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定语、状语从句省略


定语从句省略 1. 关系词充当从句的宾语的时候, 可以直接省略, 而从句不发生任何形式的改变。 This is the right book that you are looking for. = This is the right book you are looking for. 2. 关系词充当从句的主语时,如果谓语结构为实词,将关系代词进行省略,而从 句中的实词要发生形式的改变。如果原本从句是一个主动语态,可以将动词直 接变成 ing 形式。 如果原本谓语动词是一个被动语态, 可以直接保留过去分词。 如 Fruit that contains VC can relieve a cold.=Fruit containing VC can relieve a cold. 3. 如果谓语结构为 be+名词,这时,可以将 be 动词同时省略,将后面的名词和 前面从句所修饰的名词构成同位语结构。如 I know Lucy who is the leader of the team.= I know Lucy, the leader of the team. 4. 3.先行词为 the way, 后面的关系代词可以是 that, in which 或者是不加任何关 系代词。如:I like the way you talk. 5. 直接用于介词后作宾语的关系代词 which 不能换成 that,直接用于介词后作宾 语的关系代词 whom 不能换成 who。 但若介词用于句末, 则用作宾语的 which, whom 也可换成 that, who 6. (1)which 用于下列情况:( I )如果引导的是非限定性定语从句; (II)关系代词充当介词的
宾语, 且介词位于关系代词之前; III) ( 先行词本身是 that 等。 (2) that 用于下列情况: I ) 先 ( 行词是 all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much 等不定代词; (II)先行词被 all, any, every, no, little, much, some 等词修饰; (III)先行词被序数词、形容词最高级修饰或先行词本身是 序数词; (IV)先行词被 the only, the very(正是、恰是),the last 修饰; (V)先行词中既有人也 有物; (VI)在 which 或 who 的特殊疑问句中含有定语从句等。另外需要注意:先行词是 the way,并在定语从句充当状语时,关系代词用 that 或省略,若用 which,其前加介词 in。 疑问:This was the house in which they lived last year. 是否存在这种方式并正确—— This was the house that they lived in last year.

7.当关系词在从句中充当主语时,可以省略,后面的动词发生形式变化—— 主动语态时,动词变成-ING 形式 被动语态时,动词保留过去分词形式 I know the girl who comes from BJ. I often like reading short novels which were written by Hemingway. I often like reading short novels written by Hemingway. I raise a dog which is named KING. * I raise a dog named KING. I believe the candidate who made the speech in the assembly yesterday is sure to win the support. *I believe the candidate making the speech in the assembly yesterday is sure to win the support. I know the boy who was praised by the teacher. The book which is related to the development has been published recently. They lived in a house facing the south. = They lived in a house which faced the south. The workers working in the factory are well-paid. = The workers who work in the factory are well-paid. = The workers who are working in the factory are well-paid. The tie worn by our head was made in Shanghai. = The tie which is worn by our head was made in Shanghai. The book written by Wang sells well. = The book which was written by Wang sells well.

状语从句省略 1. 主句和从句的主语保持一致,称为分词作状语;省略从句的主语,将后面的 动词发生形式变化,主动语态变成 ing 形式,若是被动语态,则变为 ed 形式 2. 如前后主语不一致,则称为独立主格结构。 省略方式:关系词(可保留)+动词形式变化(ing\-ed) 。 Because mum was ill,I didn't go to school. ----Mum being ill,I didn't go to school. When he finished his homework,we went out to play. —-He finishing his homework,we went out to play.

二、地点状语从句中的省略
地点状语从句的省略常用下列结构:where(ver) possible, where(ver) necessary, Lay these books where possible you can find them easily. 把这些书放在你可能容易 找到的地方。 Put in articles wherever necessary in the following passages. 在下列文章中需要的 地方填入冠词。

一、时间状语从句中的省略
When (she was) very young, she began to learn to play the piano. 她很小时,就开始 学习弹钢琴。 While (I was) at college, I began to know him, a strange but able student. 我在上大 学时就开始认识他,一个奇怪但有能力的学生。 When arriving, send me a telegram. (When you arrive, send me a telegram.) 到达之 后,来个电报。 Before leaving, turn off all the lights. (Before you leave, turn off all the lights.) 走之 前,请关闭所有的灯。 Don’t come in until (you are) asked to. 不叫你请你不要进来。

三、条件状语从句中的省略
常用的句型是:if necessary, if possible, if true, if anyone 等。如: Send the goods now if (they are) ready. 货物如果准备好了,请送过来。 He will come if (he is) asked. 如果叫他来,他就来。 If (it is) necessary, ring me at home. 如果有可能,朝我家里打电话。 Whenever (it is )possible, you should come and help. 不管什么时候只要有可能就 来帮忙。 You should let us know the result as soon as(it is) possible. 你应尽快让我们知道结 果。 注:as 在引导时间状语从句时,没有这种省略现象。我们不可说 As walking, she found a nice shining thing on the ground. Come along with me if (it is) possible. 如果有可能和我一起去吧.。 If (it is) true, this will casue us a lot of trouble. 如果是真的, 这会给我们带来很多麻 烦。 There are few people nowadays, if (there are) any, who remember him. 很少有人能 记起他。

