一、教育（共 11 题，占 22.9%） 词汇短语 Receive formal education/schooling, compulsory education/classes 义务教育/必修课 examination-oriented educational system 应试教育 扼杀创造性 discourage/st
rangle creativity Foster/cultivate/breed one's interest about sth 培养兴趣 Breed pain in both parties involved 造成痛苦 Academic subject 学科 Academic performance 学业表现 A good atmosphere of learning 浓厚的学习氛围 Stimulate students' interest to do Motivate/stimulate sb to do sth; stimulus improve the learning initiative 学习积极性 interest/enthusiasm about learning Bring about great fame to sb; renown
Broaden/widen one's scope of knowledge[about sth] 拓宽知识面 horizon/outlook enrich one’s social and life experience 丰富社会和生活阅历 grasp good communication/interpersonal skills 掌握良好的交流技能 realize the value of life 实现生命价值 Enhance one's aesthetic standard 提升审美品位 a means/medium/bridge of communication 一种交流工具 Intellectual/psychological/physical/mental development; interaction 交流 comprehensive qualities 综合素质; an all-round education 全面的 sensible and practical 合理的实用的 practical skills 实用技能 Have an incomparable advantage in the job market; have quick and easy access to information/knowledge 更快地接触到…东西 Develop our creative mind 培养我们创造性思维 Vocational training/guidance; career; Seek a job; job opportunity; hold a position; create job opportunity; working experience; Adapt/accustom/adjust sb/oneself to foreign culture/custom/climate/the development of the society Narrow the gap between ourselves and those with prominent careers like sb; Lighten/lessen the burden of students to learn too much that they would never use in their adult life Lessen the burden of students to pay fees that are too high to afford Distance learning/education Be attractive to sb; teaching method
be obsessed with sth; be addicted to sth;
It is prevalent/perplexing/imperative/reasonable/understandable/irrational/unconvincing/n ot surprising for sb to do sth Attain/achieve sth like success or economic development at the expense/price/cost of the cost has to be paid is-Have every right/reason to do sth; an unrealistic dream
Learning-related anxiety; 相关的 stress-related thought-provoking 引人深思的 enlightening 予以人启迪的 insightful 见解深刻的 far-reaching profound 深远的 Exchange experience on learning/about the complicated issues in learning Undertake the due obligation/ assume due responsibility 承担责任
cultivate a strong sense of responsibility/belonging/achievement/humor 培养了强烈的责 任感 Remove/eliminate misunderstanding and discrimination 消除误解和歧视 Discriminate/distinguish/differentiate A from B [good from bad/right from wrong] Improve/boost/prompt cultural integration and globalization 促进了文化的融合和文化全 球化 Hinder impede jeopardize hamper 妨碍 阻止 Deprive/strip/rob sb of sth; 剥夺 promote social skills and competence 提高了社会能力和竞争力 make full use of / take advantage of/ make the best of 充分利用
mirror/Reflection of social progress; Reflect/mirror social progress 社会进步的反映 Reflect on 反思 cannot bear closer analysis/could not withstand further consideration Replace A with B/ substitute A for B/ take the place of 代替
cross-cultural communication 跨文化交流 rote learning 死记硬背 Concentrate/focus one’s attention/energy/time on 关注… Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. Self-control/respect/esteem/confidence/actualization/conceit
1. Schools should concentrate on teaching students the academic subjects that will be useful for their future careers. Subjects such as music and sports are not useful. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.05.08 ) 教什么学科 O1-问观点：同意与否 There is/exists always a controversy/debate between teaching practical subjects that will ensure students promising careers and teaching students those subjects that are not so "practical" but help students develop comprehensively. Some/many people hold/state/contend/maintain/argue that school should teach such subjects useful to
their future careers, and music and sports are not useful. I do not quite agree with this opinion for[based on] the following reasons. Schools have every reason to teach students such useful subjects because[in that] this is just why many students attend university. Those practical skills students learn in the university will surely make them competent in the job market and bring them with high salary, with which one could lead a decent life and does not have to worry about daily necessities. The success of these graduates will in turn bring great fame to these schools, and schools will get more funds/donation from the society as well as from these successful alumni. However, students with only such practical skills are usually considered/deemed dull and shortsighted[narrow minded], and will not be well adapted to the society in which one's comprehensive qualities are valued more. While it is unreasonable/unconvincing/irrational/unwise to deem music and sports as useless. One primary/obvious/evident/manifest advantage of sports is for one to keep good health; moreover, sports also help us build/develop team spirit and interpersonal relationships, which bring us more chances in a society characterized by cooperation. On the other hand, music will cultivate/foster and enhance students' aesthetic standard; it also aids in releasing our pressure/stress from study and our daily affairs. To those who are talented/gifted in music and sports, they may, to a large extent, choose sports or music as their careers. It is unfair to deprive them of chances to learn these subjects, and also a waste of their talents. To sum up, [from what has been discussed above] it is reasonable for schools to teach students useful subjects promising them preeminent careers, yet they had better not teach only such subjects,[yet they had better provide more classes for students interested]; it is totally meaningless to deny the necessity/value of sports and music.
开头 1：We are living in a world of education playing an increasingly important role to the success of almost every individual, and the focus of education is to teach what kind of subjects to students. Some contend that school should prepare students for their future and therefore teach them those useful subjects that will ensure them a promising career, and subjects like sports and music are not useful. As for me, this idea is not so convincing.【I do not quite approve of this idea. /This idea sounds reasonable at first glance, it could not withstand further consideration.】 开头 2： could never deny the meaning of education to the success(whether in career We or family) of any individual in modern society, even those who drop out of school like Bill Gates and Steve Jobs. The focus of education is to teach what kind of subjects to students. Some contend that school should prepare students for their future and therefore teach them those useful subjects that will ensure them a promising career, and subjects like sports and music are not useful. As for me, this idea is not so convincing. ? The meaning of education to one's success has long been widely/universally accepted/acknowledged, and the focus of the issue is what kind of subjects should
be taught to students. -? There has long been a debate/concern among the public about the quality of education, for this is an issue that would influence almost everybody. The focus of their attention is what kind of subjects should be taught to students. -? The past few years/decades have witnessed a trend/tendency/phenomenon of modern technology being widely used in almost every field of our daily life. ? The past decade has witnessed an increase in the use of modern technology in almost every field of our daily life. ? Nowhere in history has the importance of ---education/technology---been emphasized more than in today's world. Nowhere in history has education played more important role for one to achieve success than in today's world. 问句开头 What kind of subjects should be taught in school? The focus of this issue is about the usefulness of a subject, or more specifically, it is about whether the subject will prepare students for their future career. Some hold that subjects like sports and music are not useful, and I could not agree with such an opinion. When asked about what kind of subjects should be taught at school, the most popular answer, whether it is from students, school or parents of students, is those subjects that will ensure students a promising career, and most of them even deem sports and music useless. As I see it, this idea could not withstand further consideration. 例子开头 When I attended university, I had to, under the pressure of my parents, choose accounting as my major, although what I love most is music, and my dream is to become a pianist. Reason for this is quite clear, accounting will ensure me a promising career and decent salary. Worse is that most schools also consider this issue in the same way, some of them even do not provide such "useless" classes like music and sports. This is undoubtedly a short-sighted decision. 2. Some people think it is not necessary for adults to receive education in class. Self-study is a good way for them to study more effectively. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.07.15) 开头段 1： are living in a world of knowledge becoming increasingly important in our We everyday life, and many adults have to continue their education even after leaving school and starting a career. For them, self-study and attending class are the two basic ways to receive education. Some hold that it is not necessary for them to attend class and self-study is enough for them to study more effectively. I do not quite agree with this opinion. 开头段 2：With the growing importance of knowledge and skills to one's success in career, more and more young adults choose to pursue their study either by attending university or by teaching themselves. Some say that distance-learning is not as effective as attending university, while as I see it, this perspective is not so convincing. 开头段 3：In the past few years, there has been a boom/sharp growth/decline in the number of people who pursue their university degree through distance-learning. In view of the learning ability and self-control this new way requires from a student, there arises a concern about the effectiveness of distance-learning, and some even deem it far
worse than attending university in person. As I see it, both of them could be effective ways, and the key is which way is proper for a specific individual. 开头段 4：It is a traditional practice for people to attain their university degree by attending courses in an university or college. While now, they have a new choice of distance-learning with the help of TV, computers and the Internet. Such a phenomenon also arouses concern about the effectiveness of this new method, some even doubt whether it will help us learn the courses well. As I see it, we can derive benefits form both ways, and the key is how we can make use of them. 开头段 5：Attending university or college has long/universally/widely been considered/deemed/accepted as/acknowledged as the only right and proper way to acquire knowledge and skills [that are] needed to pursue a promising career, while this idea is challenged by the wide use of modern technology like computers and the Internet in the field of education. However, there are also those who doubt the effectiveness of this new way of learning. As i see it, their doubt is reasonable, and the key is how we make use of it. 开头段 6：[A is a common way of ..., but is it a wise one? 7 I"?] Attending university or college is always considered an effective way to acquire knowledge, even for adults who study to further their careers. But is it still true in modern times? especially when distance-learning, as the direct result of modern technology's wide use in the field of education, is gaining increasing popularity. As I see it, distance learning can be more efficient than attending university, but it requires more on the learner's self-control as well as his ability of acquiring useful information himself. 3. Nowadays, distance-learning programs are such common thing for us (the study material by post, by internet), but some people argue that courses can never be taken as good as those by attending a college or university in person. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.05.15 ) 远程教育与传统课堂 --教学方式
Around the world, more adults can work from home and more children can study from home as computer technologies become cheaper and more accessible. Do you think it is a positive or negative development? 11.03.19 = 08.11.15 科技与教育结合
We are living in a world of our everyday life, including how we receive university education, being dominated by modern technology such as the Internet(we are living in an era of modern technology playing increasingly important role in almost every field of our life, including the university education.) There consequently comes/ari ses a controversy about the effectiveness of distance-learning in acquiring knowledge. Some say that it is not as good as attending a college or university, and we can learn better by attending university than by distance-learning. I fully disagree with[disapprove of] this viewpoint/ perspective. [modern technology dominates in our everyday life, and we could see their influence in many fields of our life, including how we receive university education. With the prevalence of the Internet and the subsequent distance-learning, many people choose to study at home. But there are still others saying that the effect of this is not as good as attending classes in university in person. ]
Among all the advantages we could derive from distance-learning, the most obvious is the improved efficiency in learning. Because we do not have to attend the class, a lot of precious time is saved that would have been wasted on the way to school, and we could make good use of these time to study more. In addition, we could set up studying plan according to our learning habits; for example, those who like to stay up late do not have to worry about getting up early for the morning class. Also, the Internet provides a better way for us to get useful information, because most courses in top universities like Harvard and Yale are videoed and it is accessible to everybody if one could use the search engine like google. Besides, quality of such open resources as "Open Yale Courses" is better than most of the same kind of course in university for these classes are taught by top professors in certain fields. Whereas studying this way means that we must have sound learning skills and self-control, or it will not help us in learning, but waste us lots of time. On the other hand, attending university provides us with chance to communicate with our teachers and classmates, which will help to solve problems beyond our perception/ understanding. Also, the atmosphere in the class would help students, especially those lacking good self-control, concentrate more on their study and get rid of those behaviors that hamper their study. For example, the phenomenon that one's classmates all study hard will compel/force a student to learn. Whereas the price we have to pay is time wasted on the way and the risk of attending a class taught by a teacher we do not like or who is not so qualified. A bad teacher will not only be useless in our study, he may totally ruin our interest about a subject. To sum up, both distance-learning and attending university have their pros and cons, so it is not convincing to say one is better than the other. If one could make good use of them, he can learn a lot of things from both ways. 4. Some people think children should obey the rules their parents and teachers set and listen to them, but others think less control will help children to deal with their future adult life. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. (10.05.20) 教育方式 D2-讨论类：讨论两个观点并给出自己意见 The way parents cultivate their children will have profound influence on children's adult life, and what is the most appropriate way is the concern of all parents. Some say that parents should set strict rules and have their children's behaviors all under control. While others argue that children will develop better with less control. As for me, both ideas have their merits, and I will give my opinion after discussing both sides. /We are living in an era of the importance of education, especially the education of children, being increasingly realized and emphasized. The focus of this issue is what is the most appropriate way to cultivate/foster a child. Some hold that too much control will jeopardize/hamper the children's development, while others think children should obey the rules set by teachers and parents. As I see it, although obedience/conformity will ease the parents-children relationship, it will, on the other hand, make children in lack of self-confidence and independence in the long term/run. Accepting advice from parents will help children avoid the dangers from the society. Parents love their children most, and will teach them how to deal with the society so as
