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Grammar Passive voice

2015/11/4

B3m1 Uncle Wang

Passive voice
被动语态

形式

时态 一般现在时态 一般过去时态
一般将来时态 一般过去将来时态 现在进行时态

助动词be的变化形式 + 实意动词的过去分词

am (is , are ) was ( were) shall ( will) be should (would) be am(is, are) being was (were ) being has (have) been had been shall (will) have been should (would) have been

+done

过去进行时态 现在完成时态
过去完成时态

将来完成时态
过去将来完成时态

一. 何时使用被动语态 1. 不知道谁是动作的执行者或没有必要 Paper is made from wood. He was wounded in the fight. 2. 需要强调动作的承受者时

Books and newspapers in the reading room mustn't be taken away. He was awarded first prize in that contest.

3.为了使语气婉转,避免提及自己或对方 而使用被动语 态,或由于修饰的需要,使 用被动语态,使句子得以更好的安排。 The construction of the new lab must be completed by the end of next month.

Electricity is used to run machines.

Discusion 1: the active voice 主动语态
& the passive voice被动语态 ?什么时候用主动语态或被动语态? 主语是动作的执行者就用主动语态

主语是动作的承受者就用被动语态
We study English at school.

English is studied by us at school.
主动语态 我们用木头做家具。

那只老鼠被猫抓住了
被动语态

被动语态 相机是用来照相的。

Discusion 2:

the active voice 主动语态
& the passive voice被动语态

语态动词 时态 结构 the active voice the passive voice v am v+ s is + p.p. 一般现在时 es are
was

一般过去时

p.t. were

+ p.p.

Decide if these sentences are active or passive.
1. We call the doctor. 2. People don’t play football here. 3. The truck was cleaned yesterday. 4. Mr Chen teaches us English. 5. The classroom was cleaned. active active passive active

passive

Exercise :

1.The key ______for locking the classroom door. B A. uses B. is used C. is using D. use B 2.A new school _______over there two years ago. A. built B. was built C. build D. builds A 3.The lost child ______ on October 7,1998. A. was found B. is found C. found D. find C 4.A talk on Chinese history________in the school hall yesterday. A. is given B. give C. was given D. gave

Disscusion 3:

the active voice 主动语态
& the passive voice被动语态

?主动语态句子变成被动语态句子哪三个部分 要变?怎么变? 1. 把原句的宾语改为主语。 2. 把原句的谓语动词改为被动语态结构( be + p.p.)。 3. 把原句的主语改为by的宾语(用宾格),可省略。 e.g. She cleaned the room.

The room was cleaned ( by her).

? 1.I washed my clothes once a day.
I was washed my clothes once a day. X My clothes was washed (by me) once a day. √

? 2.They took Jim to the hospital.
They was took Jim to the hospital. X Jim was taken to the hospital by them. √

? 3.Tom closed the shop just now.
The shop closed Tom just now. X The shop was closed (by Tom) just now. √

Exercise : 1.They play basketball in their school.(改为被动语态) is played Basketball______ _______in their school by them. 2. The naughty boy broke the window. was _______ broken by the naughty boy. The window ______

3. People speak English all over the world.
is spoken by people all over the world. English ______ _______

Exercise :translate the following sentences
1. 这些照片是上星期拍的 。

These photos were taken last week.
2. 这本书是鲁迅写的。

This book was written by Lu Xun.
3. 史密斯一家被邀请参加了派对。 The Smiths were invited to the party. 4. 长江也叫扬子江。 The Changjiang River is also called theYangteze River.

含有复合宾语的主动句,宾补不变。
( 1)

将宾语变为主语,宾补不变。 They call her XiaoLi. She is called XiaoLi.

(2) make, let, have, hear, watch, see, feel, notice. 这些动词后变做宾补的不定式一般不 加to,变为被动,必须加to . My brother often made me do this and that when I was young. I was often made to do this and that by my brother when I young.

I heard her move about in her room upstairs last night. She was heard to move about in her room uptairs last night. Did you see Jack take away the magazine? Was Jack seen to take away the magazine?

3. 情态动词的被动语态。是由情态V+be+ p.p.构成 They can not find him. He can not be found. You must pay me for this. I must be paid for this.

4. 有些动词用主动形式表被动含义. The goods sells well. The door can't open. 5.有些词如want,need,require和 be worth后面 v-ing形式 为主动,意义为被动。 The room needs/wants/requires cleaning. The book is worth reading. 6.主动语态中的宾语是从句,变成被动时使 用形式替代 词it. We know that Britain is an island country. It's known that Britain is an island country.

7. 据说类动词: say, consider, think, report, know, believe, suggest, understand, hope, etc. 如:It is said that… There is said to be… Sth./Sb. is said to… 8.主动形式表被动 ① 感官动词:sound,taste,smell,fell,look, seem等主语是物时; ② 一些vi主动形式表被动含义 open, close, shut, read, write, translate, wash, clean, lock, sell, wear, cut, cook, eat, weigh, drink, pay, draw, etc.

③不定式to blame,to let(出租)作表语时,主动形 式表被动含义。 You are to blame. The house is to let. ④表(sth)需要的need ,want, require等后的动名词用 主动形式表被动含义(to be done)

The house needs /wants/require repairing/ to be repaired
⑤be worth后的动名词主动形式表被动含义。

The book is worth reading.

2015/11/4

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