You should stay where you are, unless (you are) asked to leave. 你应呆在你现在的 地方不动,除非叫你动。

The football player is rolling on the ground as if (he is) hurt badly in the leg. 足球运 动员在操场上打着滚似乎他的腿伤得厉害。 He moved his lips as if (he wanted )to speak. 他的嘴动着仿佛要说什么。

四、让步状语从句中的省略
He is a good man, though sometimes (he is) rather dull. 他真是个好人,尽管有时有 点无聊。 Even if (I am ) invited to, I won’t go to such a bad lecture. 即使邀我去,我都不想听 如此坏的报告。
一、独立主格结构的概念 独立主格结构讲析

吉林省梨树县第二中学

王春忠

五、比较状语从句中的省略
She can play the piano just as wonderfully as you (do). 她钢琴弹的我你弹的一样好。 She has finished the work earlier than (it has been ) expected. 她这项工作比预料的提 前完成。
独立主格结构(Absolute Structure)是由名词或代词加上分词等构成的一种独立结构,用于 修饰整个句子。 独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的分词等构成逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构 与主句不发生句法上的联系,它的位置相当灵活,可置于主句前、主句末或主句中,常由逗号将

六、方式状语从句中的省略
as if/as though 后还可加 n./a./ad./介词短语/现在分词/过去分词/不定式。 He acts as if (he were) a fool. 他的行为举止好象是个傻子。

其与主句分开。需特别注意的是,独立主格结构与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。

二、独立主格结构基本构成形式

She talked to the stranger as if (she were) absent-minded. 她和陌生人谈话似乎很不 在意。 He opened the desk, as if (he was) in search of something important. 他打抽屉仿佛 要找一件什么重要的东西。 The boy is running impatiently here and there as if (he is) searching for something lost on the sports ground. 这男孩很不耐心地在操场上到处跑着仿佛在找什么东西。
名词(代词)+现在分词(过去分词;形容词;副词;不定式;名词;介词短语)

1. 名词(代词)+现在分词 Night enshrouding the earth, nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance.

黑夜笼罩大地,谁也看不清远处黑压压的一片是什么东西。 4. 名词(代词)+形容词 The Trojans asleep, the Greek soldiers crept out of the hollow wooden horse. 特洛伊人睡着了,于是希腊士兵从中空的木马里悄悄爬了出来。 2. 名词(代词)+过去分词 The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved. 由于工人们的生活条件大大提高,他们工作得更起劲了。 5. 名词(代词)+副词

There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车,我们只好走回家。

Computers very small, we can use them widely. 电脑虽小,我们却能广泛地利用它们。

He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard. 他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。

The meeting over, our headmaster soon left the meeting room. 散会了,校长很快就离开了会议室。

3. 名词(代词)+不定式 在“名词/代词+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词如果存在着逻辑 上的主谓关系,动词不定式则用主动的形式;如果是动宾关系,则用被动形式。

The lights off, we could not go on with the work. 灯熄了,我们不能继续工作了。

The four of us agreed on a division of labor, each to translate a quarter of the book. 6. 名词(代词)+名词 我们四人同意分工干,每人翻译全书的四分之一。 His first shot failure,he fired again. Many trees, flowers, and grass to be planted, our newly-built school will look even more beautiful. 种上许多的树、花和草后,我们新建的学校看上去将更美。 他第一枪没击中,又打了一枪。

Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children.

两百人死于事故,其中有许多儿童。

有这么多的名胜可参观,小孩很激动。(with+名词/代词+动词不定式)

The boy was walking, with his father ahead. 7. 名词(代词) +介词短语 He lay at full length upon his stomach,his head resting upon his left forearm. 他的脊背朝天,四肢伸展,头枕着左臂,直挺挺地趴伏着。 父亲在前,小孩在后走着。(with+名词/代词+副词) He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或 He stood at the door, computer in hand. 他站在门口,手里拿着一部电脑。(with+名词/代词+介词短语)

Every afternoon a very old woman hobbled past the old house,a vast load of firewood on her back.