to ensure children's safety. For example, when we were young, we all heard from our parents that do not talk to strangers and do not take what strangers give to us either. But we saw many cases on the television that some kids are abducted just because they easily accept what are offered to them and then fall into the traps set by criminals. If they had remembered such warning from parents, tragedies would not have happened. We also hear about many cases of kids drowned in river or lakes, especially in summer. these kids surely did not obey their parents' rules that do not swim by themselves, and do not swim in water too deep. [Parents' advice also decreases the possibility that children might go astray in their life.] 经验 Although too much control from parents on children will in the short term extricate children from potential dangers and failures, it will, in the long run, harm such children's ability of being independent/creative, or even destroy their future. The reason is obvious. When having no freedom to do or even think about something, what a child has to do is to listen to what his parents ask him to do, and then does it. A person who is deprived of all chances of making decisions alone, whether a child or an adult, will surely develop the habit of relying on other persons for advice, and will eventually lose the confidence and will to do anything on his own, to say nothing of creating something new. It is hard for these persons to strive and survive in such a society full of fierce competition, for they do not always have a teacher or a parent there for him when things happen. [Children growing up with too much care from parents are usually lack of independence and could not well deal with troubles in our everyday life, just as flowers growing up in greenhouse could not resist bad weather like thunderstorm or hurricane once the greenhouse is removed.] On the other hand, giving freedom to children will help build their independence. With no help from other sources, one has to firstly consider how he could do himself, not to ask others for advice when confronted with troubles. He has to analyze the pros and cons of the issue from different aspects/angles, and thus learn to evaluate the situation, including what he might derive or lose when making a decision. In the long run, he will develop the habit of relying on himself to handle everything, and even if he makes mistakes, he could draw useful lessons from them, not just panic and do not know what to do when facing troubles. To sum up, putting too much restriction on children will hinder the development of the children and their adaptation to the society. From this point, I think giving freedom to children will in a way help children develop. 5. Many people who leave school hold a negative attitude towards learning. Why does this happen? How to solve the problem? (10.05.29) 对学习的态度 C1 因果类-原因及解决方案 Social-economic development makes it possible for more people to receive education. Although education does benefit those who receive education and the whole society, not everyone hold a positive attitude toward it, some even hate it. In this essay, I want[will try] to explore some of the reasons for this and then give my suggestions. [Education has long been deemed an effective way for people to acquire knowledge and useful skills, while not everybody could actually derive benefits from it, and some of
them even express kind of distaste about the whole learning process. Reasons of such a phenomenon come from both school and students; this essay will try to explore some of them and then present some suggestions.] The first reason some hold negative attitude toward learning might be the great pressure they experience at school. We live in a society of fierce competition, and this has been transferred to campus. To earn a bright future, most students have to do homework till midnight, and so much homework makes it impossible for them to do anything other than learning, also totally strangling their interest about learning. Thus, what they get from learning is not pleasure or joy, but pain and suffering. So we often see that some may tear their books into shreds or burn them to ashes when graduating from school, to vent their discontent. Another reason might be that it is hard for them to adapt to the educational system in which they grow up, and they find that they are misled in the education. In some countries, students are required to do repetitive and dull homework, no time left to think creatively and do things they like; they are also taught that they should take something for granted, do not have to have any doubt, even if what they are taught are obviously opposite to common sense. They are just deprived of the chances of pursuing the truth and wisdom. After they mature in mind and could do some critical thinking, they find what they are taught are useless and the way they are taught is wrong, the education they received does not make them wise, but makes them prejudiced. In other words, they have been doing meaningless things for years, and they have to spend even more years to get rid of such negative influence of bad education. To change this, school should change their philosophy of education, lessening students' pressure/burden of study and giving them more chances to do some creative thinking. Thus students will learn useful things from the study, and the possibility that they hate learning will decrease. 6. Some groups, such as poor people and people from rural areas, think universities should make it especially easy for them to get access to university education. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.06.05) 教育公平 We are living in a world of knowledge being increasingly important for one to achieve success, and attending university is a good way to acquire knowledge. Some people hold that university education should be easily accessible to those poor people and people form rural areas. While I do not quite agree with this idea. We are living in an era of modern technology becoming increasingly important in almost every field of our life. We are living in a world or environmental pollution becoming increasing severe in almost every country[every corner of the Earth]. 7. Some people believe that university students should pay all the cost of studies because university education only benefit the students themselves not the society as a whole. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.07.31) 谁付学费，谁从教育中受益
Higher education can be funded in several ways including the following three: 1. All costs are paid by the government. 2. All costs are paid by the student. 3. All costs are paid by the student using loans
from the government that must be repaid after graduation. Discuss the benefits of each option. Which is the best one? 11.08.25 = 07.09.22 大学学费
8. Some people think parents should read or tell stories to children, while others think parents need not do that, as children can read books, watch TV or movies by themselves. Discuss both views and give your opinion. (10.11.04) We can never deny the important role of parents playing in the development of children.[we can never deny the importance of parents to the development of children.] there recently arises a debate of whether parents should read books or stories to their children. Some people hold that parents should do so, while others state that parents had better not do this because children could read books and watch TV or movies themselves. I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both views and then give my own idea about this issue. 9. Everyone should stay in school until they reach the age of 18. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.11.06)
Some think that children should start school as early as possible, while others believe that they should start school at the age of seven. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. 11.03.10
the education of children is always the focus of parents' concern. Many parents hope that their children could have a bright future by receiving high-quality education. While at the same time many of these parents fall into the misunderstanding that the earlier children begin their formal education, the better they will be. While there are also those parents who pay little attention to the pre-school education, just letting their children play as they wish. Both ways have their merit in a degree, while they are not the best approach to cultivate a child. Children beginning their formal education as early as possible is sensible, indeed, because the learning potential of children are always underestimated. A 13-year study of early childhood development at Harvard University has shown that by the age of three, most children have the potential to understand about 1000 words, most of which they will use in the rest of their lives. Also, Every child is born with a natural curiosity that is important to their future learning, while it can be suppressed during the second and third year of life, during which they learn the basic skills they will use in their late learning both at home and at school. Another educational experiment conducted in America, named "Missouri programme", shows that intervention in the first three years of children will surely help them in their learning, and those children in the programme are obviously better than their peers who do not receive guidance in academic performance. But we have also need to recognize the shortcomings of this practice. If a child begins formal education earlier than his peers, for example, at 4 years old, he will be younger than most of his classmates who start education at an regular age(usually 6 years old). Such a child will not be as good to his classmates, in both physical strength and mental development, because one or two years time will bring great difference to a child. He will feel inferior in study and daily affairs, then lack of confidence to deal with his life. This is surely not beneficial to their future development, they will spent more time struggling and making up the difference.
Also, children love playing most, and research has shown that playing, in fact, is key to the mental and social development, both in animals and in human bieng; children playing with their peers too little may be kind of insociable/eccentric in later life. What is more, it is hard for children to focus their attention on one thing for more than 5 minutes, so even if we want them to attend the class, there must be some time left for them to play. Based on the discussion above, I think both ideas given sound reasonable, but it is important for us to realize their shortcomings. And it may be better for us to set up a plan which gives children time to play and learn, so that they will have a happy childhood, not falling behind in learning at the same time. 10. Young people are often influenced in their behaviours and situations by others in the same age. This is called “peer pressure". Do the disadvantages outweigh the advantages? (10.12.16) 同辈压力
Peer pressure refers to the influence exerted by a peer group in encouraging a person to change his or her attitudes, values, or behavior in order to conform to group norms. In young people, youth peer pressure is considered as one of the most frequently referred to forms of peer pressure. It is particularly common because most youth spend large amounts of time in fixed groups (schools and subgroups within them) regardless of their opinion of those groups. In addition to this, they may lack the maturity to handle pressure from 'friends'. Also, young people are more willing to behave negatively towards those who are not members of their own peer groups. However, youth peer pressure can also have positive effects. For example, if one is involved with a group of people that are ambitious and working to succeed, one might feel pressured to follow suit to avoid feeling excluded from the group. Sometimes the child is pressuring themselves. They feel like they need to be in this group to be "cool" or "in." Therefore, the youth would be pressured into improving themselves, bettering them in the long run. This is most commonly seen in youths that are active in sports or other extracurricular activities where conformity with one's peer group is strongest. While socially accepted children fare the best in high school due to having the most class resources, the most opportunities and the most positive experiences, research shows that being in the popular crowd may also be a risk factor for mild to moderate deviant behavior. Popular adolescents are the most socialized into their peer groups and thus are vulnerable to peer pressures, such as behaviors usually reserved for those of a greater maturity and understanding, such as the use of drugs. Adolescence is a time of experimentation with new identities and experiences. The culture of high school often has its own social norms that are different from the outside culture. Some of these norms may not be especially positive or beneficial. Socially accepted kids are often accepted for the sheer fact that they conform well to the norms of teen culture, good and bad aspects included. Popular adolescents are more strongly associated with their peer groups in which they may together experiment with things like alcohol, cigarettes and drugs. Although there are a few risk factors correlated with popularity, deviant behavior is often only mild to moderate. Regardless, social acceptance provides more overall protective factors than risk factors.
Young people are susceptible/vulnerable/subject to social influences and people around them, especially those of their own age. They feel it necessary to be the same with their peers. Such peer pressure poses both negative and positive effects to young people. This essay will try to discuss both sides.
Most young people, especially children, are not mature enough to deal with such pressure, and they may fall victims of bad behaviors of others. For example, many young people might occasionally get some alcohol, cigarette or even drugs, and most young people may feel it cool and stimulating to try something new or something only adults are allowed to do. Other young people will be compelled to do the same things for fear that they will be excluded from the group if they don't. More serious is the fact that some adolescent crimes are usually done by a group of juveniles. All these things are the negative side of peer pressure. While this kind of force could also be used in preventing violence, and promoting learning, order, and discipline in schools. if one is involved with a group of people that are ambitious and work hard for their goals, one might feel pressured to follow them so as to avoid feeling isolated from the group. Then what teachers and parents have to is to set up a positive role model, and other children will pressure themselves. Under other conditions, they feel like they need to be in this ambitious group to be "cool" or "in". Therefore, the youth would be pressured into improving themselves, bettering them in the long run. This is most commonly seen in youths that are active in sports or other extracurricular activities where conformity with one's peer group is strongest. Based on the discussion above, peer pressure could play constructive or destructive role in youth behavior, and the key is how we use this pressure, so it is hard to say the advantages outweigh disadvantages or vice versa. 11. Some people think typical teaching of a teacher and students in the class will not exist by the year 2050. Do you agree or disagree? (10.12.18) --教学模式之转变 We are living in an era of modern technology playing increasingly important role in almost every field of our life, and education is an area being influenced. As a result of the wide use of computers and the Internet, some say that teachers are not as important as before, and typical teaching will disappear by the year 2050. I do not quite approve of this idea. Typical teaching of a teacher and students in the class is and will be an important way for students to acquire information, especially to those students of primary school. Most of them know little about any subject, and there exists little possibility for them to teach themselves, so the effect of a teacher is indispensable. Not only can teachers tell us ABC about given subjects, they can also address our questions. At the same time, a teacher could give us some guidance on the method with which we learn, so that we could acquire knowledge more efficiently; otherwise, we just could not get us improved, whatever knowledge are there for us to exploit. After we have mastered some basic knowledge and the common way of acquiring knowledge with the help of the Internet or the library, we could teach ourselves, but this is still not enough for us to ignore the importance of a good teacher. Chances are that we will encounter difficulties, whatever we learn, or in whichever way we learn, and sometimes it is hard or even unlikely for us to find the solution. This happens not because we are not clever enough or we are in lack of knowledge, but because we are not thinking in the right direction; such is a question that a computer could not handle, and the importance of a wise teacher arises.
