这就是我们职业的诀窍了。如果被 采访人允许,你可以使用录音机,录下 全部事实。如果有人提出质疑,这也有 用,你就有证据来支持自己的报道了。 ZY: I see! Have you ever had a case where someone accused your journalists of getting the wrong end of the stick? 周:我明白了!你有没有过这样的情况: 别人控告你的记者,说他的报道失实? HX: Yes, but it was a long time ago. This is how the story goes. A footballer was accused of taking money for deliberately not scoring goals so as to let the other team win. We went to interview him. He denied taking money but we were sceptical. So we arranged an interview between the

footballer and the man supposed to bribe him. When we saw them together we guessed from the footballer's body language that he was not telling the truth. So we wrote an article suggesting he was guilty. It was a dilemma because the footballer could have demanded damages if we were wrong. He tried to stop us publishing it but later we were proved right. 胡:有的。不过这是很久以前的事了。 事情是这样的:一位足球运动员被指控 受贿,故意不进球,好让对方球队赢球。 我们去采访了他。他否认收了钱,但我 们对此表示怀疑。于是,我们安排这名 球员和被认为行贿的人一起接受采访, 而当我们看到他们在一起时,我们就从 足球运动员的体态语上猜到他没有说真 话。我们写了一篇文章,暗示足球队员 有罪。这事有些为难,因为如果我们错 了,他就可以向我们索要赔偿。他竭力 阻止我们发表这篇文章,但后来证实我

们是正确的。 ZY: Wow! That was a real "scoop". I'm looking forward to my first assignment now. Perhaps I'll get a scoop too! 周:哇!那才是真正的独家新闻哩!我 期盼着即将到来的首次任务。说不定我 也会搞到独家新闻呢! HX: Perhaps you will. You never know. 胡:也许你会的,谁知道呢。 8.必 修 五 Unit 4 GETTING THE "SCOOP"抢发独家新闻 "Quick," said the editor. "Get that story ready. We need it in this edition to be ahead of the other newspapers. This is a scoop." Zhou Yang had just come back into the office after an interview with a famous film star.周阳刚刚采访了一位著 名影星回到办公室,编辑就说:“快点把 那篇报道准备好,我们这一版就要用, 这样我们就抢在其他报纸的前面了,这 就是抢先的独家新闻。"Did he really do

that?" asked someone from the International News Department. "Yes, I' m afraid he did," Zhou Yang answered. He set to work.国际新闻编辑部有人提出问 题:“他真的干了那种事吗? ”周阳回答 说:“是的,恐怕是这样的。 ”接着他便 着手准备报道了。 His first task was to write his story, but he had to do it carefully.他的第一件事就是 写报道稿,他必须认认真真地写。 Although he realized the man had been lying, Zhou Yang knew he must not accuse him directly.尽管他认为那个人一直在说 谎话,但周阳懂得,他决不能直接指责 那个人。He would have to be accurate. Concise too! He knew how to do that.他必 须做到准确无误,还要简明扼要。他知 道 该 如 何 做 。 Months of training had taught him to write with no wasted words or phrases.经过几个月的培训,他已经学 会了写文章, 全然没有废话。 He sat down at his computer and began to work.他在电

脑前坐下就开始工作了。 The first person who saw his article was a senior editor from his department.第一个 看到这篇文章的人是他们部里的一位编 审。 He checked the evidence, read the article and passed it on to the copy-editor. 他核查了文中的证据,阅读了整篇报道, 然后递给技术编辑。She began to edit the piece and design the main headline and smaller heading.她就开始了编辑工作, 设 计了主标题和副标题。 “This will look very good on the page,” she said. "Where is a good picture of this man?"她说: “在版 面上这会很好看。这个人的照片该放在 哪 儿 好 呢 ? ” Then as the article was going to be written in English Zhou Yang also took a copy to the native speaker employed by the newspaper to polish the style.因为这篇文章要用英文来写,所以 周阳拿了一份稿子给一位母语为英语的 外国雇员,请她对语言风格进行润饰。 She was also very happy with Zhou Yang's

story.这位雇员对周阳的报道也很满意。 "You are really able to write a good front page article," she said.她评价说:“你确实 能写很好的头版新闻了。 ” Zhou Yang smiled with happiness.周阳高兴地笑了。 Last of all, the chief editor read it and approved it.最后主编审读了这篇稿子, 并 且批准发表了。"Well done," he said to Zhou Yang. "But please show me your evidence so we're sure we've got our facts straight.”他对周阳说:“文章写得很好, 不过你还得拿出证据来表明事实确凿。” “I’ll bring it to you immediately," said Zhou Yang excitedly.周阳激动地说:“我 马上拿来。” The news desk editor took the story and began to work on all the stories and photos until all the pages were set.新闻文字编辑 取走这篇报道,开始对所有的报道和图 片进行编排,直至把各版面全部编定。 All the information was then ready to be processed into film negatives.此后,所有

