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非谓语动词的时态和语态


非谓语动词的时态和语态

不定式的时态与语态: 1.不定式的时态与语态的基本形 式(以do为例)

主动语态

被动语态

一般式
进行式

to do
to be doing

to be done


完成式
完成进 行式

to have done to have been done
To have been doing 无

? 不定式一般式的用法:
? ⑴ 表示将来,即表示发生在谓语动作之 后的动作: ? We decided to leave early. ? He asked me to buy him some paper. ? ⑵表示与谓语动作同时发生或略先于 谓语动作的动作: Who heard him say that? I’m sorry to hear that.

不定式进行式的用法: ⑴表示与谓语动作同时发生且正在进行 的动作: He seems to be saying something. He is thought to be hiding in the woods. ⑵正如可用进行式表将来一样,不定式进 行式有时也 可表将来: The old man seems to be dying. He was happy to be coming home.

不定式的完成式.

表示在谓语动作之前发出的动作。

The novel was said to have been published. I mean to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so.

⑵表示过去未曾实现的愿望: I should like to have come earlier. We were to have been married last year.

(我们原打算去年结婚。)

不定式完成进行式的用法: 表示在谓语动作之前一直在进行 的动作: You seem to have been writing very long. The battle was said to have been going on for two days.

主动语态

被动语态

一般式
进行式

to do
to be doing

to be done


完成式
完成进 行式

to have done to have been done
To have been doing 无

分词的时态与语态:
主动形式 被动形式 现在 一般式 doing 分词 完成式 having done 过去 一般式 done 分词 being done having been done 无

? 1.doing(一般式)表示的动作可以与谓 语动作同时,也可以在谓语动作之前或 之后,有时没有明确的先后关系: ? ⑴与谓语动作同时发生: ? He kept smiling. ? Everyone is practicing speaking English.

⑵发生在谓语动作之后(固定用法) He advised leaving early.
Would you mind opening the window?

⑶发生在谓语动作之前(固定用法) : I remember mailing the letter. ⑷没有明确的先后关系(泛指、常理): Teaching is learning. Learning a foreign language is not easy.

2.having done: 动名词完成式主要表示发生在谓语 动作之前的动作或状态: He forgot having promised to write her. I have no idea of his having done such a thing.

根据非谓自带的时间状语确定主动或被动的 具体形式

The problem____ next is of great C ___ importance. The problem____ B now __ is of great importance. The problem____ now is of treat A just ______ importance. A.discussed B. being discussed C. to be discussed

根据上下文的谓语动词与非谓动词发生 的先后关系确定
---Li Ming is said ____ abroad. Do you know what A he studied in ? country B ---Yes, In London. A. to have studied C. to be studying studying
he will study in? he studies in?
C

B. to study D. to have been

1. I don’t know whether you happen ________, (辽宁卷) A. to be heard B. to be hearing C. to hear D. to have heard 【分析】答案选D。hear发生在谓语don’t know之前,用不定式的完成式。 句意是:我不知道你是否已经听说过了,今年九月我要去美国学习。 2. The old man, ________ abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. (江苏卷) A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked 【分析】答案选D。work发生在谓语(返回祖国)之前,用现在分词的完成式作状语, 表示时间,相当于after he has worked abroad…不定式作状语不能表示时间。

3. Little Jim should love ________ to the theatre this evening. (全国卷) A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking 【分析】答案选A。句子主语Little Jim与take是被动关系,“被带去看戏” 发生在“想(should love=want)”后,所以用不定式的被动式作宾语。 说明:①动词不定式用主动形式表被动含义的情况: 在作表语或宾补的形容词后用状语时; 作定语修饰have, there be, this / that / these / those be等后面的名词或代词时; 作表语的to blame等。 如:1. The text is difficult to learn. 这篇课文很难学。(to learn主动表被动) 2. We found the text difficult to learn.我们觉得这篇课文很难学。 (to learn主动表被动) 3. He was to blame for that. 他因此受到了责备。 (作表语的to blame主动表被动) ②need, want和require表示“需要表示”,主语通常是物时,后面除用 不定式的被动式外,也可用-ing形式的主动形式表示被动。

如:There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars ________ road conditions need ________. (上海卷) A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improved C. where; improving D. when; improving 【分析】答案选A。need improving=need to be improved。 that引导的从句与problem是同位语。


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