To sum up, despite the convenience of modern technology bring to our study, the importance of teacher and the traditional way of teaching could never be neglected. 12. Some children find some subjects such as mathematic and philosophy too difficult to learn, so some people argue that those subjects should be optional rather than compulsory. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.09.17 学科 必修选修
13. Some people think that the main purpose of schools is to turn children into good
citizens and workers, rather than to benefit them as individuals. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.08.13 = 06.10.14 教育的目的 [个人价值与社会价值] Education is important to any country because it carries with it the hope of a country. But people may have different views about the main aim of education, namely what kind of person should children be cultivated to be? Some say that it is enough to benefit themselves, while others say they should also be taught to be good citizens. I personally think that both should be taken into account in education. School should first aim at prepare students for their own interest, and teach them to be independent individuals with critical thinking. But the social responsibility a citizen of modern society should assume should never be neglected. We do not live in an isolated world like R0binson; conversely, we live in a world where one is tightly corelated to others. We should learn to regulate our behavior so as not to violate the right and freedom of others. 14. Some people think that teachers should be responsible for teaching students to judge what is right and wrong so that they can behave well. Others say that teachers should only teach students academic subjects. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.05.28 = 06.03.18 学术课程与价值观 Essay 1 People can easily come to consensus on the importance of education to both individuals and the society, but it is hard for some to make it clear what should be done in school, namely how students should be cultivated. Some say that it is enough for teachers to teach them academic subjects, while others argue that social values should be instilled. As far as I am concerned, both should be taken into consideration. Of course academic subjects should be attached with high significance, because we need the work of people with special knowledge and skills like architects, doctors, scientists and artists, to make the society better. The training students receive will not only benefit themselves, it will also benefit the whole society. For example, a doctor can save a patient's life, and a lawyer can defend the justice and equality of a society, and an artist, like a director, can show both the light and dark sides of human nature and make us reflect on ourselves. But we should never forget that these knowledge and skills could also be used to do evils if there are not right values to support an individual's behavior, and a person receiving good training in some specific skills but in lack of the ability to tell good from bad, right from wrong, could be even more dangerous to the society. For example, a doctor might use his professional skills to extort bribe from his patient, threatening/menacing that the operation/surgery will not be done properly; a lawyer with no sense of justice might use his knowledge to bully the weak, ignoring his due responsibility; an scientist could use his professional skills to produce lethal weapons.
To sum up, both values and practical skills are important. Without the latter, an individual could not be a productive worker of the society; without the former, an individual might pose greater danger to the society. So based on the discussion above, both of them had better be taught in school. Essay 2 The world has experienced a switch from traditional manufacturing industry to a knowledge economy, in which knowledge usually means success and wealth. Under such circumstance, there rises a notion that schools and teachers should only focus on imparting to students academic knowledge which can help them secure a decent job. From my perspective, however, moral education should also be placed a premium, otherwise the educational system will pose a huge hazard to society. There is no denying that academic subjects can help students succeed in their career. With the theoretical knowledge they learn from their teachers, graduates are more qualified and are more likely to fulfil the requirement of employers, thus gaining a better position and higher payment. However, without any moral boundary, such academic knowledge is quite dangerous. Scientists and politicians without any moral restriction are highly likely to do some deeds which will pose a hazard to human society, such as human cloning and the development of biochemical weapons. Teenagers are too na? and innocent that they can hardly distinguish right from wrong. ve Proper moral guidance at this stage can effectively reduce the chance of juvenile delinquency. Modern society focuses on team work more than ever before, and people with poor morality can hardly integrate with society. In conclusion, teaching academic subjects is indeed necessary, but it should be integrated with moral education. Only a successful combination of both can our education system cultivate talents with healthy personality to meet the requirement of modern society. Thus, moral education should be an essential component of school education.
二、政府与城市化（共 7 题，占 14.6%） 1. In today's world, it is private companies rather than government who pay for and carry out most scientific research. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? (10.01.14) D1-讨论类：优点>缺点？ It is easy for us to find the influence of private company to our everyday life in many fields, like the cell phones and the Internet with which we communicate with our friends and acquire information. These companies also fund and conduct most scientific researches. There consequently arises a concern about the risk of this phenomenon, considering that it is a company's primary consideration to make profits. As I see it, this brings more benefits than risk if only such research is conducted under the law. It is sensible to worry about or even doubt the reasonableness of such practices, for there truly exists the possibility that the result of research would be manipulated in
favor of the company's private benefits. Therefore it is not surprising for Shirley Schmidt, a lawyer who donated three million dollars to a research project of Stanford university, to withdraw her donation when hearing that a big oil company is also involved in the research, of which the main aim is to find some new alternative energy resources. Anyone rational would applaud her decision for we heard so much about these big companies intending to get high profits with their great influence, disregarding the risk they impose on the public, or even interfering with the legislation against them in the congress. What if they control our whole life? Despite that, we should not accordingly deny their role in scientific research. Nature to pursue profits will make the company run in a more efficient way, and they will choose the projects that will bring benefits in the shortest time. Thus their research will have immediate influence to our life. For example, the patent of touch screen technology, a technology now widely used in many PCs, smart phones, was developed by private companies, and the use of this technique takes us to a new era: we don't need a mouse or the keyboard to operate our computers, we interact directly with what is displayed instead. History has also witnessed that many of the inventions that changed the world are done by private companies. Windows xp, the most popular and widely used operating system, is developed by microsoft, a private company. The CPU of most computers are designed and manufactured by Intel or AMD, and both are private companies. Thus private companies funding and carrying out scientific research does not necessarily jeopardize our freedom or right, especially when taking into account the government's limited budget, and the potential danger of things all under its control. As discussed above, not only have private companies made great contribution to the improvement of scientific research, they also provide funds that the government could not afford, in spite of the risk they may pose to the whole society. So based on this, its advantages far outweigh its minimal drawbacks. 2. Some people think the governments should act to decide how people live in order to make a healthier life. Others think individuals should decide their own lifestyle. What do you concern about? Discuss both views and give your opinion. (10.04.17) The role the government plays in our daily life, especially in the field of public interest like education and medical services, has always been expanding during the latest years. Some even go further to advocate government deciding the lifestyle of common citizens. I do not quite agree with this idea, even if its aim/original intention is for a healthier life. The government has its own responsibility to take on, and it can do something under the law to maintain the running of the whole society as well as to promote public welfare. For example, they could produce some advertisements to publicize the harm of smoking and drug abuse, or even promote the legislation against such behaviour; smoking in public place has been banned under their endeavor, in many countries. However, the government should never interfere too much in our daily life, for this is not its constitutional right, just as we could not be forced to exercise every morning by our parents, even if we know it is good to our health. On the other hand, individuals should also have their own right to choose their
favourite lifestyle on condition that they do not break the law. Many people smoke, although they know they will live longer when they quit. Many other people drive to work, although they know car exhaust will pollute the air they breathe in and taking public transportation is a better choice. Still many other people like Mcdonald's and pepsi, although they know fat will accumulate in their body when eating such junk food. But it is their choice, and nobody nor any organization has the right to force them to quit. To sum up, the government could do something to advocate a healthier lifestyle, but this should be done under the law, and the choice is to be made by every individual, not the government. 3. Some people think that politicians have the greatest influence on the world. Other people, however, believe that scientists have the greatest influence. Discuss both of views and give your opinion. (10.02.11)（政府+科技） 【UN】 We could never deny the great influence of both politicians and scientists to the world. While there exists a debate about whether politicians or scientists play greater[more important] role. Some state that politicians influence the world more than scientists, while others hold opposite idea. As for me[As I see it, As far as I am concerned.], they are both important, but it is hard to tell which of them are more significant. 政治家 politicians, with great power in hand, could push the formulation and enforcement of some policies so as to realize their political ideals or aims, and thus maximize the welfare of the public. Abraham Lincoln, with the ratification of the Emancipation Proclamation, gave black slaves the status of a free man. It is with the power of these freedmen that he and his government defeated the southern army and upheld the unity of the united states of America. While due to the great power of politicians, if they make mistakes, it will also have long term effects on those who are influenced, just as the destructive impact of Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler on Russia[the former Soviet Union] and Germany. /Franklin Roosevelt, the 32th president of US, took office in the Great depression, when unemployment rate in the U.S. rose to as high as 25%; personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. This is the most severe economic recession US had ever experienced. Roosevelt spearheaded major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief (government jobs for the unemployed), recovery (economic growth), and reform (through regulation of Wall Street, banks and transportation). These policies took effects gradually, and the US economy recovered and more opportunities were created. He then leaded the war against Nazi Germany and Japan, defeating them and defending the freedom of people who loved peace. 科学家 scientists, with their brilliant mind, explore the unknown world, and thus widen the scope/range of human knowledge about the external world and we human being ourselves. For example, before Mendel and the modern genetics, we are acquainted with the fact that sons are similar to their parents, in both external appearance and inner qualities; we just could not tell why. While this could easily be explained in gene theory. Before Copernicus, man always deemed the Earth as the center of the world,
not even daring to have any doubt about this; while with modern astronomy, we know that Earth is just a planet of the solar system, which itself is a little part of the whole Milky Way galaxy, and there are numerous similar galaxies in the universe. Scientists' work also revolutionize the way we work and deal with daily affairs. Before the invention of computers, we have to spend a lot of time on doing dull and repetitive tasks, while now a computer can do it in a second. We used to waste days of precious time on the way, just to send a message, now it needs only a phone call. In conclusion, both politicians and scientists contribute a lot to the society, but they do so in different fields, so it is hard to tell which of them are more important. 艺术家 Artists, with their amazing works, convey their understanding of the world and their feelings of the beauty and the evil of our society, encouraging us to face the life bravely, or arousing our attention/concern to some problems of the society. From the painting of Vincent Van Gogh and the symphony of Beethoven, we sense the vitality of life as well as the bravery to face the suffering/misery of life. From the movie "the Shawshank Redemption", we know the value of freedom, friendship as well as what we, as common human beings, can do when we have a strong heart. From Lumet's famous movie "twelve angry men", which tells the whole process of twelve jurors arguing about whether a child should be sentenced guilty of murdering his father, we know the meaning of a reasonable judicial system to any ordinary person, and that everyone should actively and responsibly participate in the political life so as to protect our due rights because anyone of us could be the child in the case, and we need justice. From the movie regarding environmental protection such as "the cove", which tells a story of people in a Japanese small town massacring dolphins, we know how cruel we human could be sometimes, and then we could reflect on the role of human in the nature and the relationship between other animals and us. In today's world of advanced science and technology, we still greatly value our artists such as musicians, painters and writers. What can arts tell us about life that science and technology cannot? 11.07.16 艺术(家) Some people think that creative artists should be supported financially by the government of their country, while others believe that they should find financial support from other sources instead. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.02.17 艺术 I agree with the idea that the government could do something to boost the development of art, but it does not mean that the government could provide financial support to artists. The reasons go as following. The focus of government should be on public interests, like providing health care system or fire service, or unemployment insurance. The aim of its work is for the maximum welfare of the public, and no individual or group should be given the priority, although the government also helps the weak and maintains justice and equality in the society. An artist doing his job has nothing to do with the public welfare, and if an artist could not sell his works and consequently could not support himself and his family, he could apply for unemployment relief, but the government has no responsibility to give him some money and help him start a new career, or the beggars could ask the government for the same thing.
On the other hand, artists have every reason to seek financial support from other sources. Many famous writers, like victor hugo and beethoven, are supported by the gentry of their time. Some people think governments should focus the spending only on public services rather than wasting money on arts (music, printing, etc.). To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.06.11 ≈ 04. 06.26, 04.11.27, 07.09.20 Whether the government should subsidize art or creative artists is an issue in heated debate. Some say that government should focus on public interests, and spending on art is an waste of governmental budget. this idea sounds reasonable at first, while it could not withstand further consideration. Of course the government should spent most of its budget on expanding the welfare of the public because this is why we set up a government and why we pay taxes to it. We need the government to provide as many chances of education as possible so that our kids could develop sound skills in critical thinking and then clearly and elaborately communicate their ideas after receiving high-quality education. We also need them to learn in school what is right and wrong, what kind of responsibility should a citizen and the government assume respectively, so that the society could run smoothly. Besides, the government should also use its budget to set up a perfect health care system, an army, a fire-fighting system, to which we could turn to for help when we are in trouble. But maximizing the public welfare does not necessarily conflict with subsidizing the art. We admit there exists the danger that the intervention of government would to some extent affect the free expression in art, because the government would not like to lose its voice in a cause on which it spend large sum of money. But as an important part of a culture, art plays a key role in uniting the persons of a special culture, and government subsidizing art can not only preserve some valuable cultural tradition and heritage, but also increase cultural identity in the nation. For example, German will feel proud of Beethoven and his music, and Dutch will also take pride in Vincent Van Gogh and his painting. On the other hand, amazing artistic works will also attract tourists from all over the world, just like what the famous work of Leonardo Da Vinci, Mona Lisa does. This could bring some income, and decrease the government's financial burden. To sum up, although the government should focus its budget on public benefits, but the cultural value of art is also a part of the benefits, and it is not the kind of benefit that is easy to see, but it does produce effect in uniting a nation and boost cultural identity. So based on this, I support the idea that government should support art. Some people think governments should spend money on measures to save languages with few speakers from dying out completely. Others think this is a waste of financial resources. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.03.05 语言 Many less-spoken languages in the world, like the language of American Indian, are facing the risk of being extinct. Some say that the government should invest money and take actions to prevent them from dying out. Opponents of this idea say that this is a waste of money. In my opinion, the government should do something to protect these endangered languages, and this does not necessarily mean to be a waste of money.
