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Language Points
Unit 2 (Some Youth Rethinks Online Communications) 1. enthrall: to capture the fascinated attention of She had been so enthralled by the adventure that she had hardly noticed the cold. The child watched, enthralled by the bright moving images. 2. phase out: to stop using something gradually in stages over a period of time Subsidies to farmers will be phased out by next year. 3. swap: to give (one thing) and receive something else in exchange Swap one of your sandwiches for a cheese and pickle? I swapped my red scarf for her blue one. substitute (one thing) for another: I swapped my busy life in London for a peaceful village retreat. 4. entail: to make something necessary, or to involve something Such a large investment inevitably entails some risk. The girls learn exactly what is entailed in caring for a newborn baby. 5. novelty: the quality of being new, original, or unusual The novelty of being a married woman wore off. There’s a certain novelty value in this approach. 6. wear off: to lose effectiveness or intensity The effects of the drug were wearing off. For many bloggers, the novelty soon wears off and their persistence fades. 7. dominate: to have control over a place or a person, or to be the most important person or thing He refuses to let others speak and dominates every meeting. They work as a group - no one person is allowed to dominate. 8. unflattering: making someone look less attractive or seem worse than they usually do an unflattering photo/dress/colour The book portrays her in a most unflattering light. I found it flattering that he still recognized me after all these years.

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hit/strike home: (of the significance or true nature of a situation) to become fully realized by someone The full impact of life as a celebrity began to hit home. The full horror of the war only hit home when we started seeing the television pictures of it in our living rooms.

10. by and large: on the whole; everything considered Mammals have, by and large, bigger brains than reptiles. There are a few small things that I don't like about my job, but by and large it's very enjoyable. 11. avid: having or showing a keen interest in or enthusiasm for something She was used to befriending her students and taking and avid interest in their lives. He was avid for more information. 12. meet up: to meet another person in order to do something together They suggested we meet up at Mustafa's. 13. in person: with the personal presence or action of the individual specified He had to pick up his welfare check in person. His thesis is undoubtedly better presented in person rather than in the context of a dry academic paper. If you do something or go somewhere in person, you do it or go there yourself. If you can't be there in person, the next best thing is watching it on TV. 14. get over: to recover from (an ailment or an upsetting or startling experience) The trip will help him get over Sal’s death. The girl got over her shock and started laughing and other people joined in aware that she was unharmed. Unit 3 (Job Seekers, Take Heart—and Control)

1. grueling
extremely tiring and difficult, and demanding great effort and determination Junior doctors often have to work a grueling 100-hour week. He eventually won the match after five grueling sets.

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Before they are allowed to join the army, young recruits are put through a particularly grueling endurance course.

2. sophisticated
(Of a machine, system, or technique) developed to a high degree of complexity There would also be a vital need to control access to computer systems that were being used to develop sophisticated machines. The missile has a sophisticated guidance system. Operations of this type often involve the use of highly sophisticated equipment.

3. twists and turns
complicated dealings or circumstances: However all is not quite as it seems, and the audience is taken on a journey of twists and turns, with laughs and a few surprises along the way. While still faithful to traditional music, Ryan introduced some twists and turns of his own. This play has all the twists and turns, unexpected revelations and dark secrets you would expect from a good thriller.

4. in/out of the running
having/not having a reasonable chance of winning He is in the running for an Oscar. By then the winner tends to be known and three quarters of the teams know that they are out of the running. He knows his team is out of the running and it riles. Lisa is definitely in the running for the nomination.

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5. distress
to make someone feel very upset or worried I hope I haven't distressed you with all these personal questions. The dream had distressed her greatly. I don’t wish to distress you any further but I must ask you a few questions about the accident.

6. affront
an action or remark that causes outrage or offence He took his son’s desertion as a personal affront. He regarded the comments as an affront to his dignity. Lucy was so shocked by this affront that she remained speechless for the rest of the evening,

7. cynical
believing that people are only interested in themselves and are not sincere I think she takes a rather cynical view of men. I've always been deeply cynical about politicians. His limited opportunities add to his bitter, cynical attitude towards life. Residents will be wealthier, early retirement will be common and people will be better informed, but more cynical, distrusting and suspicious.

8. monolithic
too large, too regular or without interesting differences, and unwilling or unable to be changed Some European countries are rejecting any move towards a monolithic European superstate. The French army was not a monolithic organization.

9. much less
Used to introduce something as being even less likely than something already mentioned What woman would consider a date with him, much less a marriage? Tony can barely boil an egg, much less cook dinner.