的报道材料就要被制成胶片。 This was the first stage of the printing process.这是 印制过程的第一道工序。 They needed four negatives, as several colours were going to be used on the story.由于这篇报 道要用好几种颜色,因此需要四张胶片。 Each of the main colours had one negative sheet and when they were combined they made a coloured page for the newspaper. 每一种主色要用一张底片,四张底片结 合起来就制成一张报纸的彩页。 After one last check the page was ready to be printed. 经过最后一次校对后,这个版面就可以 准备印制了。Zhou Yang waited excitedly for the first copies to be ready.周阳兴奋地 等 待 着 第 一 批 报 纸 的 印 出 。 "Wait till tonight," his friend whispered. “要等到今 天晚上。”他的朋友轻声地告诉他说。"I expect there will be something about this on the television news. A real scoop!" “我 期望电视新闻会对这件事作一点报道。 真是独家新闻了!”

9.必 修 五 Unit 5 FIRST AID FOR BURNS 烧伤的急救 The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ.皮肤是身体必不可少 的部分, 也是身体的最大器官。 You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against disease, poisons and the sun's harmful rays.皮肤有三层,它们是防病、 防毒、抵御太阳有害光线侵害的一道屏 障。The functions of your skin are also very complex: 皮肤的功能十分复杂。 it keeps you warm or cool; it prevents your body from losing too much water;皮肤可 以保暖或御寒, 保持体内水分。 it is where you feel cold, heat or pain and it gives you your sense of touch.正是皮肤使你感到冷 热、 疼痛, 它还使你有触觉。 So as you can imagine, if your skin gets burned it can be very serious.因此,你可以想象到,如果 你的皮肤烧伤了, 就可能非常严重。 First aid is a very important first step in the

treatment of burns.在治疗烧伤的过程中, 紧急处理是非常重要的第一步。 Causes of burns 烧伤的原因: You can get burned by a variety of things: hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation (by being close to high heat or fire, etc), the sun, electricity or chemicals. 你可能由于各种 原因而烧伤:灼热的液体、水蒸气、火、 辐射(由于靠近高温或大火) 、阳光、电 和化学物品。 Types of burns 烧伤的种类: There are three types of burns.烧伤有三 类。Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on which layers of the skin are burned.根据皮肤烧伤的层 次分为一度烧伤、二度烧伤和三度烧伤。 ◎ First degree burns: These affect only the top layer of the skin. These burns are not serious and should feel better within a day or two. Examples include mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan, stove or iron for a moment.

· 一度烧伤:只损伤皮层的最上层。这些 烧伤并不严重,应当在一两天内就有好 转。例如轻度的晒伤,由于短暂接触热 锅、火炉或熨斗而导致的烫伤。 ◎ Second degree burns These affect both the top and the second layer of the skin. These burns are serious and take a few weeks to heal. Examples include severe sunburn and burns caused by hot liquids. · 二度烧伤:既损伤了皮肤的最上层,又 损伤了皮质的第二层。这些烧伤属于严 重的烧伤,需几星期才能痊愈。例如严 重的晒伤和灼热的液体所造成的烧伤。 ◎ Third degree burns These affect all three layers of the skin and any tissue and organs under the skin. Examples include burns caused by electric shocks, burning clothes, or severe petrol fires. These burns cause very severe injuries and the victim must go to hospital at once. · 三度烧伤:所有三层皮质以及皮下的组

织和器官都受到损害。例如由电击引起 的烧伤,因衣服起火引起的烧伤,或因 汽油起火引起的烧伤。这些烧伤都属于 非常严重的烧伤,受伤者必须立即送往 医院。 Characteristics of burns 烧伤的特性: First degree burns 一度烧伤: ◎ dry, red and mildly swollen 干燥、发 红、微肿 ◎ mildly painful 微痛 ◎ turn white when pressed 受压时变白 Second degree burns 二度烧伤 ◎ rough, red and swollen 粗糙、发红、肿 胀 ◎ blisters 起水泡 ◎ watery surface 表层渗液 ◎ extremely painful 极其疼痛 Third degree burns 三度烧伤: ◎ black and white and charred 黑、 白和焦 炭色相间 ◎ swollen; often tissue under them can be seen 肿胀,可看到皮下组织

◎ little or no pain if nerves are damaged; may be pain around edge of injured area. 若损害了神经,则没有疼痛或轻微疼痛, 或者在创面四周有疼感 First aid treatment 急救处理: 1 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn. Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn. 1、除非衣服粘贴在烧伤面上,否则都要 把它脱掉(必要时可用剪刀帮助) 。靠近 创面的其他衣物和首饰也都要取掉。 2 Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water. It is best to place burns under gently running water for about 10 minutes. (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.) Do not put cold water on third degree burns. 2、马上用凉水给伤口冲凉,但不能用冰 水。最好是把烧伤的部位放在慢速流动 的自来水下冲洗大约10分钟。 (凉水可以