Every culture, of which the main carrier is language, represents a special way of understanding the world, and the combination of these understanding helps us to know the world in a deeper, more comprehensive and diversified angle. Dying out of any language will decrease the cultural diversity, and we also lose a special angle to sense the world. For example, in the language of Inuit, there are more than twenty words to describe all kinds of snow, and this is directly connected to their living environment. In the culture of Maya, the year 2012 is deemed to be the end of the world, and we are still not clear why. But this is surely connected to the way they understand the world, and now we could only decode this from the ruin of their culture. Any lost of new language would push us to the same predicament. From this point, the government, of which one main responsibility is to protect special culture of a nation, should do something to maintain the cultural diversity. On the other hand, investment in the protection of those endangered languages will not necessarily mean to be a waste. Language is the important carrier of a culture, and special culture of a nation is of great financial benefits in this time of globalization. It would attract tourists from all over the world, and thus bring income to both the local community where the language is spoken and the government. So the early investment could get paid back. 4. The movement of people from agricultural areas to cities to work can cause serious problems in both places. What are the serious problems and what measures can be taken to solve this problem? (10.07.17) The past few decades have witnessed a trend of urbanization characterized by many peasants[rural residents] moving to live and work in big cities. This leads to[results in] a series of severe problems, both in countryside and in cities. I will list/discuss some of them, and then give my own solutions/suggestions. To most rural areas, the most severe problem may be the lack of labor force. Young people all go to cities to earn livings, leaving their kids and elderly parents at home. While either of them are suitable for the jobs on the farm for such jobs need a strong body. Accompanying this is the education of children and the support of the elderly. It has long been deemed that parents are the best teachers of their children, and there is a higher possibility for children lacking of parental attention and love to go astray and this will make all the endeavour of parents meaningless because they already lose their future and hope. Without care from sons or daughters, the elderly will feel lonely, and because they are more vulnerable to disease, lack of attention will decrease their life quality and even their life. New problems will also arise in cities. Due to the flow of large number of floating population into the city, public resources like buses, schools and hospitals will be crowded, and traffic congestion will be common, people have to wait in long line to see a movie, or to see the doctor. Also, more job opportunities should be created to satisfy the needs of these new citizens, but it needs time. So in a relatively long time, they have to face fierce competition in the job markets, and some unlucky guys will often be in unemployment. The pressure of survival in the city might push them to illegal ways,
and this will lead to the increase in crime rate and exacerbate the social stability. In conclusion, economic disparity between urban and rural areas is the main reason of this phenomenon; if rural residents can have the same education and income as their urban counterparts, there will be no such moves to the city. To solve this problem, more money had better be invested in rural areas to narrow the difference between countryside and cities and the size of city had better be limited too, thus problems related to the scarceness of public resources in cities could be avoided. 5. The major cities in the world are growing fast, as well as their problems. What are the problems that young people living in cities are facing with? Give solutions to these problems. (10.08.14) 6. In many cities, planners tend to arrange shops, schools, offices, and homes in specific areas and separate them from each other. Do you think the advantages of this policy outweigh the disadvantages? (10.08.28) 7. Some people think paying taxes is a big enough contribution to their society, while others think people have more responsibilities as members of society than only paying taxes. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. (10.10.30) Living in a highly-organized society, it is hard for us to totally isolate ourselves from others and the society. We, as citizens/members of the society, should all take on different kinds of responsibilities so that the society would run smoothly. While some say that it is enough to pay taxes, and we have no other responsibility to assume. I totally disagree with this opinion, and we have more to do than just paying taxes. Undoubtedly, paying taxes plays a key role to ensure the welfare of the whole society. In a complicated society, something goes far beyond the capability of individuals, and we have to unite our limited strength to achieve what we otherwise can not do. For example, an individual can do almost nothing about homeland security and national defense with his limited money and time. To most of us, we could go bankrupt when stricken by some severe diseases like uremia that necessitate organ transplant, for we just do not have that large number of money needed for the surgery. While when we pay taxes to the government, these money could be collected and then used to set up an army to protect our country, and a perfect health care system in which even the welfare of the poor could be guaranteed. While as a member of a society where everyone is tightly correlated, we have far more to do other than paying taxes. The bottom line is that we should observe the law and the basic moral values of the society. But there are other things we could do in favor of the maximum welfare of the society. [We are facing many problems today such as the global warming and environmental pollution, and solving these problems needs the cooperation of the whole world. Even if an individual's effort is considered negligible/minimal, it still counts, because it is the accumulation of these minimal efforts that cause such problems, and they could not be solved unless we all participate in. For example, walking or riding to work everyday will decrease about 20kg of carbon dioxide that may be emitted to the atmosphere, and the sum of of carbon dioxide saved is considerable.] What is more, when one accumulates enough wealth, he could do
some philanthropy to help others in need. For example, Bill Gates and his wife set up a foundation named "the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation" to which they donated over 28 billion dollars. Most of these money is used in causes like discovering new drugs against those diseases causing great troubles to our health, creating more job opportunities in poor countries and supporting scientific innovation in many fields. To sum up, as a member of the society, we have more than paying taxes to do, and everyone assuming their responsibility will make the world a better place. 8. In some countries, small town-centre shops are going out of business because people tend to drive to large out-of-town stores. As a result, people without cars have limited access to out-of town stores, and it may result in an increase in the use of cars. Do you think the disadvantages of this change outweigh its advantages? (10.11.27) the past decades/century have witnessed a trend/tendency/phenomenon for both residents and businesses in town center to move to outer suburb of big citis. this brings constructive and destructive outcomes. one of the detriments is that people have to go a long way to buy daily neccesities from out-of-town stores. some hold that this pose more ad than dis to individuals as well as the society, and I --. 9. 老建筑 Some people think that too much money has been spent looking after and repairing old buildings, so we should knock down old buildings and build modern ones instead. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.04.28 ≈ 04.06.12 老建筑 One controversy many countries are confronted with in the process of urbanization is how to deal with these old buildings. Repairing/preserving them and knocking them down for the building of modern ones are the two main choices. Some support the latter choice and say that preserving these old building is of little use and is a waste of money. This idea sounds reasonable at first, but it could not withstand further consideration. Of course some money, whether it is from private or public resources, should be spent on preserving and repairing these old buildings. If it is donation from business or individuals, there might be little concern. But if this money is from public expense like government budget, there will arise controversy and even doubt, because the government expense/budget is from the tax the citizens pay, and the spending on old buildings might to a large extend increase the burden of citizens and the government will have to levy heavier tax on them so as to raise money for the extra expense on old buildings. But what the government should first take into consideration is to improve public interest/welfare using the revenue, and old building seems to have nothing to do with this. However, the meaning of the old building should never be neglected, because they are of great cultural importance, which is more emphasized by many nations in this time of globalization. Culture is not an abstract but a specific/concrete concept, and it exists on specific things like building, clothes, and even our lifestyle. In other words, building as well as clothes, is the carrier/medium of culture, and if the building with cultural meaning are knocked down, there will be nowhere[no place] for culture to exist, and a nation will lose its cultural identity, for there is nothing left for us to prove the
existence of our culture. What is more, preserving old building does not necessarily mean to increase the public's financial burden, because special culture of a nation itself is a precious fortune, and if explored in the right way, it would attract tourists from all over the world, and thus bring economic benefits to local community and the government. In conclusion, some old buildings of great cultural meaning should never be knocked down because they are where culture stems/origins from and these old buildings could attract tourists, increasing government's revenue.
三、科技（共 7 题，占 14.6%） 1. Air travel can only benefit the richest people in the world. Ordinary people can get no advantage with the development of air travel. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.02.06) 2. Technological progress in the past century has its negative effect, despite its remarkable contribution. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.02.27) 3. It has been suggested that everyone in the world want to own a car, a TV and a fridge. Do you think disadvantage of such a development outweigh advantages? (10.04.25) The consumption of industrial products such as cars, TV and fridges is the driving force of this modern society we are living in, and people always dream to own more. This poses both pros and cons to individuals as well as the society as a whole. Some hold that the former far outweigh the latter, while I disagree. 4. In today's society, more and more work is done by machines. Do you think the positive effects of the development overweigh the negative effects on individuals and society? (10.03.20) Technology has changed our life in many ways, one result of technological advance is the invention of all kinds of machines, including robots, they replace human being in many works. This bring both advantages and disadvantages to both individuals and the society. This essay will discuss both of them. /The past decades have witnessed a trend of increasing amounts of jobs being done by machines other than humans. This poses both merit and drawbacks to individuals concerned and the whole society. Some hold that benefits of this trend outweigh its shortcomings,[the former outweighs the latter.] while I disagree. Machines have freed human from heavy manual labor and dangerous jobs. It will took one whole day to plow only 3 acres of field, even with farm cattle; long time of heavy work burden will also bring diseases like frozen shoulder, to us. Now a machine can do such work in just less than an hour, and humans just have to drive this machine. Also, because machines could do the work human used to do much more quickly, they could have much time to pursue what they like, like art. This makes our life more colorful. To the whole society, due to the wide use of machines, the work efficiency is highly improved. Human could produce more things in the time allotted, and this brings about consumer goods/material products in abundance, like foods. [While some
machines invented recently, like computers, do not save us time, they waste us a lot of time, they also cause healthy problems to us.] On the other hand, being free from manual work means many of us exercise less, for manual work could to some extent build our body. While abundant food with less exercises may result in obesity, and data surely show that proportion of obese people is increasing. Accompanying this is the environmental problems, for any machines will have to consume energy, in the form of oil, gas or electricity, and this will lead to the emission of greenhouse gases and then the increase in global temperature. Another problem arising from the use of machines is the decrease in employment rate, because they do rob many manual workers of their jobs. While it is also because of their higher efficiency, workers like scientists and artists could have more time to do some creative jobs, and their work creates new industries like IT industry, then greatly change our world and our life. Based on the discussion, machine in wide use brings both blessing and curse to individuals and the society. It is hard to say whether the former outweighs the latter, or vice versa. It is better if we could make good use of them and avoid the disadvantages at the same time. We just have to maintain a balance. 5. Mobile phones have made life easier: anyone can use a mobile phone to answer/make work calls or home calls at any place 7 days a week. Do you think this development has more positive effects or negative effects on the individual and society? (10.09.04) 6. Some people have benefited from modern communications technology, but some people have not benefited from it at all. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.11.20) 7. Public museums and art galleries are not needed because people can see historical objects and works by using computers. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.12.04 = 07.06.09) 8. Some people think that robots are very important to human’s future development, while others think they are dangerous and have negative effects on society. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.01.08 机器人
四、工作与生活（共 6 题，占 12.5%） 1. An increasing number of people change their career and place of residence several times during their life time. Is this a positive or negative development? (10.06.19) O2-: 问观点 Positive or negative? The times for one to work in the same company for their whole life have long gone, and we entered an era of people constantly changing their jobs and sometimes even their location of residence. Some deem this positive, yet as I see it, whether it is good or bad depends on who are involved. [This is the sixth time that I changed my job, and I have already worked in five different cities. My mother told me that I had better settle down and keep a stable job. Such things do not just happen on me, it is a trend for people in modern times to do so. But is this really good? ---]
