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人教版高中英语必修 课文 译文 对照翻译


必修 1 第一单元 ANNE’S BEST FRIEND Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts? Or are you afraid that your friend would laugh at you, or would n

ot understand what you are going through? Anne Frank wanted the first kind, so she made her diary her best friend. 安妮最好的朋友 你想不想有一位无话不谈能推心置腹的朋友?或者你会不会担心你的朋友会 嘲笑你,会不理解你目前的困境呢?安妮?弗兰克想要的是第一种类型的朋友,所 以她把的日记视为自己最好的朋友。 Anne lived in Amsterdam in the Netherlands during World War II. Her family was Jewish so she had to hide or they would be caught by the German Nazis. She and her family hidden away for two years before they were discovered. During that time the only true friend was her diary. She said, ―I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do, but I want this diary itself to be my friend, and I shall call my friend Kitty.‖ Now read how she felt after being in the hiding place since July 1942. 在第二次世界大战期间,安妮住在荷兰的阿姆斯特丹。她一家人都是犹太人, 所以他们不得不躲藏起来,否则就会被德国的纳粹分子抓去。她和她的家人躲藏了 25 个月之后才被发现。在那段时期,她的日记成了她唯一忠实的朋友。她说:―我 不愿像大多数人那样在日记中记流水账。我要把我的日记当作自己的朋友,我把我 的这个朋友叫做基蒂。‖现在,来看看安妮自 1942 年 7 月起躲进藏身处后的那种心 情吧。 Thursday 15, June, 1944 Dear kitty, I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. That’s changed since I was here. For example, when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven one evening in order to have a good look at the moon for once by myself. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn’t dare open a window. Another time some months ago, I happened to be upstairs one evening when the window was open. I didn’t go downstairs until the window had to be shut. The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power; it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face… Sadly…I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very

dusty windows. It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced. Yours, Anne

1944 年 6 月 15 日,星期四 亲爱的基蒂: 我不知道这是不是因为我太久无法出门的缘故,我变得对一切与大自然有关的 事物都无比狂热。我记得非常清楚,以前,湛蓝的天空、鸟儿的歌唱、月光和鲜花, 从未令我心迷神往过。自从我来到这里之后,这一切都变了。 比如说,有一天晚上天气很暖和,我故意熬到晚上 11 点半都不睡觉,为的就 是能独自好好地看看月亮。但是因为月光太亮了,我都不敢打开窗户。还有一次, 就在五个月以前的一个晚上,我碰巧在楼上,窗户是开着的,我一直呆到非关窗不 可的时候才下楼去。漆黑的雨夜,刮着大风,电闪雷鸣,乌云滚滚,我完全被这种 景象镇住了。这是我一年半以来第一次亲眼目睹的夜晚…… 不幸的是……我只能透过那满是灰尘的窗帘下那脏兮兮的窗户看看大自然。只 能隔着窗户看那大自然实在没意思,因为大自然是需要真正体验的东西。 你的安妮

Reading and listening 读与听 1) Read the letter that Lisa wrote to Miss Wang of Radio for Teenagers and predict what Miss Wang will say. After listening, check and discuss her advice. Dear Miss Wang, I am having some trouble with my classmates at the moment. I’m getting along well with a boy in my class. We often do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. We have become really good friends. But other students have started gossiping. They say that this boy and I have fallen in love. This has made me angry. I don’t want to end the friendship, but I hate others gossiping. What should I do? Yours, Lisa 1 读读琳达为青少年写给电台王小组的这封信,然后王小姐可能会怎么说。听完

录音之后,核对并讨论她的建议。 亲爱的王小姐: 现在我同班上的同学有些麻烦事。我跟我们班里的一位男同学一直相处的很好。我 们常常一起做家庭作业,而且很乐意互相帮助。我们成了真正好朋友。可是,其他 同学却在背后议论起来,他们说我和这位男同学在谈恋爱,这使我很生气。我不想 中断这段友谊,但是,我又讨厌人家背后说闲话。我该怎么办呢? 你的莉萨 Reading and writing Miss Wang has received a letter from Xiaodong. He is also asking for some advice. Read the letter on the right carefully and help Miss Wang answer it. 王小姐收到小冬的一封来信。小冬是要征求一些意见。仔细阅读右边的信,然后帮 王 www.jinyilai.cn 小姐回复。 Dear Miss Wang, I’m a student from Huzhou Senior High School. I have a problem. I’m not very good at communicating with people. Although I try to talk to my classmates, I still find it hard to make good friends with them. So I feel quite lonely sometimes. I do want to change this situation, but I don’t know how. I would be grateful if you could give me some advice. Yours, Xiaodong 亲爱的王小姐: 我是湖州高中的一名学生,我有一个难题,我不大善于与人们交际。虽然我试 着和班上的同学交谈,但是,我还是很难跟他们成为好朋友。因此,有时候我感到 十分的孤独。我确实想改变这种现状,但是我却不知道怎么办。如果您能给我提些 建议,我会非常感谢的。 你的小东 2 Decide which are the best ideas and put them into an order. Then write down your advice and explain how it will help. Each idea can make one paragraph. The following sample and the expressions may help you Dear Xiaodong, I’m sorry you are having trouble in making friends. However, the situation is easy to change if you follow my advice. Here are some tips to help you. First, why not…? If you do this,… Secondly, you could / can … Then / That way, … Thirdly, it would be a good idea if … By doing this, … I hope you will find these ideas useful.

Yours Miss Wang 2 决定哪些是最好并把它们按顺序组织起来。然后把你的建议写出来,并解释它 为什么会有所帮助。每个想法可以自成一个段落。下面的例子和表达可能对你有所 帮助。 亲爱的小冬: 很遗憾听说你在交朋友的过程中遇到了困难。但是,如果你听听我的建议,这种情 况是很容易改变的。这些建议会对你有所帮助。 第一,为什么不……呢? 如果你这样做…… 第二,你可以…… 这样的话…… 第三,如果……那将是个不错的主意。 通过做…… 我希望你会发现这些想法对你有所帮助。 你的王小姐 LEARNING TIP 学习建议 It’s a good habit for you to keep a diary. It can help you remember past events. You can express your feelings and thoughts in it. It will help you improve your English if you write your diary in English. Why not have a try? 写日记对你来说是一个好习惯。它可以帮你记住一些过去发生的事件。你还可以在 日记中表达你的情感和思想。如果你用英语写日记的话,还可以帮助你提高英语水 平。为什么不试一试呢? 第二单元 Reading THE ROAD TO MODERN ENGLISH At the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English. Nearly all of them lived in England. Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. Today, more people speak English as their first, second or foreign language than ever before. 通向现代英语之路 在 16 世纪末,大约有五至七百万人讲英语。几乎所有这些讲英语的人都住在 英格兰。在其后的一个世纪中,英格兰人为征服世界航海到了世界其他一些地方, 结果世界的其他地方的人们也开始说英语了。今天,把英语作为自己的第一语言、 第二语言或外语来使用的人比以往任何时候都多。 Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. Look at this example: British Betty: Would you like to see my flat?

American Amy: Yes, I’d like to come up to your apartment. 以英语作为母语的人,即使他们所讲不是同一种英语,他们也能彼此听懂。 请看看这个例子: 英国人贝蒂:来看看我的公寓吗? 美国人艾米:好的,我来看看你的公寓吧。 So why has English changed over time? Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other. At first the English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. It was based more on German than the English we speak at present. Then gradually between about AD 800 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoken first Danish and later French. These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. So by the 1600’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. In 1620 some British settlers moved to America. Later in the 18th century some British people were taken to Australia too. English began to be spoken in both countries. 那么,随着时间的推移英语为什么发生了变化呢?实际上,当不同文化相互交 流渗透时,所有的语言都会有所发展和变化。开始,英格兰人在大约公元 450 年到 1150 年之间所说的英语与我们今天所说的英语很不一样。 当时的英语更多的是以德 语为基础的,不像我们现在说的英语。后来,大约在公元 800 年至 1150 年之间, 英语慢慢变得不那么像德语,因为统治英格兰的那些人开始是说丹麦语,后来说法 语。这些新来的定居者丰富了英语语言,尤其是丰富了英语词汇。所以到 17 世纪 初的时候,莎士比亚能够得以使用比以往任何时候都丰富的词汇。1620 年一些英国 定居者来到了美洲,后来到了 18 世纪的时候,一些英国人还被带到了澳大利亚。 英语也就开始在这两个国家使用。 Finally by the 19th century the language was settled. At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English Language. The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling. 最后到 19 世纪的时候,英语这种语言就变得稳定了。当时,英语的拼写发生 了两个很大的变化:先是塞缪尔· 约翰逊编写了他的英语词典,后是诺亚· 韦伯斯特 出版了《美国英语词典》 。后者使得美式英语的拼写有了其独特的个性。 English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia. For example, India has a very large number of fluent English speakers because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947. During that time English became the language for government and education. English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. In fact, China may have the largest number of English learners. Will Chinese English develop its own identity? Only time will tell. 现在英语在南亚地区也被作为外语或第二语言使用。比如,印度就有很多人说

英语说得很流利,因为在 1765 年到 1947 年之间英国统治着印度。在此期间,英语 成了印度政府和教育所用的语言。在新加坡和马来西亚以及像非洲的南非,人们现 在也说英语。当今,在中国学英语的人数正在快速增加,事实上,中国可能是学英 语人数最多的国家。中国式英语是否也能发展成一种具有自己独特个性的语言?这 还有待时间去证明。 STANDARD ENGLISH AND DIALECTS What is standard English? Is it spoken in Britain, the US, Canada, Australia, India and New Zealand? Believe it or not, there is no such thing as standard English. Many people believe the English spoken on TV and the radio is standard English. This is because in the early days of radio, those who reported the news were expected to speak excellent English. However, on TV and the radio you will hear differences in the way people speak. When people use words and expressions different form ―standard language‖, it is called a dialect. American English has many dialects, especially the midwestern, southern, African American and Spanish dialects. Even in some parts of the USA, two people from neighbouring towns speak a little differently. American English has so many dialects because people have come from all over the world. Geography also plays a part in making dialects. Some people who live in the mountains of the eastern USA speak with an older kind of English dialect. When Americans moved form one place to another, they took their dialects with them. So people from the mountains in the southeastern USA speak with almost the same dialect as people in the northwestern USA. The USA is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken. Although many Americans move a lot, they still recognize and understand each other’s dialects. 什么是标准英语?是在英国、美国、加拿大、澳大利亚、印度、新西兰所说的 英语吗?信不信由你, (世界上)没有什么标准英语。许多人认为,电视和收音机 里所说的英语就是标准英语,这是因为在早期的电台节目里,人们期望新闻播音员 所说的英语是最好的英语。然而,在电视和收音机里,你也会听出 人们在说 话时的差异。 当人们使用不同于―标准语言‖的词语和表达时,那就叫做方言。美国英语有许 多方言,特别是中西部地区和南部地区的方言,以及美国黑人和西班牙人的方言。 即使在美国有些地区,两个相邻城镇的人所说的方言也可能稍有不同。美国英语之 所以有这么多的方言是因为美国人是来自世界各地的缘故。 地理位置对方言的形成也有所影响。住在美国东部山区的一些人说着比较古老的英 语方言。当美国人从一个地方搬到另一个地方时,他们也就把他们的方言随着带去 了。因此,美国东南部山区的人同美国西北部的人所说的方言就几乎相同。美国是 一个大国,有着许许多多彼此不同的方言。虽然许多美国人经常搬家,但是他们仍 然能够辨别和理解彼此的方言。 Reading and speaking 读与说

1 Amy and her American friends are visiting London. They plan to visit Amy’s aunt and decide to go there by underground, but cannot find the nearest underground station. So she asks directions and then tells her friends. Read the dialogue and circle the words that mean the same. 1 艾米和她的美国朋友正在参观伦敦。她们计划去拜访艾米的姑妈,并决定乘地 铁去,但是她们找不到最近的地铁站。所以她问问了路,然后告诉她的朋友。读对 话,然后圈出意思相同的词。 AMY: Excuse me, Ma’ma. Could you tell me where the nearest subways is? LADY: Er...the underground? Well, go round the corner on your left-hand side, straight on and cross two streets. It’ll be on your right-hand side. AMY: Thanks so much. FRIENDS: What did she say, Amy? AMY: She told us to go around the corner on the left and keep going straight for two blocks. The subway will be on our right. 艾米:对不起,夫人,你能告诉我去最近的地铁站怎么走吗? 夫人:呃……地铁?哦,往左边拐过去,一直往前走,走过两条街,地铁就是右边。 艾米:多谢了。 朋友:艾米,她说什么? 艾米:她叫我们往左边拐过去,一直往前走,走过两条街,地铁就是右边。 【意思相同的词】 subway←→underground (地铁) right-hand side←→right (右边) street←→block 街道,街区 第三单元 Travel journal JOURNEY DOWN THE MEKONG PART 1 THE DREAM AND THE PLAN My name is Wang Kun. Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip. Two years ago she bought an expensive mountain bike and then she persuaded me to buy one. Last year, she visited our cousins, Dao Wei and Yu Hang at their college in Kunming. They are Dai and grew up in western Yunnan Province near the Lancang River, the Chinese part of the river that is called the Mekong River in other countries. Wang Wei soon got them interested in cycling too. After graduating from college.we finally got the chance to take a bike trip. I asked my sister, "Where are we going?" It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. Now she is planning our schedule for the trip. I am fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming. She can be really stubborn. Although she didn't know the best way of getting to places, she insisted that she organize

the trip properly. Now, I know that the proper way is always her way. I kept asking her, "When are we leaving and when are we coming back?" I asked her whether she had looked at a map yet. Of course, she hadn't; my sister doesn't care about details. So I told her that the source of the Mekong is in Qinghai Province. She gave me a determined look—the kind that said she would not change her mind. When I told her that our journey would begin at an altitude of more than 5,000 metres, she seemed to be excited about it. When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience. I know my sister well. Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it. Finally, I had to give in. Several months before our trip,Wang Wei and I went to the library. We found a large atlas with good maps that showed details of world geography. From the atlas we could see that the Mekong River begins in a glacier on a Tibetan mountain. At first the river is small and the water is clear and cold. Then it begins to move quickly. It becomes rapids as it passes through deep valleys, travelling across western Yunnan Province. Sometimes the river becomes a waterfall and enters wide valleys. We were both surprised to learn that half of the river is in China. After it leaves China and the high altitude,the Mekong becomes wide,brown and warm. As it enters Southeast Asia, its pace slows. It makes wide bends or meanders through low valleys to the plains where rice grows. At last, the river delta enters the South China Sea. 沿湄公河而下的旅行 第一部分 梦想与计划 我的名字叫王坤。 从高中起, 我姐姐和我就一直梦想作一次伟大的自行车旅行。 两年前,她买了一辆价钱昂贵的山地自行车,然后她还说服我也买了一辆。去年她 去看望了我们的表兄弟—在昆明读大学的刀伟和宇航。他们是傣族人,在云南省西 部靠近澜沧江的地方长大,湄公河在中国境内的这一段叫澜沧江,流经其他国家后 就叫湄公河。很快,王薇使表兄弟也对骑车旅行产生了兴趣。到大学毕业后,我们 终于有了作一次骑车旅行的机会。我问姐姐:―我们要去哪里?‖首先想到要沿湄公 河从源头到终点骑车旅行的是我的姐姐。现在,她正为这次旅行制订计划。 我很喜欢我姐姐,但是她有一个严重的缺点,她有时确实很固执。尽管她对到 某些地方的最佳路线并不清楚,她却坚持要把这次旅行安排的尽善尽美。现在我知 道了这个尽善尽美的方式总是她的方式。我老是问她:―我们什么时候动身?什么 时候回来?‖我问她是否已经看过地图。当然她并没有看过,我的姐姐是不会考虑 细节的。于是我告诉她湄公河的源头在青海省。她给了我一个坚定的眼神—这种眼 神表明她是不会改变主意的。当我告诉她我们的旅行将从 5000 多米的的高地出发 时,她似乎显得很兴奋。当我告诉她那里空气稀薄,呼吸会很困难,而且天气会很 冷时,她却说这将是一次很有趣的经历。我非常了解我的姐姐,她一旦下了决心, 就什么也不能使她改变。最后,我只好让步了。 在我们旅行前的几个月, 王薇和我去了图书馆。 我们找到了一本大型的地图册, 里面有一些世界地理的明细图。我们从图上可以看到,湄公河源于西藏一座山上的

冰川。起初,河很小,河水清澈而冷冽,然后它开始快速流动。它穿过深谷时就变 成了急流。流经云南西部。有时,这条河形成瀑布进入宽阔的峡谷。我们惊奇的发 现这条河有一半是在中国境内。当流出中国,流出高地后,湄公河就变宽,变暖了。 河水也变成了黄褐色。而当它进入东南亚以后,流速减慢,河水变宽慢慢地穿过低 谷,到了长着稻谷的平原。最后,湄公河三角洲的各支流流入中国南海。 Reading and discussing JOURNEY DOWN THE MEKONG PART 2 A NIGHT IN THE MOUNTAINS Although it was autumn, the snow was already beginning to fall in Tibet. Our legs were so heavy and cold that they felt like blocks of ice. Have you ever seen snowmen ride bicycles? That's what we looked like! Along the way children dressed in long wool coats stopped to look at us. In the late afternoon we found it was so cold that our water bottles froze. However, the lakes shone like glass in the setting sun and looked wonderful. Wang Wei rode in front of me as usual. She is very reliable and I knew I didn't need to encourage her. To climb the mountains was hard work but as we looked around us, we were surprised by the view. We seemed to be able to see for miles. At one point we were so high that we found ourselves cycling through clouds. Then we began going down the hills. It was great fun especially as it gradually became much warmer. In the valleys colorful butterflies flew around us and we saw many yaks and sheep eating green grass. At this point we had to change our caps, coats, gloves and trousers for T-shirts and shorts. In the early evening we always stop to make camp. We put up our tent and then we eat. After supper Wang Wei put her head down on her pillow and went to sleep but I stayed awake. At midnight the sky became clearer and the stars grew brighter. It was so quiet. There was almost no wind-only the flames of our fire for company. As I lay beneath the stars I thought about how far we had already travelled. We will reach Dali in Yunnan Province soon, where our cousins Dao Wei and Yu Hang will join us. We can hardly wait to see them! Unit 4 Earthquakes A NIGHT THE EARTH DIDN'T SLEEP Strange things were happening in the countryside of northeast Hebei.For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell, rose and fell. Farmers noticed that the well walls had deep cracks in them. A smelly gas came out of the cracks. In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide. Fish jumped out of their bowls and ponds. At about 3:00 am on July 28,1976,some people saw bright lights in the sky. The sound of planes could be heard outside the city of Tangshan even when no planes were in the sky. In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst. but the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, were asleep as usual that night. At 3:42 am everything began to shake. It seemed as if the world was at an end! Eleven kilometers directly below the city the greatest earthquake of the 20th century had begun.