With his son so disappointing, the old man felt unhappy. 由于儿子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快乐。(with+名词/代词+形容词)

每天下午,一个背着一大背柴禾的老妇人都会从那间破旧的房屋前蹒跚着走过。 在 with (without) 的复合结构中,多数情况下 with 能省略,但 without 不能省略。

三、with,without 引导的独立主格结构 四、独立主格结构的句法功能

with ( without)+宾语(名词/代词)+宾语补足语,宾语通常由名词或代词充当,但代词一定 要用宾格。上文的独立主格结构的几种情况都适用于此结构。 独立主格结构在句中一般作状语,表示时间、条件、原因、伴随状况等,还可以作定语。

The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was. 小女孩把盒子藏了起来,没有人知道它在哪里。(without +名词/代词+动词的-ing 形式) 1. 作时间状语 My shoes removed, entered a low-ceilinged room, I treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting. 我脱掉鞋子后,走进一间屋顶很低的房间,小心翼翼地踩在柔软的塌塌米垫子上。

Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room. 她没再说什么话就离开了会议室。(without+名词/代词+动词的-ed 形式)

The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit.

The governor pondering the matter,more strikers gathered across his path.

总督思考问题时,更多的罢工工人聚集在他要通过的路上。

我拿着车票还有我的奶酪,雄赳赳气昂昂地跨步走向月台。人们似乎很尊敬我,纷纷向两 边退去。

Ten students entered for the competition, the youngest a boy of 12. 2. 作条件状语 十个学生报名参加了这次竞赛,年纪最小的是个 12 岁的男孩。 Weather permitting,they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨郊游。 5. 作定语,独立主格结构作定语其功能相当于一个定语从句。 Such being the case,you have no grounds for dismissing him. He is the person with a lot of questions to be settled. 如果情况如此的话,你没有理由解聘他。 他就是有许多问题要解决的那个人。

He was walking along the road without any street lights on its both sides. 3. 作原因状语 他走在一条两边没有路灯的马路上。 The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. Close to the bank I saw deep pools, the water blue like the sky. 由那个男孩带路,我们很容易就找到了那奇怪的洞。 靠近岸时,我看见几个深池塘,池水碧似蓝天。 There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论,我们都回家了。 五、独立主格结构注意事项

4. 作伴随状语或补充说明 1. 独立主格结构多用于书面语,尤其是描述性语言中,在口语和非正式文体中,一般用从 I took my ticket,and marched proudly up the platform,with my cheeses,the people falling back respectfully on either side. 句或两个句子来代替。独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在,名词或代词与 后面的分词等逻辑上是主谓关系,独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。

The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.

总统被谋杀了,举国上下沉浸在悲哀之中。

He lay there, his teeth set, his hands clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 他躺在那儿,牙关紧闭,双拳紧握,两眼直视上方。

2. 动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed 形式表示动作已经结束,动词-ing 形式往往表示动作正在进行。 4. 独立主格结构与独立成分的异同 The manager looks worried,many things to settle. 有些分词短语可以独立存在,在句子中没有逻辑上的主语,作为习惯用法。这些短语有: 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处理。事情还没有处理, ( 而且是由经理本人来处理, 用不定式 to settle,表示将来的时间) Generally speaking (总的说来) Frankly speaking (坦率地说) Judging from (从??判断) , , , Supposing (假设),等等。

The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了,经理看上去很轻松。(事情已经处理好了,用过去分词 settled 表 示动作已经结束)

Generally speaking, the rule is very easy to understand. 总的说来,这条规则很容易懂。

Judging from what he said, he must be an honest man. The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 由他所说的来判断,他一定是一个诚实的人。 小孩一边做饭,一边看电视。(两个动作同时进行) 有些固定短语是带 to 的不定式,表明说话人的立场或态度,在句中作独立成分。这些短 语有:to be honest(老实说),to be sure (确实),to tell you the truth (说实话),to cut a long story short (长话短说),to be frank (坦率地说),to make matters / things worse (更糟糕的 3. 独立主格结构介词使用的问题 当介词是 in 时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。 但 with 的复合结构不受此限制。 说实话,我犯了一个拼写错误。 A robber burst into the room, knife in hand. ( hand 前不能加 his) To make things worse, many of the men have gone off to cities in search of higher pay, leaving 劫匪手里拿着刀闯进房间。 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词。 women from nearby villages to carry on with the work. 情况更糟的是, 许多男人都去城市找工资较高的工作,而留下附近村庄的妇女来继续承担修 复工作。 是),等等。

To tell you the truth, I made a mistake in the word spelling.

5. 独立主格结构与分词短语都可以转换为状语从句。 但是独立主格结构转换为状语从句后, 它有自己的逻辑主语,与主句的主语不一致;而分词短语转换为状语从句后,从句的主语与主句 的主语一致。

If time permits, we'd better have a holiday at weekends. 转换为:Time permitting, we'd better have a holiday at weekends. 如果时间允许,我们最好周末去度假。

When we see from the hilltop, we can find the city more beautiful. 转换为:Seeing from the hilltop, we can find the city more beautiful. 从山顶上看,我们发现这个城市更美了。 还必须注意, 分词结构的逻辑主语并不总是和主句的主语一致, 也可以是主句的其他成分。

Searching for the thief in the city, it had taken the policemen a long time. 在城市里搜查小偷, 花费了警察很长一段时间。Searching 短语的逻辑主语是主句中的 policemen) (


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