Experiencing more jobs and more cities could absolutely widen one's eyes, in both work and life. Just as what happened to Kaifu Lee, the ex vice-president of Google and Microsoft. He has worked in four top companies in the IT field, including apple and SGI, both in US and China. Such experience makes him well acquainted with new trend in the development of IT and how a companies is operated. He then set up his own company--innovation works, and his working experiences undoubtedly help him a lot. While people do not get this at no cost. Accompanying this diversity is the instability of life. One has to face the challenge of adapting to different jobs, colleagues, and even different cultures. This might be easy to overcome to an adult, but it is not to a child/kid, for what a kid needs is a stable home environment for his growth. He will lose his friend once and again, and lack of friendship will affect children's development, both mental and behavioural. To sum up, constant changes will enrich our life, but at the same time, they pose challenge to those concerned and their children. If they could overcome such challenge and well adapt to new life and work, it is positive, or it is definitely negative. 2. Nowadays more and more young people hold important positions in the government. Some people think that it is a good thing，while others argue that it is not suitable. Discuss both these views and give your opinion. (10.07.10) New generation will always replace the old generation, and this happens in almost every field of our life, including the field of politics. Many young people are in charge of a big division in the government. This brings about both pros and cons, and I will give my own opinion about this after a thorough discussion. Young people joining in the government will infuse/bring fresh blood to the government. Brought up in a totally different situation from the former generation, young people are more familiar with the status quo, and compared with the old generation, they are more eager, willing and courageous to rectify the injustice of the society and to defend these social values that will benefit the society in the long run. Young people are not the vested interests of the society, therefore will be less involved in those complicated interpersonal or financial relationship that shackles any progress in the society, so they will have less hesitation when legislating for or against some political practice. while it is also clear that most young people are lack of experiences in dealing with complicated political issues, especially those involved in financial benefits; they are more likely to base their decision on irrational impulse instead of thoughtful consideration. Thus there is higher chance that they would make mistakes and due to the deep influence of most governmental policies, a little mistake might produce long lasting effect. What is worse, some young people get the position not from their personal endeavor, but from their ancestry. If this, it will not do good to the government, but send wrong information to the public, making them believe that one could succeed without effort. To other young people, this is not the appropriate values. To sum up, although young people are more likely to make mistakes, this is the price the society has to pay, because they will surely become the main force of the society. If
only they get these positions by their own efforts, they will bring difference and may change the world. 4. Some countries have introduced a law to limit working hours for employees. Why is this law introduced? Do you think it is a positive or a negative development? (10.10.09) Both labor and management want to secure their legal rights, and some countries have developed the policy[legislate] to limit the working hours of employees. Reasons for this legislation come from considerations of both sides, this essay will try to explore some of them and then give my judgement about this practice. This law will surely protect the benefits of employees. Employers want to minimize the expense, so it is natural for them to hire as limited number of workers as possible and then ask them work overtime, because this is the best way to cut off expense on the insurance and training of more employees. This practice would cut the cost of operation, and thus enhance a company's profits. While employees worry that they might have to spend far more time than required under the pressure of their boss without being paid. This is surely disadvantageous to them, because they have little time left for their life and their family except that spent on work. So based on the consideration, it is good to the employees if a law is introduced to limit the working hours. To the whole society, such a law will also decrease the cost and risk of strike stemming from protesting working overtime. The labor union is an important force in protecting the legal rights of workers, and strike is their most powerful means. When strike happens, both parties involved, the management and the workforce, will have to bear the loss. The employees will have no income to support their family and themselves, the employers will have no workers work for them, and the factories have to be shut down. Worst, the society could not run smoothly. Imagine that if all the drivers of taxis, buses and subway of a city go on strike, the whole city will be paralyzed, and we could go nowhere. Similarly, strike in other fields might make us have no food, no clothes, no heating and so on. A law like this guarantees that things will not go that way, the society has not to pay much for the dispute between the labor and management. To sum up, this is absolutely a positive development, either for the labor and management or for the whole society. This law would protect the benefits of both parties, and the society has not to endure much pain even when disputes emerge. 5. In some countries, it is illegal for companies to reject job applicants for their age. Is this a positive or negative development? (10.10.14) age is a rather sensitive topic, especially to women. It should not be mentioned in many circumstances, even when applying for a job. Some countries walk further to legislate against companies rejecting job applicants for their age. As I see it, this needs more consideration. [Will you judge a job applicant by his or her age? [will age be an important consideration when evaluating a job applicant? Most companies choose yes.] [the current mayor of our city got rejected when he applied for a job covered by the identity of an ordinary man, the reason was rather simple: he is 54 years old, too old for the job. And there consequently arises a discussion about whether a job applicant should
be rejected only because of his age. As I see it, it is on the company to make the decision. ] It is good to those old or young citizens, they can get employed and make a living. t
6. 食品类 Scientists say that junk food is harmful to people's health. Some say the way to ask people to eat less food is to educate them, while others say education does not work. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion. (10.12.11) Some people suggest that a country should try to produce all the food for its population and import as little food as possible. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.02.26 Traditional food is being replaced by international fast foods. This has negative effects on family and society. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.06.23 =07.06.16
7. 休闲娱乐 All over the world, people watch foreign film much more than locally produced films. Why? Should the government provide financial support to local film industries? 11.08.27进口电影 healthy lifestyle 健康的生活方式 an active lifestyle 积极锻炼的 sedentary lifestyle 久坐的 excessive intake of…吃过多的…… fast food 快餐 convenience food 方便食品 depression 抑郁症 obesity 肥胖症 diabetes,糖尿病 diarrhea 痢疾, respiratory disease 呼吸疾病 nutrition 营养 balanced diet 均衡的饮食 protein 蛋白质 vitamin 维生素 fibre 纤维 mineral 矿物质 incurable disease 绝症 stress-related diseases 和压力有关的疾病 therapy （非药物）治疗 treatment 治疗 aerobic exercises 有氧运动 Relieve=ease=alleviate 减轻 stress vigorous 有活力的 energetic 经历充沛的 refreshing 提神的 refresh your mind and body 提神 train your muscle 肌肉 improve blood circulation 血液循环 increase flexibility 提高灵活性 drain 排出 cultivate stamina and persistence 培养耐力和毅力 develop teamwork spirit 培养团队合作精神 conduce to physical fitness 身体健康 jeopardize= damage 危害
五、社会（共 5 题，占 10.4%）in need urbanization 城市化; over-industrialization, centralization, commercialization; imbalance; in the long/short run/term; infrastructure 基础设施; tertiary industry 第三产业 booming 繁荣发展的 flourishing 繁荣昌盛的 tranquility 宁静; pastoral life 田园生活; traffic congestion 交通拥挤 water scarcity 水短缺 the environmentalpollution 环境污染 over-crowdedness 过度拥挤 unemployment 失业 social instability 社会动荡 population explosion 人口激增 a rising crime rate 犯罪率上升 urban sprawl 城市扩张 stress-related illnesses 与压力有关的疾病; high cost of living 高额生活费用; drain of energy and resources 能源和资源消耗; social class polarization 阶级两极分化; pressure of modern life in city 城市生活压力; breed crimes 滋生犯罪; vicious cycle 恶性循 环 revenue 税;收 wealth distribution 财富分配; urban construction 城市建设; offer more job opportunities 提供更多的就业机会 a rapid pace of life 快节奏生活
social welfare 社会福利; convenient transportation means 便捷的交通工具; better medical services 更好的医疗服务 be vulnerable to …易于患上… melting pot 熔炉 on the brink of …处于…边缘 pollutant 污染性物质 waste disposal 废物处理 put the blame on …归咎于… be attributable to …归因为… ways of consumption 消费方式 suffer heavy losses 遭受重大损失 citizen 居民 be confronted with …面临着… a feasible measure 一种可行的措施 city planners 城市规划者 urban planning 城市规划 resource allocation 资源配置 endanger social stabilityand safety 危害社会稳定和安全 save resource 节省资源 speed up 加速 relieve the pressure of …缓解…的压力 advocate the management of resources 倡导资源管理 benefit from 从中受益 put forward valuable suggestions 提出宝贵建议 play a major role in easing traffic 在缓解交通压力上扮演了重要角色 participate in the reconstructionof the city 参与城市重建 raise the environmental management level 提高环境管理水平 create a pleasant ecological environment 创造出一种和谐的生态环境 give priority to 优先关注 catch much attention 引起很大关注 perfect the construction of urban infrastructure 完善城市基础设施建设 reduce the number of vehicles 减少车辆 implement strict vehicle emission standards 制 定严格的汽车排放标准 reduce waste 减少浪费 eliminate poverty and backwardness 消除贫穷与落后 prevent and control pollution 预防和控制污染 reinforce the conservation of water and soil 加强水土保护 keep ecological balance 维护生态平衡 adopt environment-friendly technique 采取环保技术 create a healthy cultural environment 创造出一种更加健康的文化氛围 strengthen the regulation and monitoring 加强监督和管理 enhance the governmental intrusion 加大政府干预性措施 promote legislative regulations 促进立法管理 establish and perfect the social security system 建立和完善社会的安全体系 give special care to 给某人或某物特别的关照 Map out (work out) a blueprint of …制定出…的发展蓝图 impose some restrictions on 对…实施限制 Increase the inputs in …加大对…的投入 arouse people’s awareness of 唤醒人们的…意识 take some preventive (remedial) measures 采取一些预防（补救）措施 enforce on-the-spot penalties 采取立即惩罚性措施 play the role of media 充分的发挥媒体的作用 take proper guidance and support 采取恰当的引导和支持 impose heavier penalty on 对…实施严格的惩罚 set down effective laws 制定积极有效的法律 Result in shortage of energy and natural resources 导致了能源和自然资源的短缺 Break the ecological balance 破坏了生态的平衡
Be harmful to our physicaland mental health 对我们的身心健康有害 Contaminate the environment 污染环境 promote the sustainable development of the city 促进城市的可持续性发展 Greenhouse effect 温室效应 strengthen pollution control 加强污染控制 popularize environmental protection knowledge 普及环保知识 Burning/pressing/urgent 迫在眉睫的 1. 慈善 Some people believe that the charity organisations should give aid to those in greatest need，wherever they live. Some people believe that the charity organisations would better concentrate on helping people who live in own country instead. Discuss both views and give your opinion. (10.01.09) Many philanthropic organizations and individuals donate their wealth to the society, good example of such behavior is Bill Gates and his foundation-Bill and Melinda Gates foundation. Their acts of charity do change the living condition of many people all around the world. While this also initiates the debate about whether or not they should give their home country priority when they do such things. This essay will try to explore some aspects of both sides. It seems reasonable and persuasive to contend that philanthropists should serve their home country more, because this is where they grow up, begin their careers and achieve success. Their wealth comes mainly from domestic market and consumers, Just like John Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie who both donated large sums of money to the American society. Their behaviours are also deemed as patriotic. And their actions well exemplify the notion that charity begins at home. While the trend of globalization changes everything. Many industrialists expand their business all around the world, and their profits come not only from domestic market, but also from foreign market. Windows, the operating system of Microsoft, accounts for more than 80 percents of the world market share, and auto giants like Toyota and General Motors sell their cars all around the world. Thus it is reasonable for philanthropists nowadays to donate money without considering the nationality of those who are in need. Also, the original intention of these philanthropic actions is to help those in need, and if one charity rejects to help someone because he comes from a different country, it is not real benevolence. Just as we heard from Louis Pasteur that "science knows no country, because knowledge belongs to humanity, and is the torch which illuminates the world.", charity also knows no country. To sum up, both ideas are reasonable and my point is it is better for a charity or philanthropist to serve his home country first and then gives his benevolence to the world. Charities and organizations always give special names to particular days such as 'National Children's Day' and 'National Non-smoking Day'. What are the causes of these particular days? How effective are they? (10.08.21) It is natural practice for we human being to give special meaning or implication to some days[to connect a normal day with some special meanings], so come the titles like "National Children's Day", "Mother's Day" and "Non-smoking Day". Reasons for this
practice come from many considerations and this essay will try to explore some of them and then give my judgement about it. The first cause might be that we are confronted with some severe problems that are neglected but concerned with the welfare of the public and we need to arouse/raise/call on their attention to these problems and then seek feasible solution. For example, smoking is a problem that causes pains to the smokers, their family and the society. While most smokers choose to continue their smoking either because of their ignorance of the harm of smoking or because of their limited self-control. This leads to large sum of fund invested in the health care of those suffering from the smoking-related diseases like lung cancer as well as in the research to investigate new ways to deal with such diseases. The name of 'National Non-smoking Day' aims to make it clear to the smokers and potential smokers all these loss in finance and in personal health. Another cause is that we forget about many important persons and things in our life, whether intentionally or not, and such a day would remind us of these. For example, due to the fast pace of modern life, many of us are too busy with our work, neglecting that we have elderly parents and young kids to tend. Parents need us to be with them so that they could live a peaceful life in their late years, and our kids need us so that we could be there for them when they are in trouble. A specific day like "Mother's Day" or "Children's Day" might give us a chance to make up for the time and attention that we should have paid to them but failed to. As for their effect, we could not say that they do take effect. To those who care about their health, it might be useful. But large packs of cigarettes are still consumed everyday, despite that it is warned that it is harmful to our health. To those who care about their family, they would do what they should do everyday, but still others neglect their responsibility even on "Mother's Day or Children's Day". 2. 贫富差距 The gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider, the rich more richer, the poor even more poorer. What problems can the situation cause and give the solutions? (10.01.23) Many countries hope that the living standard of their citizens could be improved in the economic development. But things do not always happen in accordance with their wish. The result of economic development in many countries is the widening gap between the rich and the poor. This causes problems to both individuals concerned and the whole society. The poor people will be angry about their being poorer and the decreasing quality of life that follows, for they do not derive any benefits from the economic development. Accompanying the increase of poor people will be the increase of crime rate, for some of them will have to offend the law to earn more money, just to survive. Males may smuggle something, or even drugs into local market, and females will become hookers, this will definitely harm the local community. Worse than this, some of them may choose to take revenge on the society. It is not rare for us to hear gunshot case in university, kindergarten, and supermarkets. Most of the suspects are losers in the society, namely the poor who feel hopeless/desperate at themselves and the society.