10. thank to
because of someone or something
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It's thanks to Sandy that I heard about the job. The baby is awake thanks to your shouting. I ended up walking about a mile out of my way, thanks to following the instructions given.

11. foul up
to spoil something by making a mistake or doing something stupid I don't want David organizing this party after the way he fouled things up last year. Glen completely fouled up the seating arrangement.

12. shiftless
lazy and not having much determination or a clear purpose He called the young people shiftless, lazy and good-for-nothing. Anyone who believes that unions serve a function in this day and age is a lazy, good-for-nothing, shiftless shirker. I could have said her son the no good, lazy, shiftless shyster but I'm in a mood to be nice today.

13. prevail
to get control or influence I am sure that common sense will prevail in the end. And did reason prevail over (= become a more powerful influence than) emotion? It is hard for logic to prevail over emotion. Your nation endured the blitz to prevail over an implacable foe. What is to be gained by letting egos prevail over common sense?

14. land
succeed in obtaining or achieving (something desirable), especially in the face of competition: she landed the starring role in a new film.

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It was in 1997 that Chris won his first major prize in an open competition by landing the President's Cup and the awards have come thick and fast since then.

15. callous
showing or having an insensitive and cruel disregard for others: His callous comments about the murder made me shiver. We were shocked at the callous disregard for human life.

16. rapport
a good understanding of someone and an ability to communicate well with them We'd worked together for years and developed a close/good rapport. She has an excellent rapport with her staff. She was able to establish a good rapport with the children. She had an instant rapport with animals.

17. what if
used to ask about something that could happen in the future, especially something bad What if the train's late? What if you don't pass your exams? What if nobody shows up? We don't like to think about it, but what if you lose your job or the roof of your house caves in?

18. resolve
decide firmly on a course of action: She resolved to ring Dana as soon as she got home. After the divorce she resolved never to marry again. resolved: determined He was resolved to ask her to marry him the next day.

19. solace
help and comfort when you are feeling sad or worried When his wife left him, he found solace in the bottle (= drank alcohol). Music was a great solace to me.
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She sought solace in her religion. Unit 11 (A Man and His Information Machine) 1. ubiquitous: present, appearing, or found everywhere His ubiquitous influence was felt by all the family. Cowboy hats are ubiquitous among the male singers. Web-based applications are very popular due to the ubiquity of the Internet. The radio, that most ubiquitous of consumer-electronic appliances, is about to enter a new age. 2. center on: to make somebody or something become the person or thing around which most activity, etc. takes place Discussions were centered on the developments in Eastern Europe. The case centers around the couple’s adopted children. 3. come up with: to produce (something), especially when pressured or challenged He keeps coming up with all kinds of lame excuses. She's come up with some amazing scheme to double her income. 4. prominent: situated so as to catch the attention; noticeable The new housing estates are prominent landmarks. I have noticed that the most prominent activity at the festival is alcohol consumption. New books are displayed in a prominent position on tables at the front of the shop. 5. exert: to use something such as authority, power, influence, etc. in order to make something happen If you were to exert your influence they might change their decision. Some managers exert considerable pressure on their staff to work extra hours without being paid. 6. autocratic: taking no account of other people’s wishes or opinions; domineering The Ambulance Service has been condemned in an official report for having autocratic management and out of date equipment. The President resigned after 30 years of autocratic rule. 7. state-of-the-art: very modern and using the most recent ideas and methods The studio boasted the finest state-of-the-art recording equipment.

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The control panel uses all the newest technology and is considered state-of-the-art. 8. disdain: to scorn; to deride She disdained such vulgar exhibitionism. The older musicians disdain the new, rock-influenced music. 9. at that: in addition to that It's too expensive, and probably out-of-date at that. Unit 12 (Asians and North Americans See the World Differently) 1. take in: to understand completely the meaning or importance of something I had to read the letter twice before I could take it all in. It was an interesting exhibition, but there was too much to take in at once. 2. focus on: to give a lot of attention to one particular person, subject, or thing Tonight's programme focuses on the way that homelessness affects the young. The conference will focus on the issue of population control. 3. literally: used for emphasis while not being literally true; used to emphasize what you are saying There are literally thousands of techniques you can use, and it all depends on what rings true for you. On any given day there are literally thousands of people trying to kick the smoking habit. 4. like a bull in a china shop: If someone is like a bull in a china shop, they are very careless in the way that they move or behave; clumsy, aggressive, without care or concern, without self-control We told her it was a delicate situation but she went into the meeting like a bull in a china shop. Gorbachev informed West German foreign minister Genscher that Kohl was behaving "like a bull in a china shop". 5. go back to: to have developed from something that happened or existed a long time ago Many phrases in the language go back to early religious writings. Jo just refuses to get into the car—it all goes back to when she had that accident. 6. get along: to be friendly I don't really get along with my sister's husband.