It was felt in Beijing, which is more than two hundred kilometers away. One-third of the nation felt it. A huge crack that was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide cut across houses, roads and canals. Steam burst from holes in the ground. Hard hills of rock became rivers of dir. In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. The suffering of the people was extreme. Two-thirds of them died or were left without parents. The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400,000. But how could the survivors believe it was natural? Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed. All of the city's hospitals,75%of its factories and buildings and 90% of its homes were gone. Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves. No wind, however, could blow them away. Two dams fell and most of the bridges also fell or were not safe for travelling. The railway tracks were now useless pieces of steel.Tens of thousands of cows would never give milk again. Half a million oigs and millions of chickens were dead.Sand now filled the wells instead of water.People were shocked.Then,later that afternoon,another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan.Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins.More buildings fell down.Water,food,and electricity were hard to get.people begab to wonder how long the disaster would last. All hope was not lost.Soon after the quakes,the army sent 150,000 soldiers to Tangshan to help the rescue workers.Hundreds of thousands of people were helped.The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.To the north of the city,most of the 10,000 miners were rescued from the coal mines there.Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.Fresh water was taken to the city bu train,truck and plane.Slowly,the city began to breathe again. Office of the City Government Tangshan,Hebei China July5,2007 Dear____, Congratulations!We are pleased to tell you that you have won the high school speaking competition about new Tangshan. Your speech was heard by a group of five judges, all of whom agreed that it was the best one this year. Your parents and your school should be very proud of you! Next month the city will open a new park to honour those who died in the terrible disaster. The park will also honour those who helped the survivors. Our office would like to have you speak to the park vistors on July 28 at 11:00 am. As you know,this is the day the quake happened thirty-____years ago. We invite you to bring your family and friends on that special day. Sincerely, Zhang Sha Unit 5 ELIAS’ STORY My name is Elias. I am a poor black worker in South Africa. The time when I first met

Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life. I was twelve years old. It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. He offered guidance to poor black people on their legal problems. He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful. I needed his help because I had very little education. I began school at six. The school where I studied for only two years was three kilometers away. I had to leave because my family could not continue to pay the school fees and the bus fare. I could not read or write well. After trying hard, I got a job in a gold mine. However, this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. Sadly I did not have it because I was not born there, and I worried about whether I would become out of work. The day when Nelson Mandela helped me was one of my happiest. He told my how to get the correct papers so I could stay in Johannesburg. I became more hopeful about my future. I never forgot how kind Mandela was. When he organized the ANC Youth League, I joined it as soon as I could. He said: ―The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.‖ It was the truth. Black people could not vote or choose their leaders. They could not get the jobs they wanted. The parts of town in which they had to live were decided by white people. The places outside the towns where they were sent to live were the poorest parts of South Africa. No one could grow food there. In fact as Nelson Mandela said: ―…we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important or fight the government. We chose to attack the laws. We first broke the law in a way which was peaceful; when this was not allowed…only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. As a matter of fact, I do not like violence…but in 1963 I helped him blow up some government buildings. It was very dangerous because if I was caught I could be put in prison. But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our dream of making black and white people equal. THE REST OF ELIAS' STORY You cannot imagine how the name of Robben Island made us afraid. It was a prison from which no one escaped. There I spent the hardest time of my life. But when I got there Nelsom Mandela was also there and he helped me. Mr Mandela began a school for those of us who had little learning. He taught us during the lunch breaks and the evenings when we should have been asleep. We read books under our blankets and used anything we could find to make candles to see the words. I became a good student. I wanted to study for my degree but I was not allowed to do that. Later, Mr Mandela allowed the prison guards to join us. He said they should not be stopped from studying for their degrees. They were not cleverer than me , but they did pass their exams. So I knwe I could get a degree too. That made me feel good about myself. When I finished the four years in prison, I went to find a job. Since I was better educated, I got a job working in an office. However, the police found out and told my boss that I had been in prinson for blowing up government buildings. So I lost my job. I did not

work again for twenty years until M r Mandela and the ANC came to power in 1994. All that time my wife and children had to beg for good and help from relatives or friends. Luckily Mr Mandela remembered me and gave me a job taking tourists around my old prison on Robben Islannd. I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. All the terror and fear of that time came back to me. I remembered the beatings and the cruelty of the guards and my friends who had died. I felt I would not be able to do it, but my family encouraged me. They said that the job and the pay from the new South African government were my reward after working all my life for equal rights for the Blacks. So now at 51 I am proud to show visitors over the prison, for I helped to make our people free in their own land.

必修 2 unit1 IN SEARCH OF THE AMBER ROOM Frederick William Ⅰ,the King of Prussia , could never have imagined that his greatest gift to the Russian people would have such an amazing history . This gift was the Amber Room , which was given this name because several tons of amber were used to make it . The amber which was selected had a beautiful yellow-brown colour like honey . The design of the room was in the fancy style popular in those days . It was also a treasure decorated with gold and jewels , which took the country's best artists about ten years to make . In fact , the room was not made to be a gift . It was designed for the palace of Frederick Ⅰ. However, the next King of Prussia , Frederick William Ⅰ,to whom the amber room belonged, decided not to keep it. In 1716 he gave it to Peter the Great. In return , the Czar sent him a troop of his best soldiers. So the Amber Room because part of the Czar's winter palace in St Petersburg.About four metres long, the room served as a small reception hall for important visitors . Later,Catherine Ⅱ had the Amber Room moved to a palace outside St Petersburg where she spent her summers. She told her artists to add more details to it .In 1770 the room was completed the way she wanted . Almost six hundred candles lit the room ,and its mirrors and pictures shone like gold. Sadly , although the Amber Room was considered one of the wonders of the world , it is now missing . In September 1941, the Nazi army was near St Petersburg . This was a time when the two countries were at war . Before the Nazis could get to the summer palace , the Russians were able to remove some furniture and small art objects from the Amber Room . However , some of the Nazis secretly stole the room itself . In less than two days 100,000

pieces were put inside twenty-seven woooden boxs . There is no doubt that the boxs were then put on a train for Konigsberg, which was at that time a German city on the Baltic Sea . After that, what happened to the Amber Room remains a mystery . Recently , the Russians and Germans have built a new Amber Room at the summer palace . By studying old photos of the former Amber Room , they have made the new one look like the old one .In 2003 it was ready for the people of St Petersburg when they celebrated the 300th birthday of their city .

A FACT OR AN OPINION? What is a fact? Is it something that people believe? No. A fact is anything that can be proved. For example, it can be proved that China has more people than any other country in the world. This is a fact. Then what is an opinion? An opinion is what someone believes is true but has not been proved. So an opinion is not good evidence in a trial. For example, it is an opinion if you say ―Cats are better pets than dogs‖. It may be true, but it is difficult to prove. Some people may not agree with this opinion but they also cannot prove that they are right. In a trial, a judge must decide which eyewitnesses to believe and which not to believe. The judge does not consider what each eyewitness looks like or where that person lives or works. He/she only cares about whether the eyewitness has given true information, which must be facts rather than opinions. This kind of information is called evidence.

Unit 2 AN INTERVIEW Pausanias, who was a Greek writer about 2,000 years ago, has come on a magical journey on March 18th 2007 to find out about the present-day Olympic Games. He is now interviewing Li Yan, a volunteer for the 2008 Olympic Games. P: My name is Pausanias. I lived in what you call ―Ancient Greece‖ and I used to write about the Olympic Games a long time ago. I’ve come to your time to find out about the present-day Olympic Games because I know that in 2004 they were held in my homeland. May I ask you some questions about the modern Olympics?

L: Good heavens! Have you really come from so long ago? But of course you can ask any questions you like. What would you like to know? P: How often do you hold your Games? L: Every four years. There are two main sets of Games-the Winter and Summer Olympics, and both are held every four years on a regular basis. The Winter Olympics are usually held two years before the Summer Games. Only athletes who have reached the agreed standard for their event will be admitted as competitors. They may come from anywhere in the world. P: Winter Games? How can the runners enjoy competing in winter? And what about the horses? L: Oh no! There are no running races or horse riding events. Instead there are competitions like skiing and ice skating which need snow and ice. That’s why they’re called the Winter Olympics. It’s in the Summer Olympics that you have the running races, together with swimming, sailing and all the team sports. P: I see. Earlier you said that athletes are invited from all over the world. Do you mean the Greek world? Our Greek cities used to compete against each other just for the honour of winning. No other countries could join in, nor could slaves or women! L: Nowadays any country can take part if their athletes are good enough. There are over 250 sports and each on has its own standard. Women are not only allowed, but play a very important role in gymnastics, athletics, team sports and … P: Please wait a minute! All those events, all those countries and even women taking part! Where are all the athletes housed? L: For each Olympics, a special village is built for them to live in, a main reception building, several stadiums for competitions, and a gymnasium as well. P: That sounds very expensive. Does anyone want to host the Olympic Games? L: As a matter of fact, every country wants the opportunity. It’s a great responsibility but also a great honour to be chosen. There’s as much competition among countries to host the Olympics as to win Olympic medals. The 2008 Olympics will be held in Beijing, China. Did you know that? P: Oh yes! You must be very proud.

L: Certainly. And after that the 2012 Olympics will be held in London. They have already started planning for it. A new village for the athletes and all the stadiums will be built to the east of London. New medals will be designed of course and … P: Did you say medals? So even the olive wreath has been replaced! Oh dear! Do you compete for prize money too? L: No, we don’t. it’s still all about being able to run faster, jump higher and throw further. That’s the motto of the Olympics, you know-―Swifter, Higher and Stronger.‖ P: Well, that’s good news. How interesting! Thank you so much for your time.

THE STORY OF ATLANTA Atlanta was a Greek princess. She was very beautiful and could run faster than any man in Greece. But she was not allowed to run and win glory for herself in the Olympic Games. She was so angry that she said to her father that she would not marry anyone who could not run faster than her. Her father said that she must marry, so Atlanta made a bargain with him. She said to him,"These are my rules. When a man says he wants to marry me, I will run against him. If he cannot run as fast as me, he will be killed. No one will be pardoned." Many kings and princes wanted to marry Atlanta, but when they heard of rules they knew it was hopeless. So many of them sadly went home, but others stayed to run the race. There was a man called Hippomenes who was amazed when he heard of Atlanta's rules,"Why are these men so foolish?" he thought. "Why will they let themselves be killed because they cannot run as fast as this princess?" However, when she saw Atlanta come out of her house to run, Hippomenes changed his mind."I will marry Atlanta--or die!" he said. The race started and although the man ran very fast, Atlanta ran faster. As Hippomenes watched he thought, "How can I run as fast as Atlanta?" He went to ask the Greek Godness of Love for help. She promised to help him and gave him three golden apples. She said," Throw an apple in front of Atlanta when she is running past. When she stops to pick it up, you will be able to run past her and win." Hippomenes took the apples and went to the King. He said," I want to marry Atlanta ." The King was sad to see another man die, but Hippomenes said," I will marry her------or die!" So the race began. Unit 3

WHO AM I? Over time I have been changed quite a lot. I began as a calculating machine in France in 1642. Although I was young I could simplify difficult sums. I developed very slowly and it took nearly two hundred years before I was built as an analytical machine by Charles Babbage. After I was programmed by an operator who used cards with holes, I could ―think‖ logically and produce an answer quicker than any person. At that time it was considered a technological revolution and the start of my ―artificial intelligence‖. In 1936 my real father, Alan Turing, wrote a book about how I could be made to work as a ―universal machine‖ to solve any difficult mathematical problem. From then on, I grew rapidly both in size and in brainpower. By the 1949s I had grown as large as a room, and I wondered if I would grow any larger. However, this reality also worried my designers. As time went by, as was make smaller. First as a PC(personal computer) and then as a laptop, I have been used in offices and homes since the 1970s. These changes only became possible as my memory improved. First it was stored in tubes, then on transistors and later on very small chips. As a result I totally changed my shape. As I have grown older I have also grown smaller. Over time my memory has developed so much that, like an elephant, I never forget anything I have been told! And my memory became so large that even I couldn’t believe it! But I was always so lonely standing there by myself, until in early 1960s they gave me a family connected by a network. I was able to share my knowledge with others through the World Wide Web. Since the 1970s many new applications have been found for my. I have become very important in communication, finance and trade. I have also been put into robots and used to make mobile phones as well as help with medical operations. I have even been put into space rockets and sent to explore the Moon and Mars. Anyhow, my goal is to provide humans with a life of high quality. I am now truly filled with happiness that I am a devoted friend and helper of the human race! ANDY – THE ANDROID I’m part of an android football team. About once a year we are allowed to get together to play a game of football. I’m as big as a human. It fact, I look like one too. On the football team I’m a striker so I have to be able to run very fast. My computer ships help me to move and think like a human. For example, I have learned to signal to my teammates in computer language to give me the ball when I am open and have a good for a goal. My first football competition was in Nagoya, Japan several years ago. Last year our team went to Seattle, Washington in the USA. We won second place. Personally, I think the team that won first place cheated. They had developed a new type of program just before

the competition. So we need to encourage our programmer to improve our intelligence too. We are determined to create an even better system. In a way our programmer is like our coach. She programs us with all the possible moves she has seen while watching human games. Then she prepares reliable moves to use if a new situation arises. In this way I can make up new moves using my ―artificial intelligence‖. I could like to play against a human team, for I have been programmed to act just like them. After all, with the help of my electronic brain which never forgets anything, using my intelligence is what I’m all about! Unit 4 HOW DAISY LEARNED TO HELP WILDLIFE Daisy had always longed to help endangered species of wildlife. One day she woke up and found a flying carpet by her bed. ―Where do you want to go?‖ it asked. Daisy responded immediately. ―I’d like to see some endangered wildlife,‖ she said. ―Please take me to a distant land where I can find the animal that gave fur to make this sweater.‖ At once the carpet flew away and took her to Tibet. There daisy saw and antelope looking sad. It said, ―We’re being killed for the wool beneath our stomachs. Our fur is being used to make sweaters for people like you. As a result, we are now an endangered species.‖ At that Daisy cried, ―I’m sorry I didn’t know that. I wonder what is being done to help you. Flying carpet, please show me a place where there’s some wildlife protection.‖ The flying carpet traveled so fast that next minute they were in Zimbabwe. Daisy turned around and found that she was being watched by and elephant. ―Have you come to take my photo?‖ it asked. In relief Daisy burst into laughter. ―Don’t laugh,‖ said the elephant, ―We used to be an endangered species. Farmers hunted us without mercy. They said we destroyed their farms, and money from tourists only went to the large tour companies. So the government decided to help. They allowed tourists to hunt only a certain number of animals if they paid the farmers. Now the farmers are happy and our numbers are increasing. So good things are being done here to save local wildlife.‖ Daisy smiled, ―That’s good news. It shows the importance of wildlife protection, but I’d like to help as the WWF suggests.‖ The carpet rose again and almost at once they were in a thick rainforest. A monkey watched them as it rubbed itself. ―What are you doing?‖ asked Daisy. ―I’m protecting myself from mosquitoes,‖ it replied. When I find a millipede insect, I rub it over my body. It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. You should pay more attention to the rainforest where I live the appreciate how the animals live together. No rainforest, no animals, no drugs.‖ Daisy was amazed. ―Flying carpet, please take me home so I can tell WWF and we can begin producing this new drug. Monkey, please come and help.‖ The monkey agreed.

The carpet flew home. As they landed, things began to disappear. Two minutes later everything had gone-the monkey, too. So Daisy was not able to make her new drug. But what an experience! She had learned so much! And there was always WWF… ANIMAL EXTINCTION Many animals have disappeared during the long history of the earth.The most famous of these animals are dinosaurs.They lived on the earth tens of millions of years ago, long before humans came into being and their future seemed secure at that time. There were many different kinds of dinosaur and a number of them used to live in China.The eggs of twenty-five species have been found in Xixia,County,Nanyang, Henan Province.Not long ago a rare new species of bird-like dinosaur was discovered in Chaoyang County,Liaoning Province.When scientists inspeacted the bones,they were surprised to find that these dinosaurs could not only run like the others but also climb trees.They learned this from the way the bones were joined together. Dinosaurs died out suddenly about 65 million years ago. Some scientists think it came after an unexpected incident when a huge rock from space hit the earth and put too much dust into the air.Others think the earth got too hot for the dinosaurs to live on any more.Nobody knows for sure why and how dinosaurs disappeared from the earth in such a short time. We know many other wild plants, animals,insects and birds have died out more recently.According to a UN report,some 844 animals and plants have disappeared in the last 500 years.The dodo is one of them.It lived on the Island of Mauritius and was a very friendly animal.Please listen to a story of the dodo and how it disappeared frome the earth. Unit 5 THE BAND THAT WASN’T Have you ever wanted to be part of a band as a famous singer or musician? Have you ever dreamed of playing in front of thousands of people at a concert, at which everyone is clapping and appreciating your music? Do you sing karaoke and pretend you are a famous singer like Song Zuying or Lin Huan? To be honest, a lot of people attach great importance to becoming rich and famous. But just how do people form a band? Many musicians meet and form a band because they like to write and play their own music. They may start as a group of high-school students, for whom practicing their

music in someone’s hours is the first step to fame. Sometimes they may play to passers-by in the street or subway so that they can earn some extra money for themselves or to pay for their instruments. Later they may give performances in pubs or clubs, for which they are paid in cash. Of course they hope to make records in a studio and sell millions of copies to become millionaires! However, there was one band hat started in a different way. It was called the Monkees and began as a TV show. The musicians were to play jokes on each other as well as play music, most of which was based loosely on the beatles. The TV organizers had planned to find four musicians who could act as well as sing. They put an advertisement in a newspaper looking for rock musicians, but they could only find one who was good enough. They had to use actors for the other three members of the band. As some of these actors could not sing well enough, they had to rely on other musicians to help them. So during the broadcasts they just pretended to sing. Anyhow their performances were humorous enough to be copied by clubs in order to get more familiar with them. Each week on TV, the Mondees would play and sing songs written by other musicians. However, after a year or so in which they became more serious about their work, the Monkees started to play and sing their own songs like a real band. Then they produced their own records and started touring and play their own music. In the USA they became even more popular than the Beatles and sold even more records. The band broke up about 1970, but happily the reunited in the mid-1980s. they produced a new record in 1996, with which they celebrated their former time as a real band. FREDDY THE FROG(II) Not long after Freddy and the band became famous,they visited Britain on a brief tour.Fans showed their devotion by waiting for hours to get tichkets for their concerts.Freddy was now quite confident when he went into a concert hall.He enjoyed singing and all the congratulations afterwards!His most exciting invitation was to perform on a programme called "Top of the Pops."He had to go to London,wear an expensive suit and give a performance to a TV camera.It felt very strange.But as soon as the programme was over,the telephones which were in the same room started ringing.Everybody was asking when they could see Freddy and his band again. They were truly stars. Then things went wrong.Freddy and his band could not go out anywhere without being followed.Even when they wore sunglasses or beards people recognized them. Fans found them even when they went into the toilet.They tried to hide in the reading rooms of libraries,but it was useless.Someone was always there!Their personal life was regularly discussed by people who did not know them but talked as if they were close friends. At last feeling very upset and sensitive,Freddy and his band to which they were never to

return,and went back to the lake.