Increase of crime rate is also the symbol of deterioration of public security, and this will breed panic in the whole society. The rich will worry about their assets, and they will choose to move out of the community or even migrate to a new country. Leaving with them is their fortune as well as the prosperity and future of the country. For they take with them what is most needed for the development of a country--money. The community and even the whole country will become even poorer, and then the breeding hotbed of crime, hate/resentment and depravation, just as what we have seen in any slums. To sum up, widening gap between the rich and the poor will not only harm the poor people, the whole society will also have to pay for this. So it is the government's responsibility to create a equal environment where everyone could enjoy the benefits of economic development. Also, they should formulate new policy to levy higher tax on the rich, and at the same time, provide more job opportunities for the poor with this money. Only in this way would we see a bright future[better tomorrow].
3. 老龄化 Surveys show that in many countries, people are living longer but increased life expectancy has many implications for the aging individuals and for society as a whole. What are the possible effects of longer living for individuals and society? (10.03.06) The past few decades have witnessed in many countries a trend for people to live longer, both in average and maximum lifespan. This means good and challenge to the aging individuals as well as the whole society, and this essay will try to explore some of both. The greying people will have more chance to enjoy the life and to correct the errors they made as well as to make up the regret of life. People in the past usually spend large parts of their time striving for life and breeding up their children, when they grow old, they are near the end of the life, and there is little time left for them to enjoy the ease and peace of old age. Now even if they retire, there are still more than 20 years for them to do what they want but had no time to do. Also, short life means we have little opportunity to try and err[for trial and error], and if we fail, we may never recover from this. While now we have another 20 or even 30 years. On the other hand, more old people also means a heavy financial burden to the whole society. Old people are easy to be struck by cancer and cardiovascular diseases because of the decrease of body function, and some of them are even disabled. To take care of these people, some nurses have to be trained and fund also have to be invested to develop new drugs to cure them of such diseases. Although more job opportunities are created, these people could have done something more meaningful and these money could have been used to improve the welfare of the whole society.
In many countries, the proportion of older people is steadily increasing. Does this trend have more positive or negative effects on the society? 11.10.08 = 06.02.11 老龄化 The best way for a country to prepare for the future is to invest more resources in its young people. How true do you think of it? What is the best way to invest resources? 11.09.24 国家发展是否着眼于年轻人
4. 男女有别 Some people think that men and women have different qualities. Therefore, some certain jobs are suitable for men and some jobs are suitable for women. To what
extent do you agree or disagree? (10.04.15) Man and woman are created different, either physically or psychologically, so they have inborn advantages in different jobs. The division of labor in society totally confirms this, but modern technology has in a degree obscured the line. Men are physically stronger than women, so they are more suitable to those manual works, like construction workers, or jobs that need [requisite] physical strength like soldiers, and this is a male-dominated field. Even if we see female soldiers in the army, they mostly do clerical work in the office, not fight enemies on the battlefield. On the other hand, due to female's tenderness, considerateness and lack of aggressiveness, they are more suitable for jobs like nurses, teachers and telephone operators. But we also need male nurses to do works that female nurses could not do, and we also need male teachers to instill characters like toughness and aggressiveness to students so that they could better adapt to the society. Despite their competence, women still have to face much gender discrimination, and even sexual harassment. Also, due to their long maternity leave, companies do not prefer females when considering whether to give offers to the applicants. However, this has changed these years because of the increase in the number of females who receive education. Many work could be done by both man and woman after they receive proper training and learn how to do the jobs. So we see many women excelling in many fields traditionally considered the domain of man, like politics, science. Hilary holds the position as the Secretary of State of USA, and Marie Curie won two Nobel Prize. Many women, like Carol Burtz, the CEO of Yahoo, also step into the business field and hold management positions in some leading companies. To sum up, males and females have their advantages over their counterpart in different jobs, and this has changed in modern times with the prevalence of education, and now they engage in same kind of jobs in many fields.
Nowadays, some workplaces tend to employ equal numbers of men and women workers. Do you think it is a positive or negative development? 11.01.15 Gender equality has always been the focus of public attention since the rise of feminism, and females win more rights both in family and in careers. Some workplaces even walk further to employ equal number of men and women workers. This may be good in some jobs, but not appropriate in all the jobs. The purpose of this practice is to protect the legal rights of women and maintain a balance in men and women workers, and this will works well in jobs that needs the cooperation of males and females. For examples, scientific research would run more smoothly with male scientists' creative mind and critical reasoning and female scientists' caution and patience. Also, in school education, male teachers' toughness and female teachers' tenderness will help children develop more comprehensively. The cooperation of men and women will at the same time make the work less boring because of the attraction of a male or female to their counterparts. While it may be totally irrational in other jobs, because some jobs are exclusively better to be done by men or women. For example, women's participation in building site will
definitely decrease the efficiency of the work because they are not physically strong enough for the job. Females are not proper for fieldwork like geological prospecting either, because they need more care in harsh wild environment, and men would have little energy left to their jobs except that allocated to women. Equal number of men and women in such jobs would be disastrous. In the same way, men are improper for works traditionally done by women either. To sum up, equality in employment is the aim of both males and females, but this had better not be realized at the cost of the decrease in work efficiency. When hiring workers, their aptness should be given priority.
Some people believe that women should play an equal role as men in a country’s police force or military force, such as the army, while others think women are not suitable for these kinds of jobs. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.02.19 = 03.09.20, 04.01.10 In schools and universities, some girls tend to choose arts subjects, while boys choose to study science subjects. What are the reasons? Do you think this trend should be changed? 11.07.28 男女学科不同
六、环境与动物保护（共 4 题，占 8.3%） vivisection 活体解剖perform experiments on animals 在动物身上做试验test animals 用于实 验的动物be subjected to experiments 被迫接受试验animal rights 动物权利clinical research 临 床研究cruel 残忍的extremist 极端主义者medical research 医学研究origin of species 物种起 源alternative method 替代的方法biological diversity 生物多样性natural balance 自然平衡 equilibrium of ecosystem 生态平衡coexistence 共存endangered animals 濒危动物diversity of species 物种多样性shameless 令人羞愧的barbaric 野蛮的live and let live 活着就是与万物共 存meaningless 没有意义的dominant species 优势物种laboratory 实验室vaccine 疫苗 infringement 践踏right to live 生存权torture 折磨anti-science 反科学的life-threatening diseases 危及生命的疾病scientific gains 科学成果an ever-lasting theme 一个永恒的主题 evolution 进化computer simulation 电脑模拟groundless 没有理由的humane 人道的medical technology 医疗技术anatomy 解剖equal 公平的unreliable 不可信赖的valid 有效的、正当的
动物保护类话题共有 4 个分支：动物保护与人类利益 动物实验 动物园的利弊 是否应该吃动物的肉
1. Some people think zoos are cruel and all the zoos should be closed. However, some people think zoos are useful to protect the rare animals. Discuss both these views and give your opinion. (10.03.18) 2. Some people think it is necessary to use animals for testing medicines intended for human use. Others, however, think it is cruel to do that. Discuss both of these views and give you own opinion. (10.09.11)
Some people think it is acceptable to use animals for the benefit of humans. Other people think it is wrong to exploit animals for human purposes. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. necessary for the development of science. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 08.02.02 06.05.27 Some people think that using animals for experimentation purpose is cruel, but other people think that it is
Many animal species in the world are becoming extinct nowadays. Some people say that countries and individuals should protect these animals from dying out, while others say we should concentrate more on problems of human beings. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.07.09 ≈ 03.12.13
For centuries, the large-scale expansion of human beings has given rise to[lead to; result in] the extinction of many species in the world, and this inevitably influence the whole ecosystem in which live we human beings. There consequently arise many animal rights activists who claim that mankind should protect wild animals at any cost lest they disappeared. However, opponents argue that animals should be preserved only when people’s own needs are satisfied. This essay will analyse both points of view. Preserving endangered species is essential, as their existence has brought numerous benefits to human beings. Wild animals are essential components of the delicate ecosystem, and the extinction of one species is likely to cause the disappearance of another. The reckless expansion of human beings in the recent centuries has invaded the territories/habitat of wildlife, rendering many animals homeless and endangered. The consequences of the disrupted ecological balance are catastrophic, so it is imperative to protect endangered species. Biodiversity is one of the most valuable assets that humanity possesses. Many inspirations of inventions derived from various animals, for instance, aeroplanes, which originated from the Wright bothers’ careful observation and examination of birds, and radar, whose working principle is the same to that of bats. Thus, wild animals are the incentive of the existence and development of the human race. However, in some countries, especially developing countries, the basic interests of human beings have not been satisfied. Poverty, famine, epidemics, natural disasters are posing a severe threat to many citizens of the world. If the limited government budget is allocated to animal conservation, many people will face huge difficulty making a living. Therefore, protecting basic human rights should be the top priority of these countries. In conclusion, protecting wildlife is of great significance, as it is a vital cornerstone of the survival and future development of mankind. Nevertheless, the huge financial cost of animal conservation is not what every country can afford. Therefore, endangered animal species can be conserved only when every country on the planet makes its own effort. Developed countries should provide financial aid to their poor counterparts in order to ensure the peaceful coexistence of animals and human beings.