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Tom didn’t get along with other guests—he found them childish and boring. 7.make sure: to ensure that something is done or happens Yet neither government has proved capable of making sure that money is well spent. Make sure you lock the door behind you when you go out. You must make sure that your dog is vaccinated against illness. 8. reinforce: to strengthen or support (an object or substance), especially with additional material; Strengthen (an existing feeling, idea, or habit) The sea wall at Southend is being reinforced with tons of cement. Huge beams have been added at the top of the walls to reinforce the carved medieval roof. Their findings reinforce the idea that communication failure is an important source of medical error. 9. striking: impressive, especially because it is very unusual to look at The most striking aspect of the building is its design. Her portrait of the prince is a work of striking originality. 10. outperform: to do well in a particular job or activity compared to others of a similar type; perform better than The Peugeot engine has consistently outperformed its rivals this season. Other researchers have found that when essay exams are used to evaluate performance, women outperformed their male counterparts.

Unit 14 (Reaffirming Integrity’s Worth) 1. affirm: to state emphatically or publicly He affirmed the country’s commitment to peace. They affirmed that policies were to be judged by their contribution to social justice. 2. integrity: the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles No one doubted that the president was a man of the highest integrity. The nobility, integrity, and visionary qualities of the man are reflected in his music. 3. eerie: strange and frightening The room was dark, except for an eerie glow of green from a weak neon lamp on the ceiling. She heard the eerie noise of the wind howling through the trees.
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4. feign: to pretend to have a feeling or condition He feigned sickness so he wouldn’t have to go to school. He survived massacre by feigning death. 5. under siege: surrounded by an army or the police in a siege; being criticized all the time or put under pressure by problems, questions, etc. The fort had been under siege by guerrillas since June. We were under siege from budget cuts 6. infraction: violation or infringement of a law or agreement Any attempt to influence the judges will be seen as an infraction of the rules. Punishment is meted out to the offender because this is what he deserves in response to his infraction of the criminal law. 7. admit to: to agree, often unwillingly, that something is true She admits to being strict with her children. He admitted to having stolen that car. 8. disconcerting: causing one to feel unsettled There was a disconcerting silence. She had the disconcerting habit of saying exactly what she thought. 9. infringement: an action that breaks a rule, law, etc. Even minor infringements of the law will be severely punished. It would be an infringement of copyright to publish this article. 10. dire: extremely serious or urgent He gave a dire warning that an earthquake was imminent. Misuse of drugs can have dire consequences. 11. underscore: to emphasize The report underscores the importance of pre-school education. The chaos after a power cut underscores how dependent we have become on computers. 12. fault: to criticize Her colleagues could not fault her dedication to the job. While I can't fault her for professionalism, at the very least I would have expected a smile, or, really, any show emotion at all.
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13. given: taking into account It was surprising the government was re-elected, given that they had raised taxes so much. Given the complexity of the task, they did a good job. 14. perpetrate: to commit a crime or do something wrong or evil In Britain, half of all violent crime is perpetrated by people who have been drinking alcohol. Federal soldiers have been accused of perpetrating atrocities against innocent people. 15. malignant: evil in nature or effect; that can not be controlled and is likely to cause death He developed a malignant hatred for the land of his birth. Too often the malignant evil in society shows up in how we treat our children. The process by which malignant cancer cells multiply isn’t fully understood. 16. come up with: to produce something, especially when pressured or challenged She came up with a new idea for increasing sales. He keeps coming up with all kinds of lame excuses. 17. in essence: fundamentally In essence, both sides agree on the issue. Football, in essence, is competitive and it is important for the health of the game that it remains so. 18. commitment: the state or quality of being dedicated to a cause, activity, etc. Throughout his working life, he brought qualities of loyalty and commitment to his profession. Players must make a commitment to play for a full season. She is known chiefly for her commitment to nuclear disarmament. 19. endorse: to declare one’s public approval or support of Members of all parties endorsed a ban on land mines. I wholeheartedly endorse his remarks. 20. tire of: to become bored with They soon tired of the beach and went for a walk. She will stay with him until he tires of her.

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