必修 3 unit1 Festivals and celebrations Festivals and celebrations of all kinds have been held everywhere since ancient times.Most ancient festivals would celebrate the end of cold weather,planting in spring and harvest in autumn.Sometimes celebratewould be held after hunters had caught animals.At that time people would starve if food was difficult to find,especially during the cold winter months.Today’s festivals have many origins ,some religious,some seasonal, and some for special people or events. Festivals of the Dead Some festivals are held to honour the dead or to satisfy the ancestors,who might return either to help or to do harm.For the Japanese festival.Obon,people should go to clean graves and light incense in memory of their ancestors.They also light lamps and play music because they think that this will lead the ancestors back to earth.In Mexico,people celebrate the Day of the Dead in early November.On this impoutant feast day,people eat food in the shape of skulls and cakes with‖bones‖on them.They offer food,flowers and gifts to the dead.The Western holiday Halloween also had its origin in old beliefs about the return of the spirits of dead people. It is now a children’s festival,when they can dress up and to to their neighbours’homes to ask for sweets.Ifthe neighbours do not give any sweets,the children might play a trick on them. Festivals to Honour People Festivals can also be held to honour famous people .The Dragon Boat Festival in China honours the famous ancient poet,Qu Yuan.In the USA Columbus Day is in memory of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in New World.India has a national festival on October 2 to honour Mohandas Gandhi,the leader who helped gain India’s independence from Britain. Harvest Festivals Harvest and Thanksgiving festivals can be very happy events.People are grateful because their food is gathered for the winter and the agricultural work is over.In European countries,people will usually decorate churches and town halls with flowers and fruit,and will get together to have meals.Some people might win awards for their farm

produce,like the biggest watermelon or the most handsome rooster.China and Japan have mid-autumn festivals,when people admire the moon and in China,enjoy mooncakes. Spring Festivals The most energetic and important festivals are the ones that look forward to the end of winter and to the coming of spring.At the Spring Festival in China,people eat dumplings,fish and meat and may give children lucky money in red paper.There are dragon dances and carnivals,and families celebrate the Lunar New Year together.Some Western countries have very exciting carnivals,which take place forty days before Easter,usually in February.These carnivals might include parades,dancing in the streets day and night,loud music and colourful clothing of all kinds.Easter is an important religious and social festival for Christians aroud the world.It celebrates the return of Jesus from the dead and the coming of spring and new life.Japan’s Cherry Blossom Festival happens a little later.The country, covered with cherry tree flowers, looks as thought it is covered with pink snow. People love to get together to eat , drink and have fun with each other.Festivals let us enjoy life,be proud of our customs and forget our work for a little while

A SAD LOVE STORY Li Fang was heart-broken.It was Valentine’s Day and Hu Jin had said she would meet him at the coffee shop after work. But she didn’t turn up. She could be with her friends right now laughing at him.She said she would be there at seven o’clock, and he thought she would keep her word. He had looked forward to meeting her all day, and now he was alone with his roses and chocolates, like a fool. Well, he was not going to hold his breath for her to apologize. He would drown his sadness in coffee. It was obvious that the manager of the coffee shop was waiting for Li Fang to leave-he wiped the tables, then sat down and turned on the TV-just what Li Fang needed! A sad Chinese story about lost love. The granddaughter of the Goddess of Heaven visted the earth. Her name was Zhinü ,the weaving girl. While she was on earth she met the herd boy Niulang and they fell in love.(―Just like me and Hu Jin,‖thought Li Fang.)They got married secretly, and they were very happy.(―We could be like that,‖thought Li Fang.)When the Goddess of Heaven knew that her granddaughter was married to a human, she became very angry and made the weaving girl return to Heaven.Niulang tried to follow her, but the river of stars,the Milly Way, stopped him.Finding that Zhinü was heart-broken, her grandmother finally

decided to let the couple cross the Milky Way to meet once a year. Magpies make a bridge of their wings so the couple can cross the river to meet on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month. People in China hope that the weather will be fine on that day, because if it is raining, it means that Zhinü is weeping and the couple won’t be able to meet. The announcer said,‖This is the story of Qiqiao Festival.When foreigners hear about the story, they call it a Chinese Valentine’s story.It’s a fine day today, so I hope you can all meet the one you love.‖ As Li Fang set off for home, he thought,‖I guess Hu Jin doesn’t love me .I’ll just throw these flowers and chocolates away. I don’t want them to remind me of her.‖ So he did. As he sadly passed the tea shop on the corner on his way home, he heard a voice calling him. There was Hu Jin waving at him and calling , ―why are you so late?I’ve been waiting for you for a long time!And I have a gift for you!‖ What would he do? He had thrown away her Valentine gifts!She would never forgive him. This would not be a happy Valentine’s Day!

必修 3 UNIT2 COME AND EAT HERE (1) Wang Peng sat in his empty restaurant feeling very frustrated. It had been a very strange morning. Usually he got up early and prepared his menu of barbecued mutton kebabs, roast pork, stir-flied vegetables and fried rice. Then by lunchtime they would all be sold. By now his restaurant ought to be full of people. But not today! Why was that? What could have happened? He thought of his mutton, beef and bacon cooked in the hottest, finest oil. His cola was sugary and cold, and his ice cream was made of milk, cream and delicious fruit. "Nothing could be better," he thought. Suddenly he saw his friend Li Chang hurrying by. "Hello, Lao Li," he called. "Your usual?" But Li Chang seemed not to hear. What was the matter? Something terrible must have happened if Li Chang was not coming to eat in his restaurant as he always did. Wang Peng followed Li Chang into a new small restaurant. He saw a sign in the window. Tired of all that fat? Want to lose weight? Come inside Yong Hui’s slimming restaurant. Only slimming foods served here.

Make yourself thin again! Curiosity drove Wang Peng inside. It was full of people. The hostess, a very thin lady, came forward. "Welcome," she said. "My name is Yong Hui. I'll help you lose weight and be fit in two weeks if you eat here every day." Then she gave a menu to Wang Peng. There were few choices of food and drink on it: just rice, raw vegetables served in vinegar, fruit and water. Wang Peng was amazed at this and especially at the prices. It cost more than a good meal in his restaurant! He could not believe his eyes. He threw down the menu and hurried outside. On his way home he thought about his own menu. Did it make people fat? Perhaps he should go to the library and find out. He could not have Yong Hui getting away with telling people lies! He had better do some research! At the library Wang Peng was surprised to find that his restaurant served far too much fat and Yong Hui’s far too little. Even though her customers might get thin after eating Yong Hui’s food, they were not eating enough energy-giving food to keep them fit. They would become tired very quickly. Wang Peng felt more hopeful as he drove back home. Perhaps with a discount and a new sign he could win his customers back. So he wrote: Want to feel fit and energetic? Come and eat here! Discounts today! Our food gives you energy all day! The competition between the two restaurants was on! 到这里来用餐吧(1) 王鹏做在他那空荡荡的餐馆里,感到很沮丧。这个上午真是怪的很。通常他很 早就起床,准备他的菜肴—烤羊肉串、烤猪肉、炒菜和炒饭。然后到午饭时分,这 些菜都会卖完。到了这个时候,他的餐馆本该宾客盈门的,但今天却不是!为什么 会这样?发生了什么事?他想起了他用滚烫的精制油烹制的羊肉串、牛排和腊肉。 他的可乐又甜又冷,冰激凌用牛奶、奶油和水果制成的。他想:―再没有比这些更 好吃的了‖。突然间,他看到自己的朋友李昌匆匆地走过。他喊道,―喂,老李!你 还是吃老一套的吧?‖可是李昌似乎没有听到。怎么会事呢?要是李昌不像往常那 样到他店里吃饭,那问题一定严重了。 王鹏跟着李昌来到街尾一家新开张的小餐馆。窗子上的标牌写着这样一些字: ―肥腻的东西吃厌了吧!想变瘦吗?请到雍慧减肥餐馆来。此地只供应减肥食品, 让你恢复苗条!‖ 王鹏受到好奇心的驱使,走了进去。里面坐满了人。店老板,一个清瘦的女人 走上前来说道:―欢迎光临!我叫雍慧。您要是每天来这儿用餐,我可以保证在两 周内去掉您的全部脂肪,‖然后,她递给王鹏一张菜谱,菜谱上有很少几样食物和 饮料:米饭、蘸醋吃的生蔬菜、水果和水。王鹏对此感到吃惊,特别是对它们的价

格。这比在他的餐馆里吃一顿好饭花的钱还要多。他几乎不能相信他的眼睛!他甩 了菜谱就急急往外走。 在回家的路上, 他想起了自己的菜谱。 那些菜让人发胖了吗? 也许他该去图书馆查查看。他可不能让雍慧哄骗人们后跑掉。他最好做一番调查! 在图书馆,王鹏很惊讶地发现,他餐馆的食物脂肪含量太高,而雍慧餐馆的食 物脂肪含量又太低。尽管顾客吃她的餐馆里的饭会变得苗条,但他们摄取不到足够 的热量来保持健康,很快就会感到疲乏。开车回家时,王鹏觉得又有了希望。也许 写个新的标牌、打点折,能够帮他赢回顾客!于是他写下了他的标牌: ―想保持苗条、健康又精力旺盛吗? 到这里来用餐吧!今天打折! 我们的食物能够给您提供一整天所需的热量!‖ 这两家餐馆之间的竞争开始了!

COME AND EAT HERE(2) A week later, Wang Peng' s restaurant was nearly full and he felt happier. Perhaps he would be able to earn his living after all and not have to close his restaurant. He did not look forward to being in debt because his restaurant was no longer popular. He smiled as he welcomed some customers warmly at the door but the smile left his face when he saw Yong Hui walking in. She did not look happy but glared at him. " May I ask what you were doing in my restaurant the other day? I thought you were a new customer and now I know that you only came to spy on me and my menu," she shouted. " Please excuse me," he calmly explained," I wanted to know where all my customers had gone last week. I followed one of them and found them in your restaurant. I don' t want to upset you, but I found your menu so limited that I stopped worrying and started advertising the benefits of my food. Why don' t you sit down and try a meal?" Yong Hui agreed to stay and soon they were both enjoying dumplings and breast of chicken cooked with garlic. When they were served the ice cream,Yong Hui began to look ill. "I feel sick with all this fat and heavy food,"she said,"I miss my vegetables and fruit. "Wang Peng was enjoying a second plate of dumplings so he sighed. " Yes," he added," and I would miss my dumplings and fatty pork. Don't you get tired quickly?""Well,I do have to rest a lot,"admitted Yong Hui. "But don't you think it would be better if you were a bit thinner? I’m sure you ' d feel much healthier. " They began to talk about menus and balanced diets. " According to my research, neither your restaurant nor mine offers a balanced diet," explained Wang Peng. " I don' t offer enough fibre and you don' t offer enough body-building and energy-giving food.

Perhaps we ought to combine our ideas and provide a balanced menu with food full of energy and fibre. " So that is what they did. They served raw vegetables with the hamburgers and boiled the potatoes rather than frying them. They served fresh fruit with the ice cream. In this way they cut down the fat and increased the fibre in the meal. Their balanced diets became- such a success that before long Wang Peng became slimmer and Yong Hui put on more weight. After some time the two found that their business cooperation had turned into a personal one. Finally they got married and lived happily ever after! 到这里来用餐吧(2) 一周后,王鹏的餐馆几乎坐满了人,他感到高兴些了。也许他仍然能够谋生, 而不至于关闭自己的餐馆。他不希望由于餐馆不受欢迎而负债。他微笑地站在门口 热情地迎接他的客人。但他一见到雍慧走进来,脸上的笑容马上就消失了。雍慧瞪 着他,看上去不太高兴。―请问你那天到我餐馆里来干什么?‖她大声问道,―我本来 以为你是一位新顾客,现在我才发现你只是过来打探我和我的菜谱的。‖王鹏心平 气和地解释说,―很对不起,上周我想知道我的顾客是上哪儿吃饭去了。我并不想 让你心烦,不过我发现你的菜谱上的菜太少了,所以我也就不着急了,我也开始宣 传我餐馆食物的好处。你为什么不坐下吃顿饭呢?‖ 雍慧同意留下来。没过一会,他们两人就津津有味地吃起饺子和蒜蓉及胸。当 要吃冰激凌时,雍慧开始感到不舒服了。她说,―吃了这么多油腻的、难消化的食 物,我都觉得恶心了。我想吃我的蔬菜和水果。‖这时候,王鹏正在吃第二盘饺子, 他叹了一口气,说道,―同样地, (如果在你的餐馆)我还想吃我的饺子和肥肉呢。 你不觉得自己很容易疲乏么?‖―是的,我的确经常需要休息;‖雍慧承认了,―不过, 难道你不认为你瘦一点更好么?我相信,那样你会觉得更健康些。‖ 他们开始谈论菜谱和平衡膳食的问题。王鹏解释道,―我的研究表明,你我两 家所提供的都不是平衡膳食。我没有提供足够的纤维食物,而你提供的食物没有足 够的营养和热量。也许我们应该把我们的想法综合起来,作出一份富于营养、热量 和纤维的平衡食谱。‖于是,他们就照此做了。他们用生蔬菜配汉堡包,煮土豆不 是油炸土豆,还拿新鲜水果配上冰激凌。这样,他们减少了饭菜中的脂肪含量,增 加了纤维素。他们的平衡食谱非常有效,王鹏很快就瘦了,而雍慧却胖了,过了不 久,这两个人发现,他们生意上的合作变成了私人的合作了。最后,他们结了婚, 过上了幸福美满的生活。 必修 3 Unit 3 THE MILLION POUND BANK NOTE

Act I, Scene 3 NARRATOR: It is the summer of 1903. Two old and wealthy brothers, Roderick and Oliver, have made a bet. Oliver believes that with a million pound bank note a man could survive a month in London. His brother Roderick doubts it. At this moment, they see a penniless young man wandering on the pavement outside their house. It is Henry Adams, an American businessman, who is lost in London and does not know what he should do. RODERICK: Young man, would you step inside a moment, please? HENRY: Who? Me, sir? RODERICK: Yes, you. OLIVER: Through the front door on your left. HENRY: (A servant opens a door) Thanks. SERVANT: Good morning, sir. Would you please come in? Permit me to lead the way, sir. OLIVER: (Henry enters) Thank you, James. That will be all. RODERICK: How do you do, Mr ... er ...? HENRY: Adams. Henry Adams. OLIVER: Come and sit down, Mr Adams. HENRY: Thank you. RODERICK: You're an American? HENRY: That's right, from San Francisco. RODERICK: How well do you know London? HENRY: Not at all, it's my first trip here. RODERICK: I wonder, Mr Adams, if you'd mind us asking a few questions. HENRY: Not at all. Go right ahead. RODERICK: May we ask what you're doing in this country and what your plans are? HENRY: Well, I can't say that I have any plans. I'm hoping to find work. As a matter of fact, I landed in Britain by accident. OLIVER: How is that possible? HENRY: Well, you see, back home I had my own boat. About a month ago, I was sailing out of the bay ... (his eyes stare at what is left of the brother's dinner on table) OLIVER: Well, go on. HENRY: Oh, yes. Well, towards nightfall I found myself carried out to sea by a strong wind. It was all my fault. I didn't know whether I could survive until morning. The next morning I'd just about given myself up for lost when I was spotted by a ship. OLIVER: And it was the ship that brought you to England. HENRY: Yes. The fact is that I earned my passage by working as an unpaid hand, which accounts for my appearance. I went to the American embassy to seek help, but ... (The brothers smile at each other.) RODERICK: Well, you mustn't worry about that. It's an advantage. HENRY: I'm afraid I don't quite follow you, sir. RODERICK: Tell us, Mr Adams, what sort of work did you do in America?