3. Some people think the recent increase in cheap air travel brings benefits, while other
people think it has drawbacks to the environment and the world's resources. Discuss both views and give your opinion. (10.04.10) [Many people think cheap air travel should be
encouraged because it gives ordinary people freedom to travel further. However, others think this leads to environmental problem, so air travel should be more expensive in order to discourage people from having it. Discuss the both sides and give your own opinion. 11.04.02 = 08.06.14]
We are living in a world of modern technology dominating almost every field of our life, and cheap air travel following the wide use of airplanes is among those bringing great changes to the way we live and work. While just like anything else, there exist debates about both its advantages and disadvantages. I will explore some aspects of both sides. /The emergence and prosperity of cheap air travel greatly enhance our working efficiency, and it benefits many ordinary citizens. While accompanying this is the
burning of fossil fuels and the emission of exhaust gas. [While at the same time, it unavoidably brings pollution to the air because of its burning of fossil fuels.] some environmentalists even suggest we give up this mode of travel. As for me, we may continue to use it, yet we have to decrease the emission of pollutants. Among all the benefits of cheap air travel, the most apparent may be to shorten the temporal and spacial distance, thus substantially enhance the efficiency of our work, especially to those businessmen, for it now just takes about fifteen hour at most for one to travel from his home to anywhere in the world by air. Additionally, cheap air travel also brings chances for people to know more about the difference and diversity of world and world culture, so that we could have a better understanding of the planet we are living in. Also, the airline business itself provides many job opportunities to the job market. On the opposite are its drawbacks that we have no reason to neglect. One is its negative effect to the environment, or more specifically, to the air. All airplanes need fuel to fly, and the buring of jet fuel would surely emit exhaust to the atmosphere, just as a car does, while the pollutant emission per person per kilometre of air travel is far more than that of car driving. At the same time, burning of jet fuel made from oil also exhausts the world resources that would not last long. To sum up, cheap air travel has its pros and cons, and as we are enjoying the convenience it brings to us, we had better pay close attention to its defects, so that it will serve us better. 4. Pollution and other environmental problems are resulting from a country's developing and becoming richer. Some think this cannot be avoided. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.10.23) We are living in an era of rapid economic development being accompanied by the deterioration of our living environment. Some hold that this destruction of the environment is the price we have to pay for the increase of economy, seeming unavoidable. I disapprove of such an idea, totally, for the reasons as follows. To control and lessen the trend of pollution, we have firstly to control our desire to obtain more from nature. Despite the fact that manufacturing is the driving force of economic development and it greatly improve our living standard, we could not ignore that it does bring severe pollution to the environment, and it is the main sources of pollution, like pharmaceutical companies and some electronic industry. While this could be changed. In most big cities, traffic congestion is a common phenomenon, especially in the morning and evening when most people drive to and from work. Because of the congestion, driving saves us only a little time, compared with riding a bike. If we could make some policy to make this known to the public and discourage the use of cars, we could substantially reduce the emission of greenhouse gas, which will absolutely alleviate the deterioration of the environment. Some may hold that, no country in history can escape from this destiny, and all the developed countries underwent the same cycle in the pursuit of development. In the first stage of economic development, they care only about what they could get,
neglecting the pollution to the environment. But they all have to abate the pollution after they realize the importance of the environment. We do could learn from this, and take effective measures to decrease the emission of pollutant when we make policies of development. Also, technologies advance with time, and now a series of technologies are available to effectively control the pollution. Although we have to pay some price for these technologies, it is worth trying, especially compared with the much greater effort we will have taken to eliminate the pollution. To sum up, although rather challenging, the pollution could be controlled and avoided on the condition that we moderately lower our desire, and we take measures available to alleviate the pollution, not just pursuing development. Many people think it is very important to protect the environment but they make no effort to do it themselves. Why do you think it is the case? What actions can be done to suggest individuals protect the environment? 11.04.16 = 08.09.13 Environmental problems are too big for individual countries and individual persons to address. In other words, we have reached the stage where the only way to protect the environment is at an international level. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? 11.05.07 = 04.02.28, 04.05.15
七、法律与犯罪（共 3 题，占 6.3%）
触犯法律 break/violate/flout/offend/disobey the law 犯罪 commit a crime 受害者 victim
罪行 offences/crimes/criminal acts 罪犯 criminal/convict/offender/culprit/perpetrator 牢房 cell 从犯 accomplice/accessory/囚犯 prisoner 执法部门 law enforcement agencies Be held prisoner;
死刑 Death Penalty/ capital punishment a convicted murderer traumatize someone;
Convict sb of sth: She has twice been convicted (of fraud) 心理创伤 long-lasting psychological trauma; 憎恨社会 resent society traumatic;
hold/bear/has/harbour/nurse a grudge against society
监禁 imprison/incarcerate sb in the jail [ten year/life imprisonment] 宽容的 tolerant/lenient tolerance/lenience; innocent 无辜的;
改造罪犯 rehabilitate criminals;
humanism 人道主义; 轻罪 petty crime/misdemeanour
重罪 heinous crimes/flagitious crime/felony(n) 初犯 first-time offender
惯犯 recidivist, hardened/inveterate/habitual criminal/offender recidivism
遏制猖獗的犯罪 curb/halt the rampant crimes 再次犯罪 revert to crime;
守法的公民 law-abiding citizens 遵守法律 observe/abide by/comply with the law 无视 disregard 抓捕 track dowm/hunt down/capture/arrest 有预谋的犯罪 premeditated crime 犯罪倾向 criminal tendency public security 公共安全 Punishments 刑罚 criminal detention 拘役 surveillance 监视 Financial penalty 罚款
confiscation of property 没收财产 Voluntary Surrender 自首 Parole 假释 Smuggling 走私 Fraud 诈骗 larceny 盗窃 robbery 抢劫 Infringe upon one's right/freedom; Deter sb from doing sth 威慑; go astray 误入歧途;
school shooting 校园枪击; juvenile delinquency 青少年犯罪; female crime 妇女犯罪; domestic violence 家庭暴力; regulate 规范 supervise 监督; crime prevention 罪案防范; breeding hotbed of crime, hate and depravation; put other's life at risk;
Disadvantaged/privileged groups 弱势/特权群体; Social injustice;
1. Many people believe that today there is a general increase in anti-social behaviour and lack of respect for others. What might have caused this situation? How to improve it? (10.01.30) [Social injustice/economic inequality/media violence]
Nowadays some individuals behave in an anti-society way, such as committing a crime. In general, it is the society to blame. What causes the anti-social behaviours of individuals? Who should be responsible for dealing with it? 11.01.22
Since 911, we have seen an obvious increase in the lack of respect for others like the rich contemning the poor, and anti-social behaviours including some school shooting. This essay will try to explore some of the reasons and will also give some solutions to improve it. Economic issue is the most important reason. Most anti-social behaviours come from people who are among the disadvantaged section/group of the society. Economic downturn since 2008 broaden the disparity among different social hierarchy. The widening gap between the rich and the poor will surely result in a sense of inequality among the poor, because in their eyes, this is not a society where everyone could realize their dream of life, where everyone could enjoy the benefits from economic development, and they feel disappointed or even desperate about the society, so they have to do something to vent their grievance/discontent. For example, the ever-rising of housing prices in China makes it impossible for ordinary people to buy their own house, even they work so hard. Those who already bought houses have to give up twenty or more years of their pure income to the bank so as to repay the loan. This just deprive them of the hope of life. At the same time, many rich people, also the upper class of the society, do not earn what they have from their hard work or their far-sighted investment, or not even a legal way. Most of they become rich because the great power in their hands, and they just steal the fortune that many ordinary people create. This will surely leads to a sense of discontent or hatred too. Such behaviors also come from the social injustice. There exists a privileged stratum in many countries, especially those not so democratic like China. These people do not make money through their diligence and intelligence, they do it just from the power they possess. This is a special group of the society and it is hard for others to step into this group. Due to their privilege, they defy the law, trample the social rules and challenge the bottom line of our moral values. They could even escape from punishment even if they offend the law, and the result of this is the psychological disorder of the public as well as the resentment of social injustice. Accumulation of these negative emotion will result in distrust and even hostility to others among the public, and their behaviors will stray from the normal way.
To solve this problem, a just social environment where everyone is equal and everyone could enjoy the rights endowed by the law should be maintained. Only in this way could we alleviate the tension among the society. 2. In many parts of the world children and teenagers are committing more crimes. Why is this case happening? How should children or teenagers be punished? (10.08.05) We are living in a society of products of modern technology dominating almost every field of our life, while this brings to us not all good news. with the socio-economic development in many parts of the world is the increase in cases of teenagers committing crimes. I will try to explore some major reasons of this phenomenon and several pieces of advice to handle this. //It seems quite common[not surprising] in today's world for us to hear reports about people, and sometimes even teenagers committing crimes and then being held prisoner. Feelings of astonishment and pity about such phenomenon will not help eliminate the influence to both victims and the the whole society, we have to find the underlying reasons and feasible solution. Among all the reasons, the most evident/obvious/manifest/apparent may be the permeation of media such as TV and the Internet in our life. They will exert all their efforts to attract more audience and visitors for the ultimate goal of gaining popularity and making more money. Thus their programs may have most stimulative, explosive and attractive content, like violence, or even the whole process of how the criminals commit crimes. Young people tend to imitate what they saw, so it is easy for them to think that they could resort to violence when having troubles because this is just what happens in the TV programs, and they think they could do the same thing in the real world. They just could not differentiate between virtual reality and the real world, and consequently ignore the price they have to pay for their behaviour. But if they do this, they have to pay. Another equally important reason is the lack of attention and supervision from their parents. In this fast-paced society characterized by fierce competition, most parents have no choice but to abandon themselves to their jobs so as to earn money and support their family. It is even unlikely for some of them to meet their kids for more than three times in a week, not to mention being there for them. They do not know what their children are doing and thinking until they find something wrong, but it is too late. There are also some parents who satisfy every requirement of their children, just spoiling them without telling them how to differentiate right from wrong. It is easy for children under such condition to offend the law too. The third reason is the lack of legal consciousness. Children know little about the society. They do not know the society is based on rules and laws, and anyone who breaks the rules or laws will have to be punished. Also, it is hard for most of them to tell right from wrong, good from bad, so they might unconsciously violate the law. Many kids are curious about new things, especially those they are not allowed to touch, like drug. They may buy or try some drug just to be cool, but they already offend the law. From what has been discussed above, it is obvious that media and parents as well as the whole society play roles in the increase of teenagers crimes. Thus, to better this condition, media should be restricted on what could be showed to children at what
time, and parents should change their current way of supervising their children so as to provide an improved environment for the development of teenagers. 3. Society is based on rules and laws. It would not function if individuals are free to do whatever they want to. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.09.16) We are living in an era of democracy in which freedom and rights of common citizens are widely valued. Some hold that society will not function if individuals are allowed to do whatever they want to for society is based on laws and rules. I totally approve of this idea. Although we all hope to have absolute freedom, it in fact does not exist, for we live in a world where everyone is tightly correlated to others, and overuse of one's freedom will harm that of others. For example, all businesses want to make profits, and they have every reason to do this for this is necessary to keep the business running [so that companies could survive the fierce competition of the market economy and employees get paid for their work.] But they should not gain this at the expense of the welfare of consumers, just as some Chinese milk powder producers did in mixing melamine, a kind of substance that looks like milk powder while leads to the formation of stones in kidney, into the milk powder to "enhance" the quality of their product. Not only will such behavior harm the consumers, it will eventually harm the businesses for they have already broken the law, and they have to pay for this. On the other hand, practicing within the boundary of law will bring prosperity to both the businesses and the whole society, like Apple, an IT company who always provide consumers with the most wonderful computers and cell phones. An individual or one company breaking the rules might influence just a little part of the society, while if the delict spreads to the industry, it will be the whole society to pay for this. As we discussed in the paragraph above, the use of melamine in almost all the milk powder manufacturers of China brings disaster to the industry and the whole society, we have little confidence about the quality of milk powder and we dare not to buy them any more, and an atmosphere of panic will follow. This would surely affect the social stability. Worse than this is chaos that sweeps across the whole world in wartime, during which the line between good and bad, right and wrong is blurred and the values that keep the society running are all abandoned. the world war I and II are good examples of this. To sum up, although we have freedom to say and to act, but it is based on the premise that our behavior will not bring harm to others. Everyone should behave themselves within the limit of law. 4. The government should control the amount of violence in films and on television in order to decrease the violent crimes in society. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.05.19 = 04.07.24 5. Some people believe that if a police force carries guns, it can encourage a higher level of violence. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.08.20 警察持枪 In some countries, the police are equipped with guns when they carry out/perform their duties, and this has resulted in some accidents due to the easy use of guns and the
police's intention to protect themselves. There consequently arises a controversy about whether this policy encourages a higher level of violence. I will render my opinion after discussing both sides of this issue. Of course the police carrying guns would deter some potential law offenders from committing crimes. Most of the civilians have some kind of fear to those with police's uniforms, especially when they have a gun, and the possibility they commit a crime will decrease. Also, with gun in hand, the police could prevent some severe crimes, and thus protect the potential victims. What's more, gun could also protect the police themselves from being hurt when confronted with some dangerous criminals. There is a family behind each police officer, and if they get hurt, their family will suffer, and the government has to pay high medical insurance to them. Since carrying guns could decrease the cases of policeman being hurt, it would substantially decrease the cost of the government as well as the hurt to the family of the police officers. While we could not accordingly neglect the negative effects of this policy. People tend to use what are available to them to increase their sense of security, especially when they are in danger. Police is a job with high risk, and most police officers are usually in a state of psychological stress. They may overestimate the risk they are facing with and thus use their gun to protect them from the potential risk or the risk they imagine. So the chance that they abuse their power will increase, and this may pose threat to innocent citizens. Also, police carrying guns would send the wrong information to the public, making them believe that the public security is deteriorating, and thus breed panic among the public. From what has been discussed above, if police carry guns, they could better protect themselves as well as maintain the public security. While strict rules should also be obeyed on how and when the guns could be used, so that this would not hurt innocent citizens.
八、文化与旅游（共 2 题，占 4.2%） 1. Societies benefit from international tourism and business. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (10.06.17) We are living in a society of all the human activities being dominated by production and consumption of merchandise and service. Tourism, including international tourism, is an industry that provides many practitioners with job opportunities and income, and also offers chances for tourists to enjoy the beauty of nature different culture. Many hold that international tourism benefit the society, and I totally side with this idea. [Nowhere in history has the issue of economic development attracted/drawn more public attention than in today's world, and tourism is now deemed an effective way to bring prosperity to a community/tourism destination. While just like anything else, tourism produce not only good results. Accompanying the economic benefits is something we do not like, and sometimes these drawbacks even far outweigh the benefits we could derive from tourism. ] International tourism makes it possible for those who could afford the cost to enrich
their experience and widen their knowledge about the difference and diversity of the world. For example, a Christian[British] living in London may never know and understand anything about the life and custom of Muslims[Chinese people], and now he could experience these things by taking a tourism to Iran or any country in the Middle East. At the same time, people in the tourism destination also benefit from the tourists' visit. Most tourist attractions are located in places where natural scenes are beautiful while economic condition is not as good. Profits from the tourism could be used to improve their life. Also, to those tourist attractions where there exist a delicate/fragile environment and ecology, and local government is able to do little things because of the shortness of fund, like Tibet of China, money from the tourism industry could also be used to improve the environment. In addition, local community could even benefit from this more. You could see many peddlers hawking all kinds of souvenirs, this many not bring them large sum of money, but it decrease the unemployment rate and is a way for these people around the scenes to support their family. From what has been discussed above, international tourism truly brings benefit, to both the tourists and people around the tourism destination. Also this industry is expanding all the time with more scenes being exploited, and we should take appropriate measures so as to make better use of this. 2. International travel often leads people to have some prejudices rather than broad-mind. What are the main reasons of this phenomenon? What do you think people can do to get better understanding of the countries they visit? (10.06.26 =08.08.21) There is a growing number of people going abroad to see magnificent landscapes or to experience different cultures. Lots of people argue that international travel let them know more about the world, namely broaden their horizons; while the more universal view is that it makes people biased, and people can not benefit from it. In my opinion, this mainly results from the travellers' not comprehending local tradition and encountering unpleasant things/hazarding local environment. The first reason might be the lack of people's[both locals and tourists] respect on the cultural diversity and discrepancy among different culture and customs, and this will surely bring up[breed] conflict between tourists and the local communities. As is known to all, every country has its own traditions, which are handed down from one generation to another, and cherished by them very much. It is part of their culture and it is these traditions that make them different from other races, and these mean much to them. For example, some minority nationalities in China do not eat pork, and women are not allowed to expose theirs cheeks to strange men. So if travellers get there and do not know about this, they may behave not according to the local customs, and it may be seen as an insult. 【For example, in Middle East, Muslim women are not allowed to expose their cheeks to strangers, especially strange males, but this is deemed as an restriction of one's freedom and even an insult to one's dignity in other culture. To a tourist from a country where feminism prevails, like USA or France, this is ridiculous and unimaginable, and is a symbol of ignorance. 】This would surely lead to unpleasant results.
