“动名词和现在分词”均以-ing结尾，一般把它们统称为“-ing分 词”。动名词也是动词的一种非限定形式，由动词原形加“-ing” 构成，与现在分词同行。 一，动名词兼有动词和名词的特征与作用，其动词特征表现在可 以带宾语，状语或者表语。 1.At the mee
ting he stressed the importance of defeating their competitors. 2.Getting up early is considered a good habit. 3.He dreamt of becoming an aviator.
二，动名词的动词特征还表现在它的语态和时态的变化。 e.g He insisted on his being assigned the mission. (一般被动式) I know nothing about his having served in the army. (完成式) 三，动名词的名词特征主要表现在它在句中可以充当主语或者宾语， 还可以受形容词,代词以及名词的修饰，前面也可以加冠词。既能采 用名词通格和名词属格形式，也能采用代词宾格和物主限定词形式。 e.g There is no justification for the running away in such haste. All seems smooth sailing. What do you think of our class going out for an outing this weekend? I don’t mind his buying another one. I don’t mind him buying another one. Idon’t mind John buying another one. I don’t mind John’s buying anther one.
4.作介词 宾语 5.作定语 7.作主语 补足语
1.Saying is easier than doing. 2.Being poor is no disgrace. 3.Seeing much, suffering much, and studying much are the three pillars of learning. 4.His coming here will be a great help.(带逻辑主语) 5.Your drinking so much wine is not for health.（带逻辑主语） 6.Jack’s suddenly disappearing made them worried.（带逻 辑主语和状语） 7.Today being sunny makes us happy.（带逻辑主语和表语） 8.Having studied computer is an important qualification for the job.（完成式，带宾语） 9.Having seen a lot of the world in one’s youth is a good thing.（完成式，带宾语和状语） 10.There being a bus stop so near the school is a great advantage.(There be句型)
1.use,good,pity,bore,time,fun,hard,funny,nice,odd,worth,d ifficult,worthwhile,interesting,tiring,better,foolish,enjoyable, pointless,crazy,terrible等名词或形容词作表语时，可用it作形式 主语，把作为主语的动名词置后。 e.g It’s crazy her going off like that. It’s terrible not being allowed to smoke at all. 2. “there is no+动名词”为常见的结构，相当于It is impossible to do sth. e.g There is no persuading her. There is no getting along with him.
1.Her job was keeping the ball as clean as possible. 2. Denying this will be shutting one’s eyes to facts. 3.The problem is their having to face a lot of difficulties.(带 逻辑主语) 4.His aim is everybody having a good time.(带逻辑主语，也 可以说everybody’s having) 5.Her regret is having done so much for him and being abandoned by him.(完成式，被动） 5.His trouble is having tried every means and being still poor.（完成式）
e.g1.He admitted taking the watch. 2.The day began folding up. 3.He loathed getting up early in the morning. 4.They bar playing cards for money.
这类动词常见的有admit acknowledge anticipate advocate appreciate avoid can’t help can’t stand consider contemplate defer delay deny detest dislike don’t mind ensure enjoy escape excuse evade facilitate fancy favour finish give up imagine include keep on mind miss pardon postpone practise put off resent report risk stop suggest等。
以及所列acknowledge?admit?advocate?anticipate? appreciate?deny?fancy?imagine?suggest? report以及mean?entail??mention?propose?recall? recollect?understand等动词既能直接带-ing分词结构也能直 接带that-分句。 e.g? The watchman reported finding the door open。 The watchman reported that he had found the door open。 He anticipated getting much pleasure from the reading of that book。 He anticipated that he would get much pleasure from the reading of that book。
1.Father suggested going by bus. 2.Would you mind ringing me up tomorrow. 3.She insisted on me going.
在特定的语境中，-ing分词的 逻辑主语对于谈话双方是不言 而喻的，因而无需表示出来
-ing分词的逻辑主语已在句中其 他地方出现?因而也无需表示出 来。
-ing分词本身带有自己的主语,因 而必须表示出来。这主要见于-ing分 词的主语没有在句中其他地方出现过 ?如果不表现出来,往往回产生 歧义。
有一些动词不能直接带-ing分词，而必须在动词之后加宾语再加介 词才能带-ing分词，常见的介词是into和from。例如“动词+宾语 +into+-ing分词”? He tricked her into marrying him by pretending that he was rich。 Don’t let his friendly words mislead you into trusting him。 能用于这类结构的动词还有beguile?blackmail?cajole? coerce?deceive?fool等。又例如“动词+宾语 +from+-ing分词”? Nothing would stop me from achieving my ambition. There was nothing to prevent her from doing so. What kept you from joining me. ?
这类结构中的动词的基本含义是“使……不”。有时介 词from也可略而不用。? e.g We must prevent the trouble from spreading. I must stop you from destroying yourself. 以上是主动态而言。如果是被动态，则介词不可省略。 可以说? It can’t be stopped from happening here. 却不可以说? It can’t be stopped happening here.
e.g I think I can coax father into increaing my pocket money. She left the room without saying a word more.
1.动名词作介词宾语常用在某些词组后面 go on get through insist on persist in keep on dream of等 等 提示:cannot help+动名词=cannot avoid/resist+动名词 =cannot refrain/keep/desist/abstain from+动名词=cannot hold/keep back from+动名词=canno+choose but +动词原形 或cannot+动词原形 e.g I cannot help smiling at the nodding flowers. = I cannot abstain from /keep back from smiling at the nodding flowers.