HENRY: I worked for a mining company. Could you offer me some kind of work here? RODERICK: Patience, Mr Adams. If you don't mind, may I ask you how much money you have? HENRY: Well, to be honest, I have none. OLIVER: (happily) What luck! Brother, what luck! (claps his hands together) HENRY: Well, it may seem lucky to you but not to me! On the contrary, in fact. If this is your idea of some kind of joke, I don't think it's very funny. (Henry stands up to leave) Now if you'll excuse me, I think I'll be on my way. RODERICK: Please don't go, Mr Adams~ You mustn't think we don't care about you. Oliver, give him the letter. OLIVER: Yes, the letter. (gets it from a desk and gives it to Henry like a gift) The letter. HENRY: (taking it carefully) For me? RODERICK: For you. (Henry starts to open it) Oh, no, you mustn't open it. Not yet. You can't open it until two o'clock. HENRY: Oh, this is silly. RODERICK: Not silly. There's money in it. (calls to the servant) James? HENRY: Oh, no. I don't want your charity. I just want an honest job. RODERICK: We know you're hard-working. That's why we've given you the letter. James, show Mr Adams out. OLIVER: Good luck, Mr Adams. HENRY: Well, why don't you explain what this is all about? RODERICK: You'll soon know. (looks at the clock) In exactly an hour and a half. SERVANT: This way, sir. RODERICK: Mr Adams, not until 2 o'clock. Promise? HENRY: Promise. Goodbye. THE MILLION POUND BANK NOTE Act I, Scene 4 (Outside a restaurant Henry looks at the envelope without opening it and decides to go in. He sits down at a table next to the front window.) OWNER: (seeing Henry's poor appearance) That one's reserved. This way, please. (to the waiter) Take this gentleman's order, Horace. HENRY: (after sitting down and putting the letter on the table) I'd like some ham and eggs and a nice big steak. Make it extra thick. I'd also like a cup of coffee and a pineapple dessert. WAITER: Right, sir. I'm afraid it'll cost a large amount of money. HENRY: I understand. And I'll have a large glass of beer. WAITER: OK. (The waiter leaves and soon returns with all the food.)

HOSTESS: My goodness! Why, look at him. He eats like a wolf. OWNER: We'll see if he's clever as a wolf, eh? HENRY: (having just finished every bit of food) Ah, waiter. (waiter returns) Same thing again, please. Oh, and another beer. WAITER: Again? Everything? HENRY: Yes, that's right. (sees the look on the waiter's face) Anything wrong? WAITER: No, not at all. (to the owner) He's asked for more of the same. OWNER: Well, it is well-known that Americans like to eat a lot. Well, we'll have to take a chance. Go ahead and let him have it. WAITER: (reading the bill after the meal) All right. That's two orders of ham and eggs, two extra thick steaks, two large glasses of beer, two cups of coffee and two desserts. HENRY: (looking at the clock on the wall) Would you mind waiting just a few minutes? WAITER: (in a rude manner) What's there to wait for? OWNER: All right, Horace. I'll take care of this. HENRY: (to owner) That was a wonderful meal. It's amazing how much pleasure you get out of tile simple things in life, especially if you can't have them for a while. OWNER: Yes, very interesting. Now perhaps, sir, if you pay your bill I can help the other customers. HENRY: (looking at the clock on the wall again) Well, I see it's two o'clock. (he opens the envelope and holds a million pound bank note in his hands. Henry is surprised but the owner and waiter are shocked) I'm very sorry. But ... I ... I don't have anything smaller. OWNER: (still shocked and nervous) Well .. er ... just one moment. Maggie, look! (the hostess screams, the other customers look at her and she puts a hand to her mouth) Do you think it's genuine? HOSTESS: Oh, dear, I don't know. I simply don't know. OWNER: Well, I did hear that the Bank of England had issued two notes in this amount ... Anyway, I don't think it can be a fake. People would pay too much attention to a bank note of this amount. No thief would want that to happen. HOSTESS: But he's in rags! OWNER: Perhaps he's a very strange, rich man. (as if he has discovered something for the first time) Why, yes! That must be it! HOSTESS: (hits her husband's arm) And you put him in the back of the restaurant! Go and see him at once. OWNER: (to Henry) I'm so sorry, sir, so sorry, but I cannot change this bank note. HENRY: But it's all I have on me. OWNER: Oh, please, don't worry, sir. Doesn't matter at all. We're so very glad that you even entered our little eating place. Indeed, sir, I hope you'll come here whenever you like. HENRY: Well, that's very kind of you. OWNER: Kind, sir? No, it's kind of you. You must come whenever you want and

have whatever you like. Just having you sit here is a great honour! As for the bill, sir, please forget it. HENRY: Forget it? Well ... thank you very much. That's very nice of you. OWNER: Oh, it's for us to thank you, sir and I do, sir, from the bottom of my heart. (The owner, hostess and waiter all bow as Henry leaves.) 必修 3 Unit 4 HOW LIFE BEGAN ON THE EARTH

No one knows exactly how the earth began, as it happened so long ago. However, according to a widely accepted theory, the universe began with a "Big Bang" that threw matter in all directions.After that, atoms began to form and combine to create stars and other bodies. For several billion years after the "Big Bang", the earth was still just a cloud of dust. What it was to become was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. The earth became so violent that it was not clear whether the shape would last or not. It exploded loudly with fire and rock. They were in time to produce carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth's atmosphere. What is even more important is that as the earth cooled down, water began to appear on its surface. Water had also appeared on other planets like Mars but, unlike the earth, it had disappeared later. It was not immediately obvious that water was to be fundamental to the development of life. What many scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed the earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas. This produced a chain reaction, which made it possible for life to develop. Many millions of years later, the first extremely small plants began to appear on the surface of the water. They multiplied and filled the oceans and seas with oxygen, which encouraged the later development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. Next, green plants began to grow on land. They were followed in time by land animals. Some were insects. Others, called amphibians, were able to live on land as well as in the water. Later when the plants grew into forests, reptiles appeared for the first time. They produced young enerally by laying eggs. After that, some huge animals, called dinosaurs, developed. They laid eggs too and existed on the earth for more than 140 million years. However, 65 million years ago the age of the dinosaurs ended. Why they suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery. This disappearance made possible the rise of mammals on the earth. These animals were different from all life forms in the past, because they gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.

Finally about 2.6 million years ago some small clever animals, now with hands and feet, appeared and spread all over the earth. Thus they have, in their turn, become the most important animals on the planet. But they are not looking after the earth very well. They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. As a result of this, many scientists believe the earth may become too hot to live on. So whether life will continue on the earth for millions of years to come will depend on whether this problem can be solved.

A VISIT TO THE MOON Last month I was lucky enough to have a chance to make a trip into space with my friend Li Yanping, an astronomer. We visited the moon in our spaceship! Before we left, Li Yanping explained to me that the force of gravity would change three times on our journey and that the first change would be the most powerful. Then we were off. As the rocket rose into the air, we were pushed back into our seats because we were trying to escape the pull of the earth's gravity. It was so hard that we could not say anything to each other. Gradually the weight lessened and I was able to talk to him. "Why is the spaceship not falling back to the earth? On the earth if I fall from a tree I will fall to the ground." I asked. "We are too far from the earth now to feel its pull," he explained, "so we feel as if there is no gravity at all. When we get closer to the moon, we shall feel its gravity pulling us, but it will not be as strong a pull as the earth's." I cheered up immediately and floated weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger. When we got there, I wanted to explore immediately. "Come on," I said. "If you are right, my mass will be less than on the earth because the moon is smaller and I will be able to move more freely. I might even grow taller if I stay here long enough. I shall certainly weigh less!" I laughed and climbed down the steps from the spaceship. But when I tried to step forward, I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over. "Oh dear," I cried, "walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed." After a while I got the hang of it and we began to enjoy ourselves. Leaving the moon's gravity was not as painful as leaving the earth's. But returning to the earth was very frightening. We watched, amazed as fire broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth's gravity increased. Again we were pushed hard into our seats as we came back to land. "That was very exhausting but very exciting too," I said. "Now I know much more about gravity! Do you think we could visit some stars next time?" "Of course," he smiled, "which star would you like to go to?" 必修 3 Unit 5 A TRIP ON "THE TRUE NORTH" Li Daiyu and her cousin Liu Qian were on a trip to Canada to visit their cousins in

Montreal on the Atlantic coast. Rather than take the aeroplane all the way, they decided to fly to Vancouver and then take the train west to east across Canada. The thought that they could cross the whole continent was exciting. Their friend, Danny Lin, was waiting at the airport. He was going to take them and their baggage to catch "The True North", the cross-Canada train. On the way to the station, he chatted about their trip. "You're going to see some great scenery. Going eastward, you'll pass mountains and thousands of lakes and forests, as well as wide rivers and large cities. Some people have the idea that you can cross Canada in less than five days, but they forget the fact that Canada is 5,500 kilometres from coast to coast. Here in Vancouver, you're in Canada's warmest part. People say it is Canada's most beautiful city, surrounded by mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Skiing in the Rocky Mountains and sailing in the harbour make Vancouver one of Canada's most popular cities to live in. Its population is increasing rapidly. The coast north of Vancouver has some of the oldest and most beautiful forests in the world. It is so wet there that the trees are extremely tall, some measuring over 90 metres." That afternoon aboard the train, the cousins settled down in their seats. Earlier that day, when they crossed the Rocky Mountains, they managed to catch sight of some mountain goats and even a grizzly bear and an eagle. Their next stop was Calgary, which is famous for the Calgary Stampede. Cowboys from all over the world come to compete in the Stampede. Many of them have a gift for riding wild horses and can win thousands of dollars in prizes. After two days' travel, the girls began to realize that Canada is quite empty. At school, they had learned that most Canadians live within a few hundred kilometres of the USA border, and Canada's population is only slightly over thirty million, but now they were amazed to see such an empty country. They went through a wheat-growing province and saw farms that covered thousands of acres. After dinner, they were back in an urban area, the busy port city of Thunder Bay at the top of the Great Lakes. The girls were surprised at the fact that ocean ships can sail up the Great Lakes. Because of the Great Lakes, they learned, Canada has more fresh water than any other country in the world. In fact, it has one-third of the world's total fresh water, and much of it is in the Great Lakes. That night as they slept, the train rushed across the top of Lake Superior, through the great forests and southward towards Toronto. ―THE TURE NORTH‖FROM TORONTO TO MONTREAL The next morning the bushes and maple trees outside their windows were red, gold and orange, and there was frost on the ground, confirming that fall had arrived in Canada. Around noon they arrived in Toronto, the biggest and most wealthy city in Canada. They were not leaving for Montreal until later, so they went on a tour of the city. They went up the tall CN Tower and looked across the lake. In the distance, they could

see the misty cloud that rose from the great Niagara Falls, which is on the south side of the lake. The water flows into the Niagara River and over the falls on its way to the sea. They saw the covered stadium, home of several famous basketball teams. As they walked north from the harbour area, Li Daiyu said, "Lin Fei, one of my mother's old schoolmates, lives here. I should phone her from a telephone booth." They met Lin Fei around dusk in downtown Chinatown, one of the three in Toronto. Over dinner at a restaurant called The Pink Pearl, the cousins chatted with Lin Fei, who had moved to Canada many years earlier. "We can get good Cantonese food here," Lin Fei told them, "because most of the Chinese people here come from South China, especially Hong Kong. It's too bad you can't go as far as Ottawa, Canada's capital. It's approximately four hundred kilometres northeast of Toronto, so it would take too long." The train left late that night and arrived in Montreal at dawn the next morning. At the station, people everywhere were speaking French. There were signs and ads in French, but some of them had English words in smaller letters. "We don't leave until this evening," said Liu Qian. "Let's go downtown. Old Montreal is close to the water." They spent the afternoon in lovely shops and visiting artists in their workplaces beside the water. As they sat in a buffet restaurant looking over the broad St Lawrence River, a young man sat down with them. "Hello, my name is Henri. I'm a student at the university nearby," he said, "and I was wondering where you are from." The girls told him they were on a train trip across Canada and that they had only one day in Montreal. "That's too bad," he said. "Montreal is a city with wonderful restaurants and clubs. Most of us speak both English and French, but the city has French culture and traditions. We love good coffee, good bread and good music." That night as the train was speeding along the St Lawrence River toward the Gulf of St Lawrence and down to the distant east coast, the cousins dreamed of French restaurants and red maple leaves. 必修 4 Unit 1 A STUDENT OF AFRICAN WILDLIFE It is 5:45 am and the sun is just rising over Gombe National Park in East Africa. Following Jane's way of studying chimps, our group are all going to visit them in the forest. Jane has studied these families of chimps for many years and helped people understand how much they behave like humans. Watching a family of chimps wake up is our first activity of the day. This means going back to the place where we left the family sleeping in a tree the night before. Everybody sits and waits in the shade of the trees while the family begins to wake up and move off. Then we follow as they wander into the forest. Most of the time, chimps either feed or clean each other as a way of showing love in their family. Jane warns us that our group is going to be very tired and dirty by

the afternoon and she is right. However, the evening makes it all worthwhile. We watch the mother chimp and her babies play in the tree. Then we see them go to sleep together in their nest for the night. We realize that the bond between members of a chimp family is as strong as in a human family. Nobody before Jane fully understood chimp behaviour. She spent years observing and recording their daily activities. Since her childhood she had wanted to work with animals in their own environment. However, this was not easy. When she first arrived in Gombe in 1960, it was unusual for a woman to live in the forest. Only after her mother came to help her for the first few months was she allowed to begin her project. Her work changed the way people think about chimps. For example, one important thing she discovered was that chimps hunt and eat meat. Until then everyone had thought chimps ate only fruit and nuts. She actually observed chimps as a group hunting a monkey and then eating it. She also discovered how chimps communicate with each other, and her study of their body language helped her work out their social system. For forty years Jane Goodall has been outspoken about making the rest of the world understand and respect the life of these animals. She has argued that wild animals should be left in the wild and not used for entertainment or advertisements. She has helped to set up special places where they can live safely. She is leading a busy life but she says: "Once I stop, it all comes crowding in and I remember the chimps in laboratories. It's terrible. It affects me when I watch the wild chimps. I say to myself, 'Aren't they lucky?" And then I think about small chimps in cages though they have done nothing wrong. Once you have seen that you can never forget ..." She has achieved everything she wanted to do: working with animals in their own environment, gaining a doctor's degree and showing that women can live in the forest as men can. She inspires those who want to cheer the achievements of women. WHY NOT CARRY ON HER GOOD WORK? I enjoyed English, biology, and chemistry at school, but which one should I choose to study at university? I did not know the answer until one evening when I sat down at the computer to do some research on great women of China. By chance I came across an article about a doctor called Lin Qiaozhi, a specialist in women's diseases. She lived from 1901 to 1983. It seemed that she had been very busy in her chosen career, travelling abroad to study as well as writing books and articles. One of them caught my eye. It was a small book explaining how to cut the death rate from having and caring for babies. She gave some simple rules to follow for keeping babies clean, healthy and free from sickness. Why did she write that? Who were the women that Lin Qiaozhi thought needed this advice? I looked carefully at the text and realized that it was intended for women in the countryside. Perhaps if they had an emergency they could not reach a doctor.

Suddenly it hit me how difficult it was for a woman to get medical training at that time. That was a generation when girls' education was always placed second to boys'. Was she so much cleverer than anyone else? Further reading made me realize that it was hard work and determination as well as her gentle nature that got her into medical school. What made her succeed later on was the kindness and consideration she showed to all her patients. There was story after story of how Lin Qiaozhi, tired after a day's work, went late at night to deliver a baby for a poor family who could not pay her. By now I could not wait to find out more about her. I discovered that Lin Qiaozhi had devoted her whole life to her patients and had chosen not to have a family of her own. Instead she made sure that about 50,000 babies were safely delivered. By this time I was very excited. Why not study at medical college like Lin Qiaozhi and carry on her good work? It was still not too late for me to improve my studies, prepare for the university entrance examinations, and…. 必修 4 Unit 2 A PIONEER FOR ALL PEOPLE Although he is one of China's most famous scientists, Yuan Longping considers himself a farmer, for he works the land to do his research. Indeed, his sunburnt face and arms and his slim, strong body are just like those of millions of Chinese farmers, for whom he has struggled for the past five decades. Dr Yuan Longping grows what is called super hybrid rice. In 1974, he became the first agricultural pioneer in the world to grow rice that has a high output. This special strain of rice makes it possible to produce one-third more of the crop in the same fields. Now more than 60% of the rice produced in China each year is from this hybrid strain. Born into a poor farmer's family in 1930, Dr Yuan graduated from Southwest Agricultural College in 1953. Since then, finding ways to grow more rice has been his life goal. As a young man, he saw the great need for increasing the rice output. At that time, hunger was a disturbing problem in many parts of the countryside. Dr Yuan searched for a way to increase rice harvests without expanding the area of the fields. In 1950, Chinese farmers could produce only fifty million tons of rice. In a recent harvest, however, nearly two hundred million tons of rice was produced. These increased harvests mean that 22% of the world's people are fed from just 7% of the farmland in China. Dr Yuan is now circulating his knowledge in India, Vietnam and many other less developed countries to increase their rice harvests. Thanks to his research, the UN has more tools in the battle to rid the world of hunger. Using his hybrid rice, farmers are producing harvests twice as large as before. Dr Yuan is quite satisfied with his life. However, he doesn't care about being famous. He feels it gives him less freedom to do his research. He would much rather keep time for his hobbles. He enjoys listening to violin music, playing mah-jong, swimming and reading. Spending money on himself or leading a comfortable life also

means very little to him. Indeed, he believes that a person with too much money has more rather than fewer troubles. He therefore gives millions of yuan to equip others for their research in agriculture. Just dreaming for things, however, costs nothing. Long ago Dr yuan had a dream about rice plants as tall as sorghum. Each ear of rice was as big as an ear of corn and each grain of rice was as huge as a peanut. Dr Yuan awoke from his dream with the hope of producing a kind of rice that could feed more people. Now, many years later, Dr Yuan has another dream: to export his rice so that it can be grown around the globe. One dream is not always enough, especially for a person who loves and cares for his people.