Another reason might be the unpleasant experiences tourists have in the tourist destination. In any scenic area, there are many peddlers hawking all kinds of souvenirs. Due to the fact that most tourists come to a tourist destination just once in their life time, and their buying is one-shot deal, even if they are cheated, there is little they can do. Also, there exists no effective supervision from the government authority, so some peddlers might sell fake/counterfeit goods to tourists, usually in high price. After tourists find the truth, it is late. There are also those travellers who bring all kinds of pollution to the travelling destination. Most tourist resorts are located in places where scenes are beautiful, but ecological systems in these areas are also very delicate/fragile. Hundreds of thousands of people every day cause great problems to local environment. It could easily be found out that tourists would dump lots of rubbish such as undegradable plastic bags and other household garbages that will exist in the nature for as long as decades of years. undoubtedly this will do harm to the local place, and may finally make a resort not attractive at all. Think about this, a place full of trashes, would you like to go there? And if it is your hometown, do you want it to be like this? All these things would breed misunderstanding and hatred in both tourists and locals. Above are two major problems brought by international travelling, and there are still other questions not mentioned here. To moderate the current unfriendly atmosphere, I contend that the local traditions should be respected and tourists should pay attention not to harm the local environment. Only in this way could the prejudice between people be eased. Some people think that it is necessary to travel abroad to learn about other countries, while other people think that it is not necessary to travel abroad because all the information can be seen on TV and the Internet. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.01.27 Tourism is an excellent way to develop a country, but it can also cause harm. How can countries ensure that tourism benefits the development. 11.02.12 Some people think foreign visitors should be charged more than local people when they visit the cultural and historical attractions in a country. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.04.30 九、媒体/广告（共 2 题，占 4.2%） 1. A report indicated that many children between 7 and 11 spend too much time watching television and/or play video games. How does the problem affect the children, their families and society? What measures can be taken to control it? (10.09.25) Education of children is an issue that would arouse the attention of almost every family, and with the development and application of IT, these years there arises another problem that children may squander too much time on watching TV and playing video games. I will try to explore some of the reasons and advice to solve it. [we are living in an era of computers and TV permeating almost every family. Although these things provide useful information and amusement for us, they also pose risk to children for their lack of self-control. Some say that children spend too much time on these things, and I will try to explore several reasons for this.]
Too much time spent on watching TV or playing video games would surely pose negative influence on children's study[subject children to potential academic failure/inferiority in study.]. As we all know, years between 7 and 11 is an important period for children to learn ABC about many things such as arithmetic and language, and it needs a wealth of deliberate practice for children to understand and master them. Unfortunately, the more time spent on other things, the less time left for study. Grades of those children who play too much tend not to be very good, and this will affect their interest about study, which would make things worse for the future development of children. Worse, some of them are even deeply addicted to such meaningless games or TV series, totally neglecting their life and study. Following this are the anger and anxiety of parents and tension of family relationship. To the society as a whole, much more resources would be spent on rectifying such children's behaviors, and these money could have been spent on something more meaningful. To any parent, child is their hope, and they will never give up their children just because of their watching too much TV or playing video games. Conversely, they will try every effort to seek some way to make up for the time wasted on these things. For example, children with low score in school might be sent to some remedial class, and those addicted to games might be sent to some special school where they learn some basic rules such as respecting their parents, obeying the rules their parents set and doing what a school boy should do. Such expense could have been spent on developing children's other hobbies like playing piano. To the society as a whole, the production of TV programs and video is an industry from which many make a living. Since children show such interest in their products, designers and manufacturers would do more to make their products more attractive to children, this would in turn make children more addicted to such things, thus a vicious circle forms. More severely, some children even die suddenly because of spending too long time playing games and not exercising, these are surely tragedies. So it is not rare for us to see angry parents sue the producers of games, while few of them win. Thus the costs of running the whole society would increase. To solve this problem, I think parents should pay more attention on their children's development, especially on helping them develop meaningful interest and hobbies, however busy they are. On the other hand, TV station and companies who design and sell games should not neglect their social responsibility, not just to make money. 2. Studies suggest that children spend more time watching TV than they did in the past and spend less on doing active or creative things. Why do you think it is the case? What measures and methods can be used to tackle with it? (10.03.27) 3. Nowadays, we rely on news for our knowledge, but we are uncertain about the truth of these news. Should we believe journalists? What qualities should a good journalist or correspondent have? 11.06.04 = 05.01.08 相信记者 Although the role of the press in our political/everyday life is not consistently or officially recognized, it is widely deemed the fourth estate other than executive, legislature, and judiciary, due to its great influence. As the practitioners of the media, the qualities needed to be a good journalist are openly debated, especially in this era
when the credibility and even the morals of the media are doubted because of their bugging people's privacy to get news. Thus there comes a question: should we trust the journalists? As for me, we should ever keep close eye on what we read, not to be fooled. Indeed, we depend heavily on the media to get information, and it is unimaginable to even think about living without them. While totally trusting them may put us in the danger of being fooled, for we hear so much about media in less free nations manipulating the press and even making up some fake news to deceive the public in favor of their own profits, just as what was done in the "ministry of truth" in George Orwell's novel 1984. Even in those democratic countries where media have independence and freedom of speech, there also exists the possibility that what happened might be misinterpreted, for any medium or any journalist has their own stance when choosing what to report, and they might selectively ignore the aspects not in accordance with their values. Thus what we read is just a little part of the truth, and could not, even if true, provide us with a full glance/view of the event. This requires that we had better have our judgement when accepting some argumentation. To be a good journalist, I think the most important quality one has to own is honesty. A person, whatever he does, needs to be honest to earn others' trust, and so does a journalist. He has to report an event exactly according to how it happened, no exaggeration, no concealment. A journalist's dishonest will not only hurt his own fame, the medium he works for will also have to pay. People will not buy their newspaper or maganizes. A good journalist should also be brave and . Sometimes they may face political or financial threat, even threat of their personal safety from the party involved in the event covered. In such situation, it needs great courage to decide whether to publish his report. To sum up, not all the media and journalists deserve our trust, and we should pay attention not not to be cheated. As for the quality to be a good journalist, one needs at least to be honest and courageous.
Separation of powers: is a model for the governance of a state. The model was first developed in ancient Greece and came
into widespread use by the Roman Republic as part of the unmodified Constitution of the Roman Republic. Under this model, the state is divided into branches, each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so that no one branch has more power than the other branches. The normal division of branches is into an executive, a legislature, and a judiciary. For similar reasons, the concept of separation of church and state has been adopted in a number of countries, to varying degrees depending on the applicable legal structures and prevalent views toward the proper role of religion in society.
We are surrounded by all kinds of advertising, which is having an increasing influence on our lives. Do the positive effects of advertising outweigh its negative effects? 11.06.25 =04.10.16 广告的正负面影响 Modern society is based on the production and consumption of merchandise(goods), and advertisement plays a key role in this process, even deemed 被视为 by some economists as important force in boosting 促进 global economic development. While it
also poses 造成 negative effects to our lives. Some say that the former far outweigh the latter, and I will give my opinion about this after a thorough 彻底的 discussion of both sides. Of course advertisement would help businesses sell their products. Without advertisement, there is no way businesses could make their products known to the consumers, even consumers from foreign markets. Consumer could also benefit from advertisement, and they could get information about products that could satisfy their needs. Advertisement, as an industry, also create many job opportunities, thus boost employment. Besides, many amazing ads they produce also transmit 传播 sense of beauty to us, making our life more colorful. Therefore, advertisement boost economic development and make the economy run more smoothly. On the other hand, the disadvantages of advertisement could never be neglected；理睬. Advertisement would surely encourage the consumers, especially those who are in lack of good self-control or who have no financial plan, to spend far more than they could afford on those attractive goods, and sometimes they may even buy something they may never use on impulse 冲动. Also, the spending of manufacturers on advertisement would finally be transferred 转移 to consumers, and they have to pay higher price for what they buy. Some advertising might exaggerate 夸大 the function of the products advertised, although they in fact do not have such magical use. Consumers buying such products would feel being cheated, and this will result in conflict between producers and consumers. [advertisement broadcast during the intervals of TV series could be nightmare to any fans of soap opera] In all, advertisement bear both pros and cons, we also endure the pains it brings to us when we are enjoying its benefits. So we could simply say its advantages outweigh its disadvantages or vice verse, and we had better treat more objectively, and avoid its inconvenience. Nowadays a growing amount of advertising aims at children. Some people think this have negative effects on children and should be banned. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.09.15 广告 儿童 So prevalent is advertising in our life that we could see big poster/billboard of famous athletes or rock stars advertising all kinds of merchandise in almost every city, even every street. This brings both advantages and disadvantages to the consumers as well as to the society. While as I see it, the former far outweighs the latter. To most consumers, advertisements provide them with useful information, especially to those who a Affect, change and even mould people's thoughts and behaviors Curb violence; promote heroism and individualism; Cajole sb into/out of sth/doing sth 哄骗 cajole sth out of sb;
10、抽象/价值观/社会观念（共 1 题，占 2.1%）
1. Most countries want to improve standard of living through economic development, however, others think social values is lost as a result. Do you think the advantages of economic development outweigh the disadvantages? (10.02.20) 家庭观念 The past three decades have witnessed a rapid economic development in China, this has influenced almost everyone involved. While the debate concerning/regarding/with respect to its influence to the society is always an issue of public concern. The most obvious achievement of economic development is the improved living standard of common citizens. Household appliances such as washing machine, fridges and air-conditioning that could hardly be seen thirty years ago exist now in almost every family, and we could not even imagine a single day without them. Accompanying this is the increase in the number of people who have the chance to receive formal education, from primary to tertiary; not only has such progress changed the life of those who are educated, it is also the source/origin of a society's prosperity in the future. However, we are not gaining this at no cost. With the increase of GDP is the deterioration of our living environment. Car exhaust polluted the air we breathe in, domestic and industrial sewage contaminated the water we drink, and most severely, desire for profits replaced the moral values that uphold the running of the whole society. So it is not surprising to see businesses who produce milk powder mix their product with melamine, some kind of chemical substance that looks like milk powder but may result in the formation of stones/calculi in the kidney, just to increase the content of nitrogen so that the "milk powder" would contain more protein when evaluated in some chemical method. Worse still, we seem to lose ourselves in the pursuit of development. As common individuals, we just abandon ourselves to the idea of earning more money, neglecting that we have young children and elderly parents to tend; as for the government, they just want the GDP to increase, neglecting that the gap between the rich and the poor is widening, and the true aim of development is for the citizens to lead better life. We just want the increase in the number[the figure of economic statistics]. As for me, the risk and demerits of economic development overwhelm the minimal advantages we can derive from it, and for the sake of our future and our posterity, we had better adjust/rearrange our policy so as to maintain a delicate balance between the development and ourselves.
Individual greed and selfishness has been the basis of the modern society. Some people think that we must return to the older and more traditional values of respect for the family and the local community in order to create a better world to live in. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 04.05.22 价值观 11.05.14 = 04.02.14,
Competitiveness is a positive quality for people in most societies. How does competitiveness affect individuals? Is it a positive or negative trend? 11.03.12 竞争 Some people think the qualities a person needs to become successful in today's world cannot be learned at a university or similar academic institution. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.09.03 成功所需的素质 Some people think that dangerous sports should be banned, but others think the people
should have freedom to choose sports activities. Discuss both views and give your opinion. 11.07.30 个人的权利和自由 体育 Films and computer games containing violence are popular. Some people say they have negative effect on society and should be banned. Others say they are just harmless relaxation. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion. 11.10.29 Currently, anyone can post information on the internet. Therefore, most information on the internet might be inaccurate. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 11.10.22 Holding Olympic Games is an exciting event. Some people think it has positive effects while others argue it is a waste of money. Discuss both sides and give your own opinion. 11.10.20
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