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同位语从句-用此课件


Grammar

语法精解(一)
1. 同位语the Appositive 同位语是句子成分的一种, 它位于名

词、代词后面, 说明它们的性质和情
况, 它可以由名词、代词、名词性短

语或从句充当。

同位语的表现形式有以下几种: (1) 名词 Tom, our monit

or, is a handsome boy. (2) 代词 I myself will do the experiment.

(3) 数词
She is the oldest among them six.

(4) 从句 He told me the news that the plane had exploded. 他告诉我飞机爆炸的消息。 (5) 由such as, that is引导 Some subjects, such as maths and physics, are very difficult to learn. 某些学科,例如数学和物理,是很难学的。

(6) 由of引导
The city of Beijing has been greatly

changed since 2000.
自从2000年以来, 北京市发生了很 大的变化。

(7) 由or引导 The freezing temperature, or freezing point, is the temperature at which water freezes under ordinary pressure.

结冰温度即冰点,是水在常压下结
冰时的温度。

语法精解(二)
2. 同位语从句the Appositive clause (1) 同位语从句的定义 在复合句中用作同位语的从句称为 同位语从句。同位语从句是名词性从句

的一种。它在句中起同位语的作用。

它一般放在fact, news, idea, truth , hope , problem, information, belief, thought, doubt, promise, question 等名 词的后面, 对前面的名词作进一步的解

释, 说明前面名词的具体含义。引导同
位语从句的词有连词that, 连接副词how,

when, where, whether, what等。

e.g. The hope that he may recover is not gone yet. The problem whether we should continue to do the experiment has

been solved.
I have no idea when he will come

back.

注意:

同位语从句有时被别的词把它 和名词隔开:

The story goes that William Tell killed the king with an arrow. Word came that their team had won.

⑵ 同位语从句的表现形式: ① 由that引导

The fact that you haven’t
enough time to do the work is

simply unbelievable.
The hope that he may come

here is not gone yet.

The news that he has been elected president of the United States is true. The truth that heavy objects and light objects fall at the same speed is known to all. The problem that she later developed a serious lung disease bothered scientists.

② 由whether引导
The question whether we need

more time to do the work has not
been discussed.

③ 由when引导
I have no idea when they will go.

⑶ 有时可用 namely (即), that is to

say (也就是说), in other words
(换句话说), that is (那就是), for

example 等引出同位语, 说明其
前面的名词或代词。有时同位语

直接跟在名词或代词的后面。

He told us the good news, namely, the museum is open to all. There is only one way of improving your English , that is , to practice more. Altogether Dolly had lived for six years, half the length of the life of the original sheep.

⑷ 同位语从句与定语从句的区别:
同位语从句与定语从句在使用中常常混淆, 我们可以从以下几个方面区别它们: ① 同位语从句说明的名词大都是抽象名词;

定语从句所修饰、限定的名词或代词有抽
象的也有不抽象的。

We express the hope that they will
come to visit China again.

(同位语从句) Those who want to go please sign their
names here. (定语从句)

② 同位语从句所说明的名词与从句没有逻

辑关系;
定语从句所限定的名词是从句逻辑上的 主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。

The news that they won the match is true. (同位语从句, news和从句没有逻辑关系) The news that you told us yesterday is true.

(定语从句, news是told的逻辑宾语)

The order when we should go back

hasn’t reached us.
(同位语从句, order和从句没有逻辑关

系)
The day when New China was founded

will never be forgotten.
(定语从句, day是founded 的逻辑状语)

③ 同位语从句主要由连接词that引导,有时 也可用when, where, who, whether等引 导; 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导。 Then he raised the question where they

were to get the machine needed.
Do you know the place where he was

born?

④ 引导同位语从句的连词不可省略;

引导定语从句的关系代词作宾语时常
可省略。

The news that he has been elected
monitor of our class is true.

The news (that) he told me is exciting.

⑤ 同位语从句与先行词一般可变成一个完 整句子, 谓语动词用be的不同形式。 He heard the news that their team had won. 此句可以变为一个表语从句:

The news was that their team had won.

练习

把下面两个句子连成一个含同位语从 句的复合句。 1. Two fifths of all girls in America are on a diet./The fact worries their parents and teachers a lot.
The fact that two fifths of all girls in America are on a diet worries their parents and teachers a lot.

2. The Queen of England was on a four-day visit in China./We heard the news last night. We heard the news last night that the Queen of England was on a

four-day visit in china.

3. Teenagers shouldn’t spend too much
time online. /Many Chinese parents

hold the view. Many Chinese parents hold the view
that teenagers shouldn’t spend too

much time online.