CHEMICAL OR ORGANIC FARMING? Over the past half century, using chemical fertilizers has become very common in farming. Many farmers welcomed them as a great way to stop crop disease and increase production. Recently, however, scientists have been finding that long-term use of these fertilizers can cause damage to the land and, even more dangerous, to people's health. What are some of the problems caused by chemical fertilizers? First, they damage the land by killing the helpful bacteria and pests as well as the harmful ones. Chemicals also stay in the ground and underground water for a long time. This affects crops and, therefore, animals and humans, since chemicals get inside the crops and cannot just be washed off. These chemicals in the food supply build up in people's bodies over time. Many of these chemicals can lead to cancer or other illnesses. In addition, fruit, vegetables and other food grown with chemical fertilizers usually grow too fast to be full of much nutrition. They may look beautiful, but inside there is usually more water than vitamins and minerals. With these discoveries, some farmers and many customers are beginning to turn to organic farming. Organic farming is simply farming without using any chemicals. They focus on keeping their soil rich and free of disease. A healthy soil reduces disease and helps crops grow strong and healthy. Organic farmers, therefore, often prefer using natural waste from animals as fertilizer. They feel that this makes the soil in their fields richer in minerals and so more fertile. This also keeps the air, soil, water and crops free from chemicals. Organic farmers also use many other methods to keep the soil fertile. They often change the kind of crop in each field every few years, for example, growing corn or wheat and then the next year peas or soybeans. Crops such as peas or soybeans put important minerals back into the soil, making it ready for crops such as wheat or corn that need rich and fertile soil. Organic farmers also plant crops to use different levels of soil, for example, planting peanuts that use the ground's surface followed by vegetables that put down deep roots. Some organic farmers prefer planting grass between crops to prevent wind or water from carrying away the soil, and then leaving it in the ground to become a natural fertilizer for the next year's crop. These many different organic farming

methods have the same goal: to grow good food and avoid damaging the environment or people's health. 必修 4 Unit 3 A MASTER OF NONVERBAL HUMOUR As Victor Hugo once said, "Laughter is the sun that drives winter from the human face", and up to now nobody has been able to do this better than Charlie Chaplin. He brightened the lives of Americans and British through two world wars and the hard years in between. He made people laugh at a time when they felt depressed, so they could feel more content with their lives. Not that Charlie's own life was easy! He was born in a poor family in 1889. His parents were both poor music hall performers. You may find it astonishing that Charlie was taught to sing as soon as he could speak and dance as soon as he could walk. Such training was common in acting families at this time, especially when the family income was often uncertain. Unfortunately his father died, leaving the family even worse off, so Charlie spent his childhood looking after his sick mother and his brother. By his teens, Charlie had, through his humour, become one of the most popular child actors in England. He could mime and act the fool doing ordinary everyday tasks. No one was ever bored watching him -his subtle acting made everything entertaining. As time went by, he began making films. He grew more and more popular as his charming character, the little tramp, became known throughout the world. The tramp, a poor, homeless man with a moustache, wore large trousers, worn-out shoes and a small round black hat. He walked around stilly carrying a walking stick. This character was a social failure but was loved for his optimism and determination to overcome all difficulties. He was the underdog who was kind even when others were unkind to him. How did the little tramp make a sad situation entertaining? Here is an example from one of his most famous films, The Gold Rush. It is the mid-nineteenth century and gold has just been discovered in California. Like so many others, the little tramp and his friend have rushed there in search of gold, but without success. Instead they are hiding in a small hut on the edge of a mountain during a snowstorm with nothing to eat. They are so hungry that they try boiling a pair of leather shoes for their dinner. Charlie first picks out the laces and eats them as if they were spaghetti. Then he cuts off the leather top of the shoe as if it were the finest steak. Finally he tries cutting and chewing the bottom of the shoe. He eats each mouthful with great enjoyment. The acting is so convincing that it makes you believe that it is one of the best meals he has ever tasted! Charlie Chaplin wrote, directed and produced the films he starred in. In 1972 he was given a special Oscar for his outstanding work in films. He lived in England and the USA but spent his last years in Switzerland, where he was buried in 1977. He is loved and remembered as a great actor who could inspire people with great confidence. ENGLISH JOKES

1 There are thousands of jokes which use "play on words" to amuse us. One person asks a question which expects a particular reply. Instead, what he gets is another kind of answer which makes the situation funny. Now read some of these customer and waiter jokes. Can you match the joke with the explanation? 1 C: What's that fly doing in my soup? W: Swimming, I think! 2 C: What's that? W: It's bean soup. C: I don't want to know what it's been. I want to know what it is now. 3 C: Waiter, will the pancakes be long? W: No, sir. Round.

2 Some jokes are longer and tell a short, funny story. The following is one of those jokes about the famous detective Sherlock Holmes and his friend Doctor Watson. Read it and decide which of these two kinds of jokes you like better. Give your reasons. Sherlock Holmes and Doctor Watson went camping in a mountainous area. They were lying in the open air under the stars. Sherlock Holmes looked up at the stars and whispered, "Watson, when you look at that beautiful sky, what do you think of?" Watson replied, "I think of how short life is and how long the universe has lasted." "No, no, Watson!" Holmes said. "What do you really think of?." Watson tried again. "I think of how small I am and how vast the sky is." "Try again, Watson!" said Holmes. Watson tried a third time. "I think of how cold the universe is and how warm people can be in their beds." Holmes said, "Watson, you fool! You should be thinking that someone has stolen our tent!" 必修 4 Unit 4 COMMUNICATION: NO PROBLEM? Yesterday, another student and I, representing our university's student association, went to the Capital International Airport to meet this year's international students. They were coming to study at Beijing University. We would take them first to their dormitories and then to the student canteen. After half an hour of waiting for their flight to arrive, I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously. I stood for a minute watching them and then went to greet them. The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia, closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain. After I met them and then introduced them to each other, I was very surprised. Tony approached Julia, touched her shoulder and kissed her on the cheek!

She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence. I guessed that there was probably a major misunderstanding. Then Akira Nagata from Japan came in smiling, together with George Cook from Canada. As they were introduced, George reached his hand out to the Japanese student. Just at that moment, however, Akira bowed so his nose touched George's moving hand. They both apologized - another cultural mistake! Ahmed Aziz, another international student, was from Jordan. When we met yesterday, he moved very close to me as I introduced myself. I moved back a bit, but he came closer to ask a question and then shook my hand. When Darlene Coulon from France came dashing through the door, she recognized Tony Garcia's smiling face. They shook hands and then kissed each other twice on each cheek, since that is the French custom when adults meet people they know. Ahmed Aziz., on the contrary, simply nodded at the girls. Men from Middle Eastern and other Muslim countries will often stand quite close to other men to talk but will usually not touch women. As I get to know more international friends, I learn more about this cultural "body language". Not all cultures greet each other the same way, nor are they comfortable in the same way with touching or distance between people. In the same way that people communicate with spoken language, they also express their feelings using unspoken "language" through physical distance, actions or posture. English people, for example, do not usually stand very close to others or touch strangers as soon as they meet. However, people from places like Spain, Italy or South American countries approach others closely and are more likely to touch them. Most people around the world now greet each other by shaking hands, but some cultures use other greetings as well, such as the Japanese, who prefer to bow. These actions are not good or bad, but are simply ways in which cultures have developed. I have seen, however, that cultural customs for body language are very general - not all members of a culture behave in the same way. In general, though, studying international customs can certainly help avoid difficulties in today's world of cultural crossroads! SHOWING OUR FEELINGS Body language is one of the most powerful means of communication, often even more powerful than spoken language. People around the world show all kinds of feelings, wishes and attitudes that they might never speak aloud. It is possible to "read" others around us, even if they do not intend for us to catch their unspoken communication. Of course, body language can be misread, but many gestures and actions are universal. The most universal facial expression is, of course, the smile – its function is to show happiness and put people at ease. It does not always mean that we are truly happy, however. Smiles around the world can be false, hiding other feelings like anger, fear or worry. There are unhappy smiles, such as when someone "loses face" and smiles to hide it. However, the general purpose of smiling is to show good feelings.

From the time we are babies, we show unhappiness or anger by frowning. In most places around the world, frowning and turning one's back to someone shows anger. Making a fist and shaking it almost always means that someone is angry and threatening another person. There are many ways around the world to show agreement, but nodding the head up and down is used for agreement, almost worldwide. Most people also understand that shaking the head from side to side means disagreement or refusal. How about showing that I am bored? Looking away from people or yawning will, in most cases, make me appear to be uninterested. However, if I turn toward and look at someone or something, people from almost every culture will think that I am interested. If I roll my eyes and turn my head away, I most likely do not believe what I am hearing or do not like it. Being respectful to people is subjective, based on each culture, but in general it is probably not a good idea to give a hug to a boss or teacher. In almost every culture, it is not usually good to stand too close to someone of a higher rank. Standing at a little distance with open hands will show that I am willing to listen. With so many cultural differences between people, it is great to have some similarities in body language. We can often be wrong about each other, so it is an amazing thing that we understand each other as well as we do!

必修 4 Unit 5 THEME PARKS — FUN AND MORE THAN FUN Which theme park would you like to visit? There are various kinds of theme parks, with a different park for almost everything: food, culture, science, cartoons, movies or history. Some parks are famous for having the biggest or longest roller coasters, others for showing the famous sights and sounds of a culture. Whichever and whatever you like, there is a theme park for you! The theme park you are probably most familiar with is Disneyland. It can be found in several parts of the world. It will bring you into a magical world and make your dreams come true, whether traveling through space, visiting a pirate ship or meeting your favourite fairy tale or Disney cartoon character. As you wander around the fantasy amusement park, you may see Snow White or Mickey Mouse in a parade or on the street. Of course Disneyland also has many exciting rides, from giant swinging ships to terrifying free-fall drops. With all these attractions, no wonder tourism is increasing wherever there is a Disneyland. If you want to have fun and more than fun, come to Disneyland! Dollywood, in the beautiful Smoky Mountains in the southeastern USA, is one of the most unique theme parks in the world. Dollywood shows and

celebrates America's traditional southeastern culture. Although Dollywood has rides, the park's main attraction is its culture. Famous country music groups perform there all year in indoor and outdoor theatres. People come from all over America to see carpenters and other craftsmen make wood, glass and iron objects in the old-fashioned way. Visit the candy shop to try the same kind of candy that American southerners made 150 years ago, or take a ride on the only steam- engine train still working in the southeast USA. You can even see beautiful bald eagles in the world's largest bald eagle preserve. And for those who like rides, Dollywood has one of the best old wooden roller coasters, Thunderhead. It is world-famous for having the most length in the smallest space. Come to Dollywood to have fun learning all about America's historical southeastern culture! If you want to experience the ancient days and great deeds of English knights and ladies, princes and queens, then England's Camelot Park is the place for you. Every area of the park is modelled after life in the days of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. In one place, you can watch magic shows with Merlin the Wizard. If you want to see fighting with swords or on horseback, then the jousting area is a good place to visit. If you do well there, King Arthur may choose you to fight in the big jousting tournament. Do you like animals? Then visit the farm area, and learn how people in ancient England ran their farms and took care of their animals. To enter a world of fantasy about ancient England, come to Camelot Park! FUTUROSCOP —EXCITEMENT AND LEARNING

Last week I took a journey deep into space, to the end of the solar system, and was pulled into a black hole. Then I took a trip to Brazil and experienced surviving an airplane crash in the jungle. After that, I joined some divers and went to the bottom of the ocean to see strange blind creatures that have never seen sunlight. For a break, I took part in some car racing and then skied down some of the most difficult mountains in the world. I ended my travels by meeting face to face with a dinosaur, the terrible T-Rex, and survived the experience! I did all this in one great day at Futuroscope. Opened in 1987, Futuroscope is one of the largest space-age parks in the world. This science and technology-based theme park in France uses the most advanced technology. Its 3-D cinemas and giant movie screens provide brand new experiences of the earth and beyond. Visitors can get close to parts of the world they have never experienced, going to the bottom of the ocean, flying through the jungle or visiting the edges of the solar system. The amazing, up-to-date information together with many opportunities for hands-on learning makes the world come to life in a completely new way for visitors. Learning centres throughout the park let visitors try their own scientific experiments, as well as learn more about space travel, the undersea world and much mote. I bought tickets for myself and my friends at the park's entrance, but tickets are also available online. Futuroscope is not only for individuals, but is also the perfect mix

of fun and learning for class outings. Classes or other large groups that let Futuroscope know their plans in advance can get the group admission rate. For anyone coming from out of town, Futuroscope has many excellent hotels nearby, most of which provide a shuttle service to the park. If driving, Futuroscope is within easy reach of the freeway. Plan your trip well before starting, since Futuroscope has so many shows, activities and great souvenir shops that it is difficult to see them all. Come ready to walk a lot - be sure to wear some comfortable sneakers or other walking shoes! 必修 5 Unit 1 JOHH SHOW DEFEATS ―KING CHOLERA‖ John Snow was a famous doctor in London - so expert, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. This was the deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause nor its cure was understood. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. John Snow wanted to face the challenge and solve this problem. He knew that cholera would never be controlled until its cause was found. He became interested in two theories that possibly explained how cholera killed people. The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. A cloud of dangerous gas floated around until it found its victims. The second suggested that people absorbed this disease into their bodies with their meals. From the stomach the disease quickly attacked the body and soon the affected person died. John Snow suspected that the second theory was correct but he needed evidence. So when another outbreak hit London in 1854, he was ready to begin his enquiry. As the disease spread quickly through poor neighbourhoods, he began to gather information. In two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people died in ten days. He was determined to find out why. First he marked on a map the exact places where all the dead people had lived. This gave him a valuable clue about the cause of the disease. Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Street (especially numbers 16, 37, 38 and 40). He also noticed that some houses (such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street) had had no deaths. He had not foreseen this, so he made further investigations. He discovered that these people worked in the pub at 7 Cambridge Street. They had been given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the pump. It seemed that the water was to blame. Next, John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets. He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. He immediately told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the pump so that it could not be used. Soon afterwards the disease slowed down. He had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas.

In another part of London, he found supporting evidence from two other deaths that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak. A woman, who had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water from the pump so much that she had it delivered to her house every day. Both she and her daughter died of cholera after drinking the water. With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water any more. Finally "King Cholera" was defeated. COPERNICUS’ REVOLUTIONRRY THEORY Nicolaus Copernicus was frightened and his mind was confused. Although he had tried to ignore them, all his mathematical calculations led to the same conclusion: that the earth was not the centre of the solar system. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. Yet he could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. They believed God had made the world and for that reason the earth was special and must be the centre of the solar system. The problem arose because astronomers had noticed that some planets in the sky seemed to stop, move backward and then go forward in a loop. Others appeared brighter at times and less bright at others. This was very strange if the earth was the centre of the solar system and all planets went round it. Copernicus had thought long and hard about these problems and tried to find an answer. He had collected observations of the stars and used all his mathematical knowledge to explain them. But only his new theory could do that. So between 1510 and 1514 he worked on it, gradually improving his theory until he felt it was complete. In 1514 he showed it privately to his friends. The changes he made to the old theory were revolutionary. He placed a fixed sun at the centre of the solar system with the planets going round it and only the moon still going round the earth. He also suggested that the earth was spinning as it went round the sun and this explained changes in the movement of the planets and in the brightness of the stars. His friends were enthusiastic and encouraged him to publish his ideas, but Copernicus was cautious. He did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church, so he only published it as he lay dying in 1543. Certainly he was right to be careful. The Christian Church rejected his theory, saying it was against God's idea and people who supported it would be attacked. Yet Copernicus' theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the universe are built. His theory replaced the Christian idea of gravity, which said things fell to earth because God created the earth as the centre of the universe. Copernicus showed this was obviously wrong. Now people can see that there is a direct link between his theory and the work of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking.

必修 5 Unit 2 PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY People may wonder why different words are used to describe these four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. You can clarify this question if you study British history. First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to "Great Britain". Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well. Finally the English government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way. However, the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government. So only Northern Ireland joined with England, Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack. To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg, the currency and international relations), but they still have very different institutions. For example, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland have different educational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competitions like the World Cup! England is the largest of the four countries, and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones. The zone nearest France is called the South of England, the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland is known as the North. You find most of the population settled in the south, but most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the North of England. Although, nationwide, these cities are not as large as those in China, they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two! It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors. For historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the Romans. There you will find out more about British history and culture. The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums, art collections, theatres, parks and buildings. It is the centre of national government and its administration. It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the first century AD, the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Saxons in the 1060s and the oldest castle constructed by later Norman rulers in 1066. There has been four sets of invaders of England. The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads. The second, the Anglo-Saxons, left their language and their government. The third, the Vikings, influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England, and the fourth, the Normans, left castles and introduced new words for food. If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all these

invaders. You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile. SIGHTSEEING IN LONDON Worried about the time available, Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London. Her first delight was going to the Tower. It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066. Fancy! This solid stone, square tower had remained standing for one thousand years.Although the buildings had expanded around it, it remained part of a royal palace and prison combined. To her great surprise, Zhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers who, on special occasions, still wore the four-hundred-year-old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth I. There followed St Paul's Cathedral built after the terrible fire of London in 1666. It looked splendid when first built! Westminster Abbey, too, was very interesting. It contained statues in memory of dead poets and writers, such as Shakespeare. Then just as she came out of the abbey, Pingyu heard the famous sound of the clock, Big Ben, ringing out the hour. She finished the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palace, the Queen's house in London. Oh, she had so much to tell her friends! The second day the girl visited Greenwich and saw its old ships and famous clock that sets the world time. What interested her most was the longitude line. It is an imaginary line dividing the eastern and western halves of the world and is very useful for navigation. It passes through Greenwich, so Pingyu had a photo taken standing on either side of the line. The last day she visited Karl Marx's statue in Highgate Cemetery. It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London. Not only that, but he had worked in the famous reading room of the Library of the British Museum. Sadly the library had moved from its original place into another building and the old reading room was gone. But she was thrilled by so many wonderful treasures from different cultures displayed in the museum. When she saw many visitors enjoying looking at the beautiful old Chinese pots and other objects on show, she felt very proud of her country. The next day Pingyu was leaving London for Windsor Castle. "Perhaps I will see the Queen?" she wondered as she fell asleep.