2.动名词作介词宾语构成的介词短语，在句中可起状语作用 e.g She left without saying goodbye to us. 3.动名词作介词宾语构成的介词短语，在句中可起定语作用。 e.g His method of organizing the work is comfortable. 他组织的这项工作的办法是值得称赞的。 He hasn’t much experience in running factories. 他没有多少管理工厂的经验。 这类介词短语（介词+动名词）作定语修饰的名词常见的有： way （of）,method (of), opportunity (of), plan (for), apology (for), astonishment (at), surprise (at)
1、动名词有时候也可以作定语 No one is allowed to speak aloud in the reading room. That is a shop dealing in walking sticks.
2、动名词作定语修饰名词，两者结合即构成合成名词，这类合成 名词很多，常见的有： Sleeping-bag sleeping pill Running-track racing car Waiting room drinking water Hearing aid cooling system Dressing table fishing ground 3.在一部分合成名词中，动名词位于名词后 Family planning zebra crossing Spring plowing job-hunting
虽然动名词本身不能作状语，但是放在介词后，又可以作状语 作用，表示时间，原因，目的，让步，方式等。 e.g 1.After getting up in the moring, he went out for a walk. （时间） 2.Jim was praised for having broken a record. （原因） 3.With all his boasting, Henry achieved very little. （让步） 4.They went to the front by riding in a track. （方式） 5.He went there with the object of swimming her favour. （目的）
e.g What she is going through is called being in labor.
有些动词既能直接带不定式有能直接带-ing分词作宾语 ?有的意义无甚区别,有的意义不同。 1.能带不定式和-ing分词而意义无甚区别的动词 在attempt begin can’t bear continue deserve dread hate intend like loathe love need? neglect omit plan prefer require start等动词后 面既能直接带不定式也能直接带-ing分词,基本意义无 甚区别,但也有一些用法不尽相同的地方。? a) 在begin can’t bear?cease?continue? dread?like?love?neglect?omit?prefer? propose?start等动词之后如表示一般的行为用-ing 分词居多,如表示特定的或具体的动作.则用不定式较多。
e.g I can’t bear living alone. I can’t bear to see the child treated stupidly. Pill prefers doing it his way. He prefers to go by train this evening. B）在need want require deserve等动词之后，可用-ing分 词的主动形式表示被动意义，这相当于用不定式的被动态。 This letter needs signing by the manager. This letter needs to be signed by the manager. C）在begin start之后虽然既能跟不定式也能跟 –ing分词? 但若跟的是静态动词，便只能用不定式。 We began to see what he meant. She began to believe his story.
主动词按其基本词汇意义可以分为状态动词(Dynamic Verb)和静态动词(Stative Verb)。 静态动词表示一种静止 状态，包括"存在"和"拥有"的动词，如be,have, own, belong, exist, hold(容纳)等;表示度量的动词，如cost, weigh, measure等;表示五官感觉的动词，如see, hear, taste, smell, feel等;以及 表示心理状态的动词，如 believe, think, know, remember, forget, understand, love, like ,hate, detest(讨厌)等。
在begin start已用于进行体时，其后的动词也用不 定式形式。? e.g It’s beginning to rain. I’m starting to work on my essay next week. d)在attempt，intend，plan之后，既可跟不定式 也可跟ing分词。 e.g She attempt to lie/lying. I hear they intend to marry/marrying. I planned to go/going myself. 但已跟不定式比较普通。如果上述动词为进行体， 那就只能跟不定式。 We are planning to visit France this summer.
2,能带不定式和-ing分词而意义不同的动词 在forget go on leave off mean regret remember stop等动词后面既能带不定式也能带-ing分词。但意义不 同，这类动词又可以分为以下五小类。? a）在remember forget之后，用-ing分词表示动作发生 在“记得”、“忘记”之前?用不定式则表示动作发生在 “记得”、“忘记”之后。Regret也属于这一类。 Cant you remember telling me the story last night？ ? You told me the story last night. Cannot you remember it?？
e.g? I regret telling you that John stole it. I regret that I told you … I regret to tell you that John stole it. I am sorry to tell you… 不过上述第一句也可以理解为I regret that I am now telling you… B）在stop leave off go on等动词之后，通常用-ing分 词结构作宾语，若用不定式结构，便不是宾语而是目的状 语。相当于in order to. e.g? They stopped watching TV at 9?30. = At 9?30 they did not watch TV any more. They stopped to watch TV at 9?30. = They paused at 9?30 in order to watch TV.
c）在try mean can’t help等动词之后,用-ing分词结构 还是用不定式结构取决于这些动词本身的不同义。 e.g Your plan would mean spending hours.? mean作“意味着”? I didn’t mean to make you angry。? mean作“打算”?
If you want to improve the taste, try adding some sugar.? try作“试着、试用” Philip tried to answer each question by himself. Try作“努力，设法”?
d）在agree decide等动词之后,可直接带不定式,但若 带-ing分词，则须在-ing分词之前添加介词。 e.g They agreed to share the remuneration. They agreed on sharing the remunetation.
e)在encourage permit allow recommend advise authorise等动词之后,一般用-ing分词结构 作宾语。但也可用带有自己逻辑主语的不定式结构。 ? e.g They encouraged learning English by radio and television. They encouraged me to learn English by radio and television. She doesn’t allow talking here. She doesn’t allow us to talk here.
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