4. Time travel is possible./We have no scientific proof for the idea.

We have no scientific proof for the
idea that time travel is possible.

5. Students should be given more free

time./The suggestion is welcomed by
many people. The suggestion that students should

be given more free time is welcomed
by many people.

翻译句子,并说明这个名词性从句的作用。 6. We don’t think you two have met before. 我们想你们两位以前没有见过面。 (宾语从句)

7. It is certain that John will do well in his exam. 约翰肯定会考好。 (主语从句) 8. Whether they are coming or not don’t matter too much. 他们来不来无关紧要。 (主语从句)

9. Now is when we need him most. 现在是我们最需要他的时候。 (表语从句) 10. I have no idea how she got through the forest.

我不知道她是如何穿过那个森林的。
(同位语从句)

11. The fact that they won the prize

made us happy.
他们获奖的事实令我们高兴。

(同位语从句)

用适当的连接代词或连接副词填空。 12. I can’t decide which book I should buy. _____ 13. China is no longer what it used to be. ____ 14. I am very interested in ____ he how improved his English in such a short time. 15.What we need is more money. ____

16. The truth that the earth turns ___
around the sun is known to us. 17. When and where we will meet has _____ _____ not been decided yet.

用名词性从句完成下列句子。 18. The news ___________________________ that she has passed the national ___________________________ college entrance examination (她通过了高考) is exciting. 19. Mike made a promise ___________________________ that he would help me with my _______ English. (他将帮助我学习英语)

单项选择
25. One of them held the view __ the

book said was right.
A. what that C. that B. that what D. whether

26. The reason ___ he has to go is ___ his mother is ill in bed. A, why ; why B. why; because

C. why ; that

D. that ; because

27. They received orders ___ the work

be done right away.
A. which B. that C. / D. when

28. I have no idea _______. A. how to do B. when shall we start out for the trip C. what has happened to my wife

D. how much have they earned

29. I think ___ certain that she will do well in her exam. A. that B. this is C. it D. what’s 30. The film brought the hours back to me ____ I was taken good care of in

that far-away village.
A. until B. that C. when D .where

31. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation __ he was likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. what D. why 32. That’s the only thing ___ he can do now A. which B. all C. that D. what

33. Information has been put forward ___ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as 34. Along with the letter was his promise ___ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether

35. There is a new problem involved in

the popularity of private cars ____
road conditions need ____.

A. that; to be improved
B. which; to be improved C. where; improving D. when; improving

高考题
36. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. ( 2004春季上海 ) A. which B. that C. what D. whether 答案B。这是一个同位语从句, 解释 promise的具体内容, 要用that引导。

37. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ______ a cure for AIDS will be found. (05广东卷) A. which B. that C. what D. whether

38. Danby left word with my secretary _________ he would call again in the afternoon. (05浙江卷) A.who B.that C.as D.which

39. Doris' success lies in the fact ___ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others. (06年上海 春招) A. which B. that C. when D. why
40. Do you have any idea ________ is actually going on in the classroom? (05辽宁卷) A.that B.what C.as D.which

41. There’s a feeling in me ___ we’ll never know what a UFO is – not ever. ( 2002年上海) A. that B. which C. of which D. what 解析: 答案A。同位语从句that we’ll never know what a UFO is – not ever作a feeling的同位语,解释a feeling 的具体 内容。that连接同位语从句时,只起连 接作用,不作从句的任何成分。

42. Information has been put forward ___ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.( 2001年上海) A. while B. that C. when D. as
解析:答案B。That引导从句作 information的同位语,解释 information的具体内容。

43. A story goes _____ Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. A. when B. where C. what D. that 44. _____ is no possibility _____ Bob can win the first prize in the match. (2001上海春) A. There…that B. It…that C. There…whether D. It…whether

测试性评价
1.填入适当的连接词,并判断是定语从句 还是同位语从句: 1) The fact____ he used to be a thief that is known to all. 同 2) We were surprised by the fact _________ she told us. 定 that/which 3) The next thing ____ must be done that is to make a plan. 定

4) Word came ____ our army had won the that battle. 同 5) The president has given an order everyone in the country should prepare for a war____ might last for several that years. 同 6) We've just heard a warning on the radio ____ a hurricane is likely to come. 同 that

7) There is no doubt that he has told a lie.同 ___ 8) You have no idea _____ anxious I was!同 how 9) The coat is in the place ______ you where left it. 定 10) Then arose the question about where _____ we were to get the machines needed. 定


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