必修 5 Unit 3 FIRST IMPRESSIONS Spacemall: liqiang299A@GreatAdventureSpaceStation.com (Earthtime) Dear Mum and Dad, I still cannot believe that I am taking up this prize that I 15/11/3008

won last year. I have to remind myself constantly that I am really in AD 3008. Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. As a result, I suffered from ―Time lag‖. This is similar to the ―jet lag‖ you get from flying, but it seems you keep getting flashbacks from your previous time period. So I was very nervous and uncertain at first. However, my friend and guide, Wang Ping, was very understanding and gave me some green tablets which helped a lot. Well-known for their expertise, his parents' company, called "Future Tours", transported me safely into the future in a time capsule. I can still remember the moment when the space stewardess called us all to the capsule and we climbed in through a small opening. The seats were comfortable and after a calming drink, we felt sleepy and closed our eyes. The capsule began swinging gently sideways as we lay relaxed and dreaming. A few minutes later, the journey was completed and we had arrived. I was still on the earth but one thousand years in the future. What would I find? At first my new surroundings were difficult to tolerate. The air seemed thin, as though its combination of gases had little oxygen left. Hit by a lack of fresh air, my head ached. Just as I tried to make the necessary adjustment to this new situation, Wang Ping appeared. "Put on this mask," he advised. "It'll make you feel much better." He handed it to me and immediately hurried me through to a small room nearby for a rest. I felt better in no time. Soon I was back on my feet again and following him to collect a hovering carriage driven by computer. These carriages float above the ground and by bending or pressing down in your seat, you can move swiftly. Wang Ping fastened my safety belt and showed me how to use it. Soon I could fly as fast as him. However, I lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached what looked like a large market because of too many carriages flying by in all directions. He was swept up into the centre of them. Just at that moment I had a "time lag" flashback and saw the area again as it had been in the year AD 2008. I realized that I had been transported into the future of what was still my hometown! Then I caught sight of Wang Ping again and flew after him. Arriving at a strange-looking house, he showed me into a large, bright clean room. It had a green wall, a brown floor and soft lighting. Suddenly the wall moved - it was made of trees! I found later that their leaves provided the room with much-needed oxygen. Then Wang Ping flashed a switch on a computer screen, and a table and some chairs rose from under the floor as if by magic. "Why not sit down and eat a little?" he said. "You may find this difficult as it is your first time travel trip. Just relax, since there is nothing planned on the timetable today. Tomorrow you'll be ready for some visits." Having said this, he spread some food on the table, and produced a bed from the floor. After he left, I had a brief meal and a hot bath. Exhausted, I slid into bed and fell fast asleep. More news later from your loving son, Li Qiang

I HAVE SEEN AMAZING THINGS

My first visit was to a space station considered the most modem in space. Described as an enormous round plate, it spins slowly in space to imitate the pull of the earth's gravity. Inside was an exhibition of the most up-to-date inventions of the 31 st century. A guide (G) showed us around along a moveable path. G: Good morning to all our visitors from 2008. First we're going to examine one of the latest forms of communication among our space citizens. No more typists working on a typewriter or computer! No more postage or postcodes! Messages can now be sent using a "thoughtpad". You place the metal band over your head, clear your mind, press the sending button, think your message and the next instant it's sent. It's stored on the "thoughtpad" of the receiver. It's quick, efficient and environmentally friendly. The only limitation is if the user does not think his or her message clearly, an unclear message may be sent. But we cannot blame the tools for the faults of the user, can we? During the explanation I looked at the pair of small objects called "thoughtpads" on a table. They just looked like metal ribbons. So ordinary but so powerful! While I was observing them, the path moved us on. G: And now ladies and gentlemen, we are in the "environment area". People used to collect waste in dustbins. Then the rubbish was sent to be buried or burned, am I fight? (We nodded.) Well, now there's a system where the waste is disposed of using the principles of ecology. A giant machine, always greedy for more, swallows all the waste available. The rubbish is turned into several grades of useful material, such as "fertilizer" for the fields and "soil" for deserts. Nothing is wasted, and everything, even plastic bags, is recycled. A great idea, isn't' it? I stared at the moving model of the waste machine, absorbed by its efficiency. But again we moved on. G: Our third stop shows the changes that have happened to work practices. Manufacturing no longer takes place on the earth but on space stations like this one. A group of engineers programme robots to perform tasks in space. The robots produce goods such as drugs, clothes, furniture, hovering carriages, etc. There is no waste, no pollution and no environmental damage! However, the companies have to train their representatives to live and work in space settlements. They have to monitor the robots and the production. When the goods are ready they're transported by industrial spaceship back to earth. My mind began to wander. What job would I do? My motivation increased as I thought of the wonderful world of the future. 必修 5 Unit 4 Making the news-Reading MY FIRST WORK ASSIGNMENT "Unforgettable", says new journalist Never will Zhou Yang (ZY) forget his first assignment at the office of a popular

English newspaper. His discussion with his new boss, Hu Xin (HX), was to strongly influence his life as a journalist. HX: Welcome. We're delighted you're coming to work with us. Your first job here will be an assistant journalist. Do you have any questions? ZY: Can I go out on a story immediately? HX: (laughing) That' s admirable, but I' m afraid it would be unusual ! Wait till you' re more experienced. First we'll put you as an assistant to an experienced journalist. Later you can cover a story and submit the article yourself. ZY: Wonderful. What do I need to take with me? I already have a notebook and camera. HX: No need for a camera. You'll have a professional photographer with you to take photographs. You'll find your colleagues very eager to assist you, so you may be able to concentrate on photography later if you' re interested. ZY: Thank you. Not only am I interested in photography, but I took an amateur course at university to update my skills. HX: Good. ZY: What do I need to remember when I go out to cover a story? HX: You need to be curious. Only if you ask many different questions will you acquire all the information you need to know. We say a good journalist must have a good "nose" for a story. That means you must be able to assess when people are not telling the whole troth and then try to discover it. They must use research to inform themselves of the missing parts of the story. ZY: What should I keep in mind? HX: Here comes my list of dos and don'ts: don't miss your deadline, don't be rode, don't talk too much, but make sure you listen to the interviewee carefully. ZY: Why is listening so important? HX: Well, you have to listen for detailed facts. Meanwhile you have to prepare the next question depending on what the person says. ZY: But how can I listen carefully while taking notes? HX: This is a trick of the trade, If the interviewee agrees, you can use a recorder to get the facts straight. It's also useful if a person wants to challenge you. You have the evidence to support your story. ZY: I see! Have you ever had a case where someone accused your journalists of getting the wrong end of the stick? HX: Yes, but it was a long time ago. This is how the story goes. A footballer was accused of taking money for deliberately not scoring goals so as to let the other team win. We went to interview him. He denied taking money but we were sceptical. So we arranged an interview between the footballer and the man supposed to bribe him. When we saw them together we guessed from the footballer's body language that he was not telling the truth. So we wrote an article suggesting he was guilty. It was a dilemma because the footballer could have demanded damages if we were wrong. He tried to stop us publishing it but later we were proved right.

ZY: Wow! That was a real "scoop". I'm looking forward to my first assignment now. Perhaps I'll get a scoop too! HX: Perhaps you will. You never know.

GETTING THE "SCOOP" "Quick," said the editor. "Get that story ready. We need it in this edition to be ahead of the other newspapers. This is a scoop." Zhou Yang had just come back into the office after an interview with a famous film star. "Did he really do that?" asked someone from the International News Department. "Yes, I' m afraid he did," Zhou Yang answered. He set to work. His first task was to write his story, but he had to do it carefully. Although he realized the man had been lying, Zhou Yang knew he must not accuse him directly. He would have to be accurate. Concise too! He knew how to do that. Months of training had taught him to write with no wasted words or phrases. He sat down at his computer and began to work. The first person who saw his article was a senior editor from his department. He checked the evidence, read the article and passed it on to the copy-editor. She began to edit the piece and design the main headline and smaller heading. ―This will look very good on the page,‖ she said. "Where is a good picture of this man?" Then as the article was going to be written in English Zhou Yang also took a copy to the native speaker employed by the newspaper to polish the style. She was also very happy with Zhou Yang's story. "You are really able to write a good front page article," she said. Zhou Yang smiled with happiness. Last of all, the chief editor read it and approved it. "Well done," he said to Zhou Yang. "But please show me your evidence so we're sure we've got our facts straight.‖ ―I’ll bring it to you immediately," said Zhou Yang excitedly. The news desk editor took the story and began to work on all the stories and photos until all the pages were set. All the information was then ready to be processed into film negatives. This was the first stage of the printing process. They needed four negatives, as several colours were going to be used on the story. Each of the main colours had one negative sheet and when they were combined they made a coloured page for the newspaper. After one last check the page was ready to be printed. Zhou Yang waited excitedly for the first copies to be ready. "Wait 611 tonight," his friend whispered. "I expect there will be something about this on the television news. A real scoop!" 必修 5 Unit 5 First aid-Reading FIRST AID FOR BURNS The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ. You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against disease, poisons and the sun's harmful rays.

The functions of your skin are also very complex: it keeps you warm or cool; it prevents your body from losing too much water; it is where you feel cold, heat or pain and it gives you your sense of touch. So as you can imagine, if your skin gets burned it can be very serious. First aid is a very important first step in the treatment of bums. Causes of burns You can get burned by a variety of things: hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation (by being close to high heat or fire, etc), the sun, electricity or chemicals. Types of burns There are three types of burns. Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on which layers of the skin are burned. ◎ First degree burns These affect only the top layer of the skin. These burns are not serious and should feel better within a day or two. Examples include mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan, stove or iron for a mordent. ◎ Second degree burns These affect both the top and the second layer of the skin. These bums are serious and take a few weeks to heal. Examples include severe sunburn and bums caused by hot liquids. ◎ Third degree burns These affect all three layers of the skin and any tissue and organs under the skin. Examples include burns caused by electric shocks, burning clothes, or severe petrol fires. These burns cause very severe injuries and the victim must go to hospital at once. Characteristics of burns First degree burns ◎ dry, red and mildly swollen ◎ mildly painful ◎ turn white when pressed Second degree burns ◎ rough, red and swollen ◎ blisters ◎ watery surface ◎ extremely painful Third degree burns ◎ black and white and charred ◎ swollen; often tissue under them can be seen ◎ little or no pain if nerves are damaged; may be pain around edge of injured area. First aid treatment 1 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn. Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn. 2 Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water. It is best to place burns under gently running water for about 10 minutes. (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.) Do not put cold water on

third degree burns. 3 For first degree burns, place cool, clean, wet cloths on them until the pain is not so bad. For second degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad. 4 Dry the burned area gently. Do not rob, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected. 5 Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin. Hold the bandage in place with tape. Never put butter, oil or ointment on bums as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection. 6 If bums are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible. If bums are on the face, the victim should sit up. 7 If the injuries are second or third degree bums, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or hospital at once.

HEROIC TEENAGER RECEIVES AWARD Seventeen-year-old teenager, John Janson, was honoured at the Lifesaver Awards last night in Rivertown for giving lifesaving first aid on his neighbour after a shocking knife attack. John was presented with his award at a ceremony which recognized the bravery of ten people who had saved the life of another. John was studying in his room when he heard screaming. When he and his father rushed outside, a man ran from the scene. They discovered that Anne Slade, mother of three, had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife. She was lying in her front garden bleeding very heavily. Her hands had almost been cut off. It was John's quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms Slade's life. He immediately asked a number of nearby people for bandages, but when nobody could put their hands on any, his father got some tea towels and tape from their house. John used these to treat the most severe injuries to Ms Slade's hands. He slowed the bleeding by applying pressure to the wounds until the police and ambulance arrived. "I'm proud of what I did but I was just doing what I'd been taught," John said. John had taken part in the Young Lifesaver Scheme at his high school. When congratulating John, Mr Alan Southerton, Director of the Young Lifesaver Scheme said, "There is no doubt that John's quick thinking and the first aid skills he learned at school saved Ms Slade's life. It shows that a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference." Before receiving their awards last night, John and the nine other Life Savers attended a special reception yesterday hosted by the Prime Minister.

选修 6 Unit 1 Art-Reading A SHORT HISTORY OF WESTERN PAINTING Art is influenced by the customs and faith of a people. Styles in Western art have changed many times. As there are so many different styles of Western art, it would be impossible to describe all of them in such a short text. Consequently, this text will describe only the most important ones, starting from the sixth century AD. The Middle Ages (5th to the 15th century AD) During the Middle Ages, the main aim of painters was to represent religious themes. A conventional artist of this period was not interested in showing nature and people as they really were. A typical picture at this time was full of religious symbols, which created feeling of respect and love for God. But it was evident that ideas were changing in the 13th century when painters like Giotto di Bondone began to paint religious scenes in a more realistic way. The Renaissance (15th to 16th century) During the Renaissance, new ideas and values graduallv replaced those held in the Middle Ages.People began to concentrate less on religious themes and adopt a more humanistic attitude to life. At the same time painters returned to classical Roman and Greek ideas about art. They tried to paint people and nature as they really were. Rich people wanted to possess their own paintings, so they could decorate their superb palaces and great houses. They paid famous artists to paint pictures of themselves, their houses and possessions as well as their activities and achievements. One of the most important discoveries during this period was how to draw things in perspective. This technique was first used by Masaccio in 1428. When people first saw his paintings, they were convinced that they were looking through a hole in a wall at a real scene. If the roles of perspective had not been discovered, no one would have been able to paint such realistic pictures. By coincidence, oil paints were also developed at this time, which made the colours used in paintings look richer and deeper. Without the new paints and the new technique, we would not be able to see the many great masterpieces for which this period is famous. Impressionism (late 19th to early 20th century) In the late 19th century, Europe changed a great deal. from a mostly agricultural society to a mostly industrial one. Many people moved from the countryside to the new cities. There were many new inventions and social changes. Naturally, these changes also led to new painting styles. Among the painters who broke away from the traditional style

of painting were the Impressionists, who lived and worked in Paris. The Impressionists were the first painters to work outdoors. They were eager to show how light and shadow fell on objects at different times of day. However, because natural light changes so quickly, the Impressionists had to paint quickly. Their paintings were not as detailed as those of earlier painters. At first, many people disliked this style of painting and became very angr about it. They said that the painters were careless and their paintings were ridiculous. Modern Art (20th century to today) At the time they were created, the Impressionist paintings were controversial, but today they are accepted as the beginning of what we call "modem art". This is because the Impressionists encouraged artists to look at their environment in new ways. There are scores of modern art styles, but without the Impressionists, many of these painting styles might not exist. On the one hand, some modem art is abstract; that is, the painter does not attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates on certain qualities of the object, using colour, line and shape to represent them. On the other hand, some paintings of modern art are so realistic that they look like photographs. These styles are so different. Who can predict what painting styles there will be in the future? THE BEST OF MANHATTAN’S ART GALLERIES The Frick Collection (5th Avenue and E.70th Street) Many art lovers would rather visit this small art gallery than any other in New York. Henry Clay Frick, a rich New Yorker, died in 1919, leaving his house, furniture and art collection to the American people. Frick had a preference for pre-twentieth century Western paintings, and these are well-represented in this excellent collection. You can also explore Frick's beautiful home and garden which are well worth a Visit. Guggenheim Museum(5th Avenue and 88th Street) This museum owns 5,000 superb modern paintings, sculptures and drawings. These art works are not all displayed at the same time. The exhibition is always changing. It will appeal to those who love Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings. The Guggenheim Museum building is also world-famous. When you walk into gallery, you feel as if you were inside a fragile, white seashell. The best way to see the paintings is to start from the top floor and walk down to the bottom. There are no stairs just a circular path. The museum also has an excellent restaurant. Metropolitan Museum of Art (5th Avenue and 82nd Street) The reputation of this museum lies in the variety of its art collection. This

covers more than 5,000 years of civilization from many parts of the world, including America, Europe, China, Egypt, other African countries and South America. The museum displays more than just the visual delights of art. It introduces you to ancient ways of living. You can visit an Egyptian temple, a fragrant Ming garden, a typical room in an 18th century French house and many other special exhibitions. Museum of Modern Art (53rd Street, between 5th and 6th Avenues) It is amazing that so many great works of art from the late 19th century to the 21st century are housed in the same museum. The collection of Western art includes paintings by such famous artists as Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso and Matisse. A few words of warning: the admission price is not cheap and the museum is often very crowded. Whitney Museum of American Art (945 Madison Avenue, near 75th Street) The Whitney holds an excellent collection of contemporary American painting and sculpture. There are no permanent displays in this museum and exhibitions change all the time. Every two years, the Whitney holds a special exhibition of new art by living artists. The museum also shows videos and films by contemporary video artists. 选修 6 Unit 2 Poems-Reading A FEW SIMPLE FORMS OF ENGLISH POEMS There are various reasons why people write poetry. Some poems tell a story or describe something in a way that will give the reader a strong impression. Others try to convey certain emotions. Poets use many different forms of poetry to express themselves. In this text, however, we will look at a few of the simpler forms. Some of the first poetry a young child learns in English is nursery rhymes. These rhymes like the one on the right (A) are still a common type of children's poetry. The language is concrete but imaginative, and they delight small children because they rhyme, have strong rhythm and a lot of repetition. The poems may not make sense and even seem contradictory, but they are easy to learn and recite. By playing with the words in nursery rhymes, children learn about language. A Hush, little baby, don't say a word, Papa's going to buy you a mockingbird. If that mockingbird won't sing, Papa's going to buy you a diamond ring. If that diamond ring turns to brass, Papa's going to buy you a looking-glass. If that looking-glass gets broke, Papa's going to buy you a billy-goat. If that billy-goat runs away, Papa's going to buy you another today. One of the simplest kinds of poems are those like B and C that list things. List poems have a flexible line length and repeated phrases which give both a pattern and a rhythm to the poem. Some rhyme (like B) while others do not (like C). B I saw a fish-portal all on fire I saw a fish-pond all on fire, I saw a house bow to a squire,

I saw a person twelve-feet high, I saw a cottage in the sky, I saw a balloon made of lead, I saw a coffin drop down dead, I saw two sparrows run a race, I saw two horses making lace, I saw g girl just like a cat, I saw a kitten wear a hat, I saw a man who saw these too, And said though strange they all were true. C Our first football match We would have won ... if Jack had scored that goal, if we'd had just a few more minutes, if we had trained harder, if Ben had passed the ball to Joe, if we'd had thousands of fans screaming, if I hadn't taken my eye off the ball, if we hadn't stayed up so late the night before, if we hadn't taken it easy, if we hadn't run out of energy. We would have won ... if we'd been better! Another simple form of poem that students can easily write is the cinquain, a poem made up of five lines. With these, students can convey a strong picture in just a few words. Look at the examples (D and E) on the top of the next page. D Brother Beautiful, athletic Teasing, shouting, laughing Friend and enemy too Mine E Summer Sleepy, salty Drying, drooping, dreading Week in, week out Endless F A fallen blossom Is coming back to the branch. Look, a butterfly! ( by Moritake) G Snow having melted, The whole village is brimful Of happy children. (by Issa) Haiku is a Japanese form of poetry that is made up of 17 syllables. It is not a traditional form of English poetry, but is very popular with English writers. It is easy to write and, like the cinquain , can give a clear picture and create a special feeling using the minimum of words. The two haiku poems (F and G) above are translations from the Japanese. H Where she awaits her husband On and on the river flows. Never looking back,Transformed into stone.Day by day upon the mountain top,wind and rain revolve.Should the traveller return,this stone would utter speech.,

(by Wang Jian) Did you know that English speakers also enjoy other forms of Asian poetry Tang poems from China in particular? A lot of Tang poetry has been translated into English. This Tang poem (H) is a translation from the Chinese. With so many different forms of poetry to choose from, students may eventually want to write poems of their own. It is easier than you might think and certainly worth a try!