阻止烧伤的进程,可以防止无法忍受的 疼痛,还可以减轻肿胀程度) 。三度烧伤 不可用冷水冲。 3 For first degree burns, place cool, clean, wet cloths on them until the pain is not so bad. For second degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad. 3、对于一度烧伤的患者,要把清凉干净 的湿布放在烧伤面上,直到疼痛感较轻 时为止。对于二度烧伤,要保持湿布清 凉,需把湿布放回冷水盆中,拧出水后 再放在烧伤面上,这样要反反复复地做 一个小时左右,直到不太痛时为止。 4 Dry the burned area gently. Do not rub, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected. 4、轻轻地把烧伤面弄干,但不要擦拭, 因为这样做可能会擦破水泡,伤口会感

染。 5 Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin. Hold the bandage in place with tape. Never put butter, oil or ointment on burns as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection. 5、用干而清洁又不粘皮肤的绷带盖住烧 伤面,用胶布把绷带固定。千万不要在 烧伤处涂黄油、油或软膏,因为这会使 里面的热散不出去,而且还可能导致感 染。 6 If burns are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible. If burns are on the face, the victim should sit up. 6、如果烧伤的部位在臂部和腿部,尽可 能把手臂或腿脚抬高到高于心脏的位 置。如果是面部烧伤,伤者则应该坐起 来。 7 If the injuries are second or third degree burns, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or hospital at once.

7、如果属于二度或三度烧伤,就必须立 即把患者送往医院或送去看医生。 10.必修五 Unit 5 HEROIC TEENAGER RECEIVES AWARD 英雄青年获奖记 Seventeen-year-old teenager, John Janson, was honoured at the Lifesaver Awards last night in Rivertown for giving lifesaving first aid on his neighbour after a shocking knife attack.17岁的青年约翰· 詹森昨晚在 里弗镇的救生员颁奖大会上领奖,因为 他在一次骇人听闻的持刀袭击案件发生 后,为邻居实施了紧急救援。 John was presented with his award at a ceremony which recognized the bravery of ten people who had saved the life of another.在颁奖大会上, 约翰被授予奖赏。 大会共表彰了抢救他人生命的十个人的 勇敢行为。 John was studying in his room when he heard screaming. (那天)约翰正在房里学

习,突然听到一声尖叫,When he and his father rushed outside, a man ran from the scene.他和父亲赶紧冲出去,发现一名男 子从现场逃跑, They discovered that Anne Slade, mother of three, had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife.而三个孩子的母 亲安· 斯莱德被人连捅了数刀。 She was lying in her front garden bleeding very heavily.她躺在前花园的地上, 流血不止。 Her hands had almost been cut off.她的双 手几乎被砍断了。 It was John's quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms Slade's life.正是 约翰快捷的动作和急救知识救了斯莱德 女 士 的 命 。 He immediately asked a number of nearby people for bandages, but when nobody could put their hands on any, his father got some tea towels and tape from their house.他立即向附近的一些人 要绷带,当他们都找不到绷带的时候, 他的父亲从屋里拿出一些擦杯盘的布和 胶带来。John used these to treat the most

severe injuries to Ms Slade's hands.约翰就 用这些东西把斯莱德手上最严重的伤口 包扎起来。 He slowed the bleeding by applying pressure to the wounds until the police and ambulance arrived.他使劲地按 住伤口,使血流得慢些,一直等到警察 和救护车的到来。 "I'm proud of what I did but I was just doing what I'd been taught," John said.约 翰说:“我为自己所做的事感到自豪,不 过,我所做的都是以前别人教会我做的 事。” John had taken part in the Young Lifesaver Scheme at his high school.约翰在读高中 时 就 参 加 了 青 年 救 生 员 组 织 。 When congratulating John, Mr Alan Southerton, Director of the Young Lifesaver Scheme said, "There is no doubt that John's quick thinking and the first aid skills he learned at school saved Ms Slade's life. It shows that a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference." 该组织的主任艾伦 · 萨瑟

顿先生在向约翰表示祝贺时说:“毫无疑 问,是约翰敏捷的思维和在学校学到的 急救技术,挽救了斯莱德女士的生命。 这表明懂得急救知识的确能发挥重要作 用。” Before receiving their awards last night, John and the nine other Life Savers attended a special reception yesterday hosted by the Prime Minister.约翰和其他 九位救生员在昨晚领奖时,还出席了由 首相主持的特殊的招待会。



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