I'VE SAVED THE SUMMER

I've saved the summer And I give it all to you To hold on winter mornings When the snow is new. I've saved some sunlight If you should ever need A place away from darkness Where your mind can feed.

And for myself I've kept your smile When you were but nineteen, Till you're older you'll not know What brave young smiles can mean. I know no answers To help you on your way The answers lie somewhere At the bottom of the day. But if you've a need for love I'll give you all l own It might help you down the road Till you've found your own. (by Rod McKuen) 选修 6 Unit 3 A healthy life-Reading

ADVICE FROM GRANDAD Dear James, It is a beautiful day here and I am sitting under the big tree at the end of the garden. I have just returned from a long bike ride to an old castle. It seems amazing that at my age I am still fit enough to cycle 20 kilometres in an afternoon. It's my birthday in two weeks time and I'll be 82 years old! I think my long and active life must be due to the healthy life I live. This brings me to the real reason for my letter, my dear grandson. Your mother tells me that you started smoking some time ago and now you are finding it difficult to give it up. Believe me, I know how easy it is to begin smoking and how tough it is to stop. You see, during adolescence I also smoked and became addicted to cigarettes. By the way, did you know that this is because you become addicted in three different ways? First, you can become physically addicted to nicotine, which is one of the hundreds of chemicals in cigarettes. This means that after a while your body becomes accustomed to having nicotine in it. So when the drug leaves your body, you get withdrawal symptoms. I remember feeling bad-tempered and sometimes even in pain. Secondly, you become addicted through habit. As you know, if you do the same thing over and over again, you begin to do it automatically. Lastly, you can become mentally addicted. I believed I was happier and more relaxed after having a cigarette, so I began to think that I could only feel good when I smoked. I was addicted in all three ways, so it was very difficult to quit. But I did finally manage. When I was young, I didn't know much about the harmful effects of smoking. I didn't know, for example, that it could do terrible damage to your heart and lungs or that it was more difficult for smoking couples to become pregnant. I certainly didn't know their babies may have a smaller birth weight or even be abnormal in some way. Neither did I know that my cigarette smoke could affect the health of non-smokers. However, what I did know was that my girlfriend thought I smelt terrible. She said my breath and clothes smelt, and that the ends of my fingers were turning yellow. She told me that she wouldn't go out with me again unless I stopped! I also noticed that I became breathless quickly, and that I wasn't enjoying sport as much. When I was taken off the school football team because I was unfit, I knew it was time to quit smoking. I am sending you some advice I found on the Internet. It might help you to stop and strengthen your resolve. I do hope so because I want you to live as long and healthy a life as I have. Love from Grandad

Reading and discussing Before you read the poster below, discuss what you know about HIV/AIDS with your classmates. Make a list of words that you might come across in this poster.

HIV/AIDS:ARE YOU AT RISK? HIV is a virus. A virus is a very small living thing that causes disease. There are many different viruses, for example, the flu virus or the SARS virus. HIV weakens a person's immune system; that is, the part of the body that fights disease. You can have HIV in your blood for a long time, but eventually HIV will damage your immune system so much that you body can no longer fight disease. This stage of the illness is called AIDS. If you develop AIDS, your chances of survival are very small. HIV is spread through blood or the fluid that the body makes during sex. For a person to become infected, blood or sexual fluid that carries the virus, has to get inside the body through broken skin or by injection. One day scientists will find a cure for HIV/AIDS. Until that happens, you need to protect yourself. Here are some things you can do to make sure you stay safe. If you inject drugs: do not share your needle with anyone else. Blood from another person can stay on or in the needle. If a person has HIV and you use the same needle, you could inject the virus into your own blood. do not share anything else that a person has used while injecting drugs.Blood could have spilt on it. If you have sex with a male or a female: use a condom. This will prevent sexual fluid passing from one person to another. The following statements are NOT true. A person cannot get HIV the first time they have sex.WRONG. If one sexual partner has HIV, the other partner could become infected. You can tell by looking at someone whether or not they have HIV.WRONG. Many people carrying HIV look perfectly healthy. It is only when the disease has progressed to AIDS that a person begins to look sick. Only homosexuals get AIDS.WRONG. Anyone who has sex with a person infected with H1V/AIDS risks getting the virus. Women are slightly more likely to become infected than men. If you hug, touch or kiss someone with AIDS or visit them in their home, you will get HIV/AIDS.WRONG.You can only get the disease from blood or sexual fluid.Unfortunately, people with HIV sometimes lose their friends because of prejudice.Many people are afraid that they will get HIV/AIDS from those infected with HIV!AIDS. For the same reason, some AIDS patients cannot find anyone to look after them when they are sick. You can get HIV/AIDS from mosquitoes.WRONG. There is no evidence of this.

选修 6 Unit 4 Global warming-Reading THE EARTH IS BECOMING WARMER-BUT DOES IT MATTER?

During the 20th century the temperature of the earth rose about one degree Fahrenheit. That probably does not seem much to you or me, but it is a rapid increase when compared to other natural changes. So how has this come about and does it matter? Earth Care’s Sophie Armstrong explores these questions. There is no doubt that the earth is becoming warmer (see Graph 1) and that it is human activity that has caused this global warming rather than a random but natural phenomenon.

All scientists subscribe to the view that the increase in the earth's temperature is due to the burning of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil to produce energy. Some byproducts of this process are called "greenhouse" gases, the most important one of which is carbon dioxide. Dr Janice Foster explains: "There is a natural phenomenon that scientists call the 'greenhouse effect'. This is when small amounts of gases in the atmosphere, like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour, trap heat from the sun and therefore warm the earth. Without the 'greenhouse effect', the earth would be about thirty-three degrees Celsius cooler than it is. So, we need those gases. The problem begins when we add huge quantities of extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It means that more heat energy tends to be trapped in the atmosphere causing the global temperature to go up." We know that the levels of carbon dioxide have increased greatly over the last 100 to 150 years. It was a scientist called Charles Keeling, who made accurate measurements of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from 1957 to 1997. He found that between these years the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere went up from around 315 parts to around 370 parts per million (see Graph 2). All scientists accept this data. They also agree that it is the burning of more and more fossil fuels that has resulted in this increase in carbon dioxide. So how high will the temperature increase go? Dr Janice Foster says that over the next 100 years the amount of warming could be as low as 1 to 1.5 degrees Celsius, but it could be as high as 5 degrees.

However, the attitude of scientists towards this rise is completely different. On the one hand, Dr Foster thinks that the trend which increases the temperature by 5 degrees would be a catastrophe. She says, "We can't predict the climate well enough to know what to expect, but it could be very serious." Others who agree with her think there may be a rise of several metres in the sea level, or predict severe storms, floods, droughts, famines, the spread of diseases and the disappearance of species. On the other hand, there

are those, like George Hambley, who are opposed to this view, believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air. They predict that any warming will be mild with few bad environmental consequences. In fact, Hambley states, "More carbon dioxide is actually a positive thing. It will make plants grow quicker; crops will produce more; it will encourage a greater range of animals - all of which will make life for human beings better." Greenhouse gases continue to build up in the atmosphere. Even if we start reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, the climate is going to keep on warming for decades or centuries. No one knows the effects of global warming. Does that mean we should do nothing? Or, are the risks too great?

WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT GLOBAL WARMING? Dear Earth Care, I am doing a project on behalf of my school about global warming. Sometimes I feel that individuals can have little effect on such huge environmental problems. However, 1 still think people should advocate improvements in the way we use energy today. As I'm not sure where to start with my project, I would appreciate any suggestions you may have. Thank you! Ouyang Guang Dear Ouyang Guang, There are many people who have a commitment like yours, but they do not believe they have the power to do anything to improve our environment. That is not true. Together, individuals can make a difference. We do not have to put up with pollution. The growth of the greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide in the air actually comes as a result of many things we do every day. Here are a few suggestions on how to reduce it. They should get you started with your project. 1 We use a lot of energy in our houses. It is OK to leave an electrical appliance on so long as you are using it - if not, turn it off! Do not be casual about this. So if you are not using the lights, the TV, the computer, and so on, turn them off. If you are cold, put on more clothes instead of turning up the heat. 2 Motor vehicles use a lot of energy- so walk or ride a bike if you can. 3 Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags and newspapers if circumstances allow you to. It takes a lot of energy to make things from new materials, so, if you can, buy things made from recycled materials. 4 Get your parents to buy things that are economical with energy - this includes cars as well as smaller things like fridges and microwaves. 5 Plant trees in your garden or your school yard, as they absorb carbon dioxide from the air and refresh your spirit when you look at them. 6 Finally and most importantly, be an educator. Talk with your family and friends about global warming and tell them what you have learned.

Remember - your contribution counts! Earth Care

选修 6 Unit 5 The power of nature-Reading AN EXCITING JOB I have the greatest job in the world. I travel to unusual places and work alongside people from all over the world. Sometimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored. Although my job is occasionally dangerous, I don't mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive. However, the most important thing about my job is that I help protect ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces on earth - the volcano. I was appointed as a volcanologist working for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) twenty years ago. My job is collecting information for a database about Mount Kilauea, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii. Having collected and evaluated the information, I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast. Our work has saved many lives because people in the path of the lava can be warned to leave their houses. Unfortunately, we cannot move their homes out of the way, and many houses have been covered with lava or burned to the ground. When boiling rock erupts from a volcano and crashes back to earth, it causes less damage than you might imagine. This is because no one lives near the top of Mount Kilauea, where the rocks fall. The lava that flows slowly like a wave down the mountain causes far more damage because it buries everything in its path under the molten rock. However, the eruption itself is really exciting to watch and I shall never forget my first sight of one. It was in the second week after I arrived in Hawaii. Having worked hard all day, I went to bed early. I was fast asleep when suddenly my bed began shaking and I heard a strange sound, like a railway train passing my window. Having experienced quite a few earthquakes in Hawaii already, I didn't take much notice. I was about to go back to sleep when suddenly my bedroom became as bright as day. I ran out of the house into the back garden where I could see Mount Kilauea in the distance. There had been an eruption from the side of the mountain and red hot lava was fountaining hundreds of metres into the air. It was an absolutely fantastic sight. The day after this eruption I was lucky enough to have a much closer look at it. Two other scientists and I were driven up the mountain and dropped as close as possible to the crater that had been formed during the eruption. Having earlier collected special clothes from the observatory, we put them on before we went any closer. All three of us looked like spacemen.We had white protective suits that covered our whole body,

helmets, big boots and special gloves. It was not easy to walk in these suits, but we slowly made our way to the edge of the crater and looked down into the red, boiling centre. The other two climbed down into the crater to collect some lava for later study, but this being my first experience, I stayed at the top and watched them. Today, I am just as enthusiastic about my job as the day I first started. Having studied volcanoes now for many years, I am still amazed at their beauty as well as their potential to cause great damage.

THE LRKE OF HERVEN Changbaishan is in Jilin Province, Northeast China.Much of this beautiful, mountainous area is thick forest . Changbaishan is China's largest nature reserve and it is kept in its natural state for the people of China and visitors from all over the world to enjoy. The height of the land varies from 700 metres above sea level to over 2,000 metres and is home to a great diversity of rare plants and animals. Among the rare animals are cranes, black bears, leopards and tigers. Many people come to Changbaishan to study its unique plants and animals. Others come to walk in the mountains, to see the spectacular waterfalls or to bathe in the hot water pools. However, the attraction that arouses the greatest appreciation in the reserve is Tianchi or the Lake of Heaven. Tianchi is a deep lake that has formed in the crater of a dead volcano on top of the mountain. The lake is 2,194 metres above sea level, and more than 200 metres deep. In winter the surface freezes over. It takes about an hour to climb from the end of the road to the top of the mountain. When you arrive you are rewarded not only with the sight of its clear waters, but also by the view of the other sixteen mountain peaks that surround Tianchi. There are many stories told about Tianchi. The most well-known concerns three young women from heaven. They were bathing in Tainchi when a bird flew above them and dropped a small fruit onto the dress of the youngest girl. When she picked up the fruit to smell it, it flew into her mouth.Having swallowed the fruit, the girl became pregnant and later gave birth to a handsome boy. It is said that this boy, who had a great gift for languages and persuasion, is the father of the Manchu people. If you are lucky enough to visit the Lake of Heaven with your loved one, don't forget to drop a coin into the clear blue water to guarantee your love will be as deep and lasting as the lake itself. 选修 7 Unit 1 Living well-Reading MARTY’S STORY Hi, my name is Marry Fielding and I guess you could say that I am "one in a million". In other words, there are not many people like me. You see, I have a muscle

disease which makes me very weak, so I can't run or climb stairs as quickly as other people. In addition, sometimes I am very clumsy and drop things or bump into furniture. Unfortunately, the doctors don't know how to make me better, but I am very outgoing and have learned to adapt to my disability. My motto is: live One day at a time. Until I was ten years old I was the same as everyone else. I used to climb trees, swim and play football. In fact, I used to dream about playing professional football and possibly representing my country in the World Cup. Then I started to get weaker and weaker, until I could only enjoy football from a bench at the stadium. In the end I went into hospital for medical tests. I stayed there for nearly three months. I think I had at least a billion tests, including one in which they cut out a piece of muscle from my leg and looked at it under a microscope. Even after all that, no one could give my disease a name and it is difficult to know what the future holds. One problem is that I don't look any different from other people. So sometimes some children in my primary school would laugh, when I got out of breath after running a short way or had to stop and rest halfway up the stairs. Sometimes, too, I was too weak to go to school so my education suffered. Every time I returned after an absence, I felt stupid because I was behind the others. My life is a lot easier at high school because my fellow students have accepted me. The few who cannot see the real person inside my body do not make me annoyed, and I just ignore them. All in all I have a good life. I am happy to have found many things I can do, like writing and computer programming. My ambition is to work for a firm that develops computer software when I grow up. Last year invented a computer football game and a big company has decided to buy it from me. I have a very busy life with no time to sit around feeling sorry for myself. As well as going to the movies and football matches with my friends, I spend a lot of time with my pets. I have two rabbits, a parrot, a tank full of fish and a tortoise. To look after my pets properly takes a lot of time but I find it worthwhile. I also have to do a lot of work, especially if I have been away for a while. In many ways my disability has helped me grow stronger psychologically and become more independent. I have to work hard to live a normal life but it has been worth it. If I had a chance to say one thing to healthy children, it would be this: having a disability does not mean your life is not satisfying. So don't feel sorry for the disabled or make fun of them, and don't ignore them either. Just accept them for who they are, and give them encouragement to live as rich and full a life as you do. Thank you for reading my story.

A LETTER TO AN ARCHITECT

Look at the pictures. Discuss the problems that people with walking difficulties might have in a cinema.

Ms L Sanders Alice Major Chief architect 64 Cambridge Street Cinema Designs Bankstown 44 Hill Street Bankstown 24 September, 200__ Dear Ms Sanders, I read in the newspaper today that you are to be the architect for the new Bankstown cinema.I hope you will not mind me writing to ask if you have thought about the needs of disabled customers. In particular I wonder if you have considered the following things: 1 Adequate access for wheelchairs. It would be handy to have lifts to all parts of the cinema. The buttons in the lifts should be easy for a person in a wheelchair to reach, and the doors be wide enough to enter. In some cinemas, the lifts are at the back of the cinema in cold, unattractive places. As disabled people have to use the lifts, this makes them feel they are not as important as other customers. 2 Earphones for people who have trouble hearing. It would help to fit sets of earphones to all seats, not just to some of them. This would allow hearing-impaired customers to enjoy the company of their hearing friends rather than having to sit in a special area. 3 Raised seating. People who are short cannot always see the screen. So I'd like to suggest that the seats at the back be placed higher than those at the front so that everyone can see the screen easily. Perhaps there could be a space at the end of each row for people in wheelchairs to sit next to their friends. 4 Toilets. For disabled customers it would be more convenient to place the toilets near the entrance to the cinema. It can be difficult if the only disabled toilet is in the basement a long way from where the film is showing. And if the doors could be opened outwards, disabled customers would be very happy. 5 Car parking. Of course, there are usually spaces specially reserved for disabled and elderly drivers. If they are close to the cinema entrance and/or exit, it is easier for disabled people to get to film in comfort. Thank you for reading my letter. I hope my suggestions will meet with your approval. Disabled people should have the same opportunities as able-bodied people to enjoy the cinema and to do so with dignity.I am sure many people will praise your cinema if you design it with good access for disabled people. It will also make the

cinema owners happy if more people go as they will make higher profits! Yours sincerely, Alice Major

选修 7 Unit 2 Robots - Reading SATISFACTION GURANTEED Larry Belmont worked for a company that made robots. Recently it had begun experimenting with a household robot. It was going to be tested out by Larry's wife, Claire. Claire didn't want the robot in her house, especially as her husband would be absent for three weeks, but Larry persuaded her that the robot wouldn't harm her or allow her to be harmed. It would be a bonus. However, when she first saw the robot, she felt alarmed. His name was Tony and he seemed more like a human than a machine. He was tall and handsome with smooth hair and a deep voice although his facial expression never changed. On the second morning Tony, wearing an apron, brought her breakfast and then asked her whether she needed help dressing. She felt embarrassed and quickly told him to go. It was disturbing and frightening that he looked so human. One day, Claire mentioned that she didn't think she was clever. Tony said that she must feel very unhappy to say that. Claire thought it was ridiculous to be offered sympathy by a robot. But she began to trust him. She told him how she was overweight and this made her feel unhappy. Also she felt her home wasn't elegant enough for someone like Larry who wanted to improve his social position. She wasn't like Gladys Claffern, one of the richest and most powerful women around. As a favour Tony promised to help Claire make herself smarter and her home more elegant. So Claire borrowed a pile of books from the library for him to read, or rather, scan. She looked at his fingers with wonder as they turned each page and suddenly reached for his hand. She was amazed by his fingernails and the softness and warmth of his skin. How absurd, she thought. He was just a machine. Tony gave Claire a new haircut and changed the makeup she wore. As he was not allowed to accompany her to the shops, he wrote out a list of items for her. Claire went into the city and bought curtains, cushions, a carpet and bedding. Then she went into a jewellery shop to buy a necklace. When the clerk at the counter was rude to her, she rang Tony up and told the clerk to speak to him. The clerk immediately changed his attitude. Claire thanked Tony, telling him that he was a "dear". As she turned around, there stood Gladys Claffern. How awful to be discovered by her, Claire thought. By the amused and surprised look on her face, Claire knew that Gladys thought she was having an affair. After all, she knew Claire's husband's name was Larry, not Tony. When Claire got home, she wept with anger in her armchair. Gladys was

everything Claire wanted to be. "You can be like her," Tony told her and suggested that she invite Gladys and her friends to the house the night before he was to leave and Larry was to return. By that time, Tony expected the house to be completely transformed. Tony worked steadily on the improvements. Claire tried to help once but was too clumsy.She fell off a ladder and even though Tony was in the next room, he managed to catch her in time. He held her firmly in his arms and she felt the warmth of his body. She screamed, pushed him away and ran to her room for the rest of the day. The night of the party arrived. The clock struck eight. The guests would be arriving soon and Claire told Tony to go into another room.At that moment, Tony folded his arms around her, bending his face close to hers. She cried out "Tony" and then heard him declare that he didn't want to leave her the next day and that he felt more than just the desire to please her. Then the front door bell rang. Tony freed her and disappeared from sight. It was then that Claire realized that Tony had opened the curtains of the front window. Her guests had seen everything ! The women were impressed by Claire, the house and the delicious cuisine. Just before they left, Claire heard Gladys whispering to another woman that she had never seen anyone so handsome as Tony. What a sweet victory to be envied by those women! She might not be as beautiful as them, but none of them had such a handsome lover. Then she remembered -Tony was just a machine. She shouted "Leave me alone" and ran to her bed. She cried all night. The next morning a car drove up and took Tony away. The company was very pleased with Tony's report on his three weeks with Claire. Tony had protected a human being from harm. He had prevented Claire from harming herself through her own sense of failure. He had opened the curtains that night so that the other women would see him and Claire, knowing that there was no risk to Claire's marriage. But even though Tony had been so clever, he would have to be rebuilt -you cannot have women failing in love with machines.

A BIOGRAPHY OF ISAAC ASIMOV Isaac Asimov was an American scientist and writer who wrote around 480 books that included mystery stories, science and history books, and even books about the Holy Bible and Shakespeare. But he is best known for his science fiction stories. Asimov had both an extraordinary imagination that gave him the ability to explore future worlds and an amazing mind with which he searched for explanations of everything, in the present and the past. Asimov's life began in Russia, where he was born on 2 January, 1920. It ended in New York on 6 April, 1992, when he died as a result of an HIV infection that he had got from a blood transfusion nine years earlier. When Asimov was three, he moved with his parents and his one-year-old sister to New York City. There his parents bought a candy store which they ran for the next 40

or so years. At the age of nine, when his mother was pregnant with her third child, Asimov started working part-time in the store. He helped out through his school and university years until 1942, a year after he had gained a master's degree in chemistry. In 1942 he joined the staff of the Philadelphia Navy Yard as a junior chemist and worked there for three years. In 1948 he got his PhD in chemistry. The next year he became a biochemistry teacher at Boston University School of Medicine. In 1958 he gave up teaching to become a full-time writer. It was when Asimov was eleven years old that his talent for writing became obvious. He had told a friend two chapters of a story he had written. The friend thought he was retelling a story from a book. This really surprised Asimov and from that moment, he started to take himself seriously as a writer. Asimov began having stories published in science fiction magazines in 1939. In 1950 he published his first novel and in 1953 his first science book. Throughout his life, Asimov received many awards, both for his science fiction books and his science books. Among his most famous works of science fiction, one for which he won an award was the Foundation trilogy (1951-1953), three novels about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future. It was loosely based on the fall of the Roman Empire but was about the future. These books are famous because Asimov invented a theoretical framework which was designed to show how ideas and thinking may develop in the future. He is also well known for his collection of short stories, I, Robot (1950), in which he developed a set of three "laws" for robots. For example, the first law states that a robot must not injure human beings or allow them to be injured. Some of his ideas about robots later influenced other writers and even scientists researching into artificial intelligence. Asimov was married twice. He married his first wife in 1942 and had a son and a daughter. Their marriage lasted 31 years. Soon after his divorce in 1973, Asimov married again but he had no children with his second wife. 选修 7 Unit 3 Under the sea - Reading OLD TOM THE KILLER WHALE I was 16 when I began work in June 1902 at the whaling station. I had heard of the killers that every year helped whalers catch huge whales. I thought, at the time, that this was just a story but then I witnessed it with my own eyes many times. On the afternoon I arrived at the station, as I was I sorting out my' accommodation, I heard a loud noise coming from the bay. We ran down to the shore in time to see an enormous animal opposite us throwing itself out of the water and then crashing down again. It was black and white and fish-shaped. But I knew it wasn't a fish. "That's Old Tom, the killer," one of the whalers, George, called out to me. "He's telling us there's a whale out there for us." Another whaler yelled out, "Rush-oo ...rush-oo." This was the call that

announced there was about to be a whale hunt. "Come on, Clancy. To the boat," George said as he ran ahead of me. I had already heard that George didn't like being kept waiting, so even though I didn't have the right clothes on, I raced after him. Without pausing we jumped into the boat with the other whalers and headed out into the bay. I looked down into the water and could see Old Tom swimming by the boat, showing us the way. A few minutes later, there was no Tom, so George started beating the water with his oar and there was Tom, circling back to the boat, leading us to the hunt again. Using a telescope we could see that something was happening. As we drew closer, I could see a whale being attacked by a pack of about six other killers. "What're they doing?" I asked George. "Well, it's teamwork - the killers over there are throwing themselves on top of the whale's blow-hole to stop it breathing. And those others are stopping it diving or fleeing out to sea," George told me, pointing towards the hunt. And just at that moment, the most extraordinary thing happened. The killers started racing between our boat and the whale just like a pack of excited dogs. Then the harpoon was ready and the man in the bow of the boat aimed it at the whale. He let it go and the harpoon hit the spot. Being badly wounded, the whale soon died. Within a moment or two, its body was dragged swiftly by the killers down into the depths of the sea. The men started turning the boat around to go home. "What's happened?" I asked. "Have we lost the whale?" "Oh no," Jack replied. "We'll return tomorrow to bring in the body. It won't float up to the surface for around 24 hours." "In the meantime, Old Tom, and the others are having a good feed on its lips and tongue," added Red, laughing. Although Old Tom and the other killers were fierce hunters, they, never harmed or attacked people. In fact, they protected them. There was one day when we were out in the bay during a hunt and James was washed off the boat. "Man overboard! Turn the boat around!" urged George, shouting loudly. The sea was rough that day and it was difficult to handle the boat. The waves were carrying James further and further away from us. From James's face, I could see he was terrified of being abandoned by us. Then suddenly I saw a shark. "Look, there's a shark out there," I screamed. "Don't worry, Old Tom won't let it near," Red replied. It took over half an hour to get the boat back to James, and when we approached him, I saw James being firmly held up in the water by Old Tom. I couldn't believe my eyes. There were shouts of "Well done, Old Tom" and 'Thank God" as we pulled James back into the boat. And then Old Tom was off and back to the hunt where the other killers were still attacking the whale.

A NEW DIMENSION OF LIFE 19th January I'm sitting in the warm night air with a cold drink in my hand and reflecting on the day – a day of pure magic! I went snorkelling on the reef offshore this morning and it was the most fantastic thing I have ever done. Seeing such extraordinary beauty, I think every cell in my body woke up. It was like discovering a whole new dimension of life. The first thing I became aware of was all the vivid colours surrounding me purples, reds, oranges, yellows, blues and greens. The corals were fantastic - they were shaped like fans, plates, brains, lace, mushrooms, the branches of trees and the horns of deer. And all kinds of small, neat and elegant fish were swimming in and around the corals. The fish didn't seem to mind me swimming among them. I especially loved the little orange and white fish that hid in the waving long thin seaweed. And I also loved the small fish that clean the bodies of larger fish - I even saw them get inside their mouths and clean their teeth! It seemed there was a surprise waiting for me around every corner as I explored small caves, shelves and narrow passages with my underwater flashlight: the yellow and green parrotfish was hanging upside down, and sucking tiny plants off the coral with its hard bird-like mouth; a yellow-spotted red sea-slug was sliding by a blue sea-star; a large wise-looking turtle was passing so close to me that I could have touched it. There were other creatures that I didn't want to get too close to - an eel with its strong sharp teeth, with only its head showing from a hole, watching for a tasty fish (or my tasty toe!); and the giant clam halt buried in some coral waiting for something to swim in between its thick green lips. Then there were two grey reef sharks, each about one and a half metres long, which suddenly appeared from behind some coral. I told myself they weren't dangerous but that didn't stop me from feeling scared to death for a moment! The water was quite shallow but where the reef ended, there was a steep drop to the sandy ocean floor. It marked a boundary and I thought I was very brave when I swam over the edge of the reef and hung there looking down into the depths of the ocean. My heart was beating wildly - I felt very exposed in such deep clear water. What a wonderful, limitless world it was down there! And what a tiny spot I was in this enormous world!

选修 7 Unit 4 Sharing- Reading

A LETTER HOME Dear Rosemary, Thanks for your letter, which took a fortnight to arrive. It was wonderful to hear from you. I know you're dying to hear all about my life here, so I've included some photos which will help you picture the places I talk about. You asked about my high school. Well, it's a bush school – the classrooms are made of bamboo and the roofs of grass. It takes me only a few minutes to walk to school down a muddy track. When I reach the school grounds there are lots of "good mornings" for me from the boys. Many of them have walked a long way, sometimes up to two hours, to get to school. There's no electricity or water and even no textbooks either! l'm still trying to adapt to these conditions. However, one thing is for sure, I've become more imaginative in my teaching. Science is my most challenging subject as my students have no concept of doing experiments. In fact there is no equipment, and if I need water I have to carry it from my house in a bucket! The other day I was showing the boys the weekly chemistry experiment when, before I knew it, the mixture was bubbling over everywhere! The boys who had never come across anything like this before started jumping out of the windows. Sometimes I wonder how relevant chemistry is to these students, most of whom will be going back to their villages after Year 8 anyway. To be honest, I doubt whether I'm making any difference to these boys' lives at all. You asked whether I'm getting to know any local people. Well, that's actually quite difficult as I don't speak much of the local English dialect yet. But last weekend another teacher, Jenny, and 1 did visit a village which is the home of one of the boys, Tombe. It was my first visit to a remote village. We walked for two and a half hours to get there first up a mountain to a ridge from where we had fantastic views and then down a steep path to the valley below. When we arrived at the village, Tombe's mother, Kiak, who had been pulling weeds in her garden, started crying "ieee ieee". We shook hands with all the villagers. Everyone seemed to be a relative of Tombe's. Tombe's father, Mukap, led us to his house, a low bamboo hut with grass sticking out of the roof - this shows it is a man's house. The huts were round, not rectangular like the school buildings. There were no windows and the doorway was just big enough to get through. The hut was dark inside so it took time for our eyes to adjust. Fresh grass had been laid on the floor and there was a newly made platform for Jenny and me to sleep on. Usually Kiak would sleep in her own hut, but that night she was going to share the platform with us. Mukap and Tombe were to sleep on small beds in another part of the hut. There was a fireplace in the centre of the hut near the doorway. The only possessions I could see were

one broom, a few tin plates and cups and a couple of jars. Outside Mukap was building a fire. Once the fire was going, he laid stones on it. When hot, he placed them in an empty oil drum with kau kau (sweet potato), corn and greens. He then covered the vegetables with banana leaves and left them to steam. I sniffed the food; it smelled delicious. We ate inside the hut sitting round the fire. I loved listening to the family softly talking to each other in their language, even though I could not participate the conversation. Luckily, Tombe could be our interpreter. Later, I noticed a tin can standing upside down on the grill over the fire. After a short time Tombe threw it out of the doorway.I was puzzled. Tombe told me that the can was heated to dry out the leftover food. They believe that any leftovers attract evil spirits in the night, so the food is dried up in the can and the can is then thrown out of the hut. Otherwise they don't waste anything.

We left the village the next morning after many goodbyes and firm handshakes. My muscles were aching and my knees shaking as we climbed down the mountain towards home. That evening I fell happily into bed. It was such a privilege to have spent a day with Tombe's family. It's getting late and I have to prepare tomorrow's lessons and do some paperwork. Please write soon. Love Jo THE WORLD'S MOST USEFUL GIFT CATALOGUE Would you like to donate an unusual gift? Then this is the catalogue for you. The gift you give is not something your loved one keeps but a voluntary contribution towards the lives of people who really need it. Choose from this catalogue a really useful gift for some of the world's poorest and bring hope for a better future to a community in need. When you purchase an item, we will send you an attractive card for you to send to your special person. You can use the cards for any special occasion-weddings ,births, birthdays,Christmas or anniversaries, etc. To………………………………………………

To let you know that I am thinking of you, I have purchased a gift from the World’s Most Useful Gift Catalogue for you to give to some of the world’s poorest.

This gift will train a whole village of around 40 families in India, Kenya, or Bangladesh in new agricultural methods, and provide seeds and simple agricultural equipment. Just 20% more produce will mean the difference between sickness and health, between families going hungry and families providing for themselves.

From……………………………………………. 选修 7 Unit 5 Travelling abroad- Reading KEEP IT UP,XIE LEI CHINESE STUDENGT FITTING WELL Six months ago Xie Lei said goodbye to her family and friends in China and boarded a plane for London. It was the first time she had ever left her motherland. "After getting my visa I was very excited because I had dreamed of this day for so long. But I was also very nervous as I didn't know what to expect," Xie Lei told me when I saw her waiting in a queue at the student cafeteria between lectures. Xie Lei, who is 21 years old, has come to our university to study for a business qualification. She is halfway through the preparation year, which most foreign students complete before applying for a degree course. Xie Lei highly recommends it. "The preparation course is most beneficial," she said. "Studying here is quite different from studying in China, so you need some preparation first." "It's not just study that's difficult. You have to get used to a whole new way of life, which can take up all your concentration in the beginning," explained Xie Lei, who had lived all her life in the same city in China. She told me that she had had to learn almost everything again. "Sometimes I felt like a child," she said. "I had to learn how to use the phone, how to pay bus fare, and how to ask a shopkeeper for things I didn't know the English for. When I got lost and had to ask a passer-by for directions, I didn't always understand. They don't talk like they do on our listening tapes," she said, laughing. Xie Lei lives with a host family who give her lots of good advice. Although some foreign students live in student accommodation or apartments, some choose to board with English families. Living with host families, in which there may be other college students, gives her the chance to learn more about the new culture. "When I hear an idiom that I don't understand, I can ask my host family for help," explains Xie Lei. "Also, when I miss my family, it's a great comfort to have a substitute family to be with." Xie Lei's preparation course is helping her to get used to the academic requirements of a Western university. "I remember the first essay I did for my tutor," she told me. "I found an article on the Internet that seemed to have exactly the information I needed. So I made a summary of the article, revised my draft and handed the essay in. I

thought I would get a really good mark but I got an E. I was numb with shock! So I went to my tutor to ask the reason for his revision. First of all, he told me, I couldn't write what other people had said without acknowledging them. Besides, as far as he was concerned, what other people thought was not the most important thing. He wanted to know what I thought, which confused me because I thought that the author of the article knew far more than I did. My tutor explained that I should read lots of different texts that contain different opinions and analyse what I read. Then, in my essay, I should give my own opinion and explain it by referring to other authors. Finally he even encouraged me to contradict the authors I'd read! At first I lacked confidence, but now I'm beginning to get the idea and my marks have improved. More importantly, I am now a more autonomous learner." Xie Lei told me that she feels much more at home in England now, and what had seemed very strange before now appears quite normal. "I've just got one more thing to achieve. I have been so occupied with work that I haven't had time for social activities. I think it's important to have a balance between study and a social life, so I'm going to join a few clubs. Hope- fully I'll make some new friends." We will follow Xie Lei's progress in later editions of this newspaper but for now, we wish Xie Lei all the best in her new enterprise. She deserves to succeed. PERU Peru offers a variety of experiences from ancient ruins and centuries-old Spanish villages to thick forests, high mountains and desert coastline. TRAVEL PERU offers tours for all ages and tastes. The following tours are based at Cuzco, the site of the ancient capital of the Inca civilization. Tour 1 Experience the jungle and its diverse wildlife close up. During this four-day walking tour, you will be amazed by mountain scenery and the ancient ruins we pass on our hike. On the last day, we arrive at the ruins of Machu Picchu in time to see the sunrise over the Andes. Spend the day visiting the ruins of this ancient Inca city before catching the train back to Cuzco.

Tour 2 A full-day trip by road from Cuzco to Puno with fantastic views of the highland countryside. From Puno, we travel by boat across Lake Titicaca, stopping on the way at the floating islands of the Uros people. These floating islands and the Uros Indian's houses are made of the water plants that grow in the lake. A full-day stay with a local family gives you an opportunity to